(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Bulletin of Wake Forest University"

Wake Forest College 



and 



The School of Business 
and Accountancy 

The Undergraduate Schools 







1990-1991 

Bulletin of Wake Forest University 



Photography — Bernard Carpenter: 7, 33; Susan Mullally Clark: 13, 
14, 23, 76, 116, 162, 193, 201, 214, 216, 221, 224, 235, 258, 263; Jeanne 
P. Whitman: 64. 



New Series April 1990 Volume 85-Number 3 



Wake Forest College 

and 

The School of Business 
and Accountancy 

The Undergraduate Schools 
of Wake Forest University 



Announcements for 

1990-91 

BULLETIN of Wake Forest University (USPS 078-320) is published eight times a year in October, March, April, 
May, June, July, August and September by Wake Forest University. Second class postage paid at Winston- 
Salem, NC, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to the Director of 
Admissions, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109. 



The Academic Calendar 



Fall Semester 1990 



August 
August 
August 
August 
August 
August 



23 
23-28 

25 
25-27 

26 
27, 28 



August 29 

September 4 

September 11 
September 25 
October 11, 12 

October 19 

November 22-25 

November 26 
December 7 

December 10-12 

December 13 

December 14, 15 

*Subject to change 

1990 



Wednesday 

Thursday- 
Tuesday 
Saturday 

Saturday- 
Monday 
Sunday 

Monday, 
Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Tuesday 

Tuesday 

Tuesday 

Thursday 
Friday 

Friday 

Thursday- 
Sunday 

Monday 

Friday 

Monday- 
Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday, 
Saturday 



Residence halls open at 8 a.m. for 

first-year students 
Orientation for first-year students 

Residence halls open at 10 a.m. 

for transfer students 
Orientation for transfer students 

Residence halls open at noon for 

returning students 
Registration for all courses 

Classes begin 
Opening Convocation* 
Last day to add courses 
Last day to drop courses 
Fall holiday 

Midterm grades due 
Thanksgiving recess 

Classes resume 
Classes end 
Examinations 

Reading day 
Examinations 



JANUARY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 31 


FEBRUARY 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 


MARCH 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 


APRIL 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 

29 30 


MAY 

5 M T W T F S 

12 3 4 5 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 31 


JUNE 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
25 25 26 27 28 29 30 


JULY 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 

29 30 31 


AUGUST 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 31 


SEPTEMBER 

S M T W T F S 

1 

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

30 


OCTOBER 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 31 


NOVEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 


DECEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
1 
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 
30 31 



December 


17, 18 


Monday, 
Tuesday 


Examinations 


December 


19- 


Wednesday- 


Christmas recess 


January 


13 


Sunday 








Spring Semester 1991 


January 


13 


Sunday 


Residence halls open at noon 


January 


14 


Monday 


Validation of registration 
for all students 


January 


15 


Tuesday 


Classes begin 


January 


21 


Monday 


Martin Luther King Jr. Day 
no classes 


January 


29 


Tuesday 


Last day to add courses 


February 


(date to be announced) 


Founders' Day Convocation 


February 


12 


Tuesday 


Last day to drop courses 


March 


8 


Friday 


Midterm grades due 


March 


9-17 


Saturday- 
Sunday 


Spring recess 


March 


18 


Monday 


Classes resume 


March 


29 


Good Friday 


Holiday 


May 


3 


Friday 


Classes end 


May 


6-8 


Monday- 
Wednesday 


Examinations 


May 


9 


Thursday 


Reading day 


May 


10, 11 


Friday, 
Saturday 


Examinations 


May 


13, 14 


Monday, 
Tuesday 


Examinations 


May 


19 


Sunday 


Baccalaureate 


May 


20 


Monday 


Commencement 



1991 



JANUARY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 31 


FEBRUARY 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 


MARCH 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


APRIL 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 


MAY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 31 


JUNE 
S M T W T F S 
1 
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 
30 


JULY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 31 


AUGUST 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 


SEPTEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 
29 30 


OCTOBER 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 31 


NOVEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 


DECEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 
29 30 31 



The Bulletin 



The Academic Calendar 2 

The University 8 

Buildings and Grounds 9 

Computer Center 10 

Libraries 11 

Recognition and Accreditation 12 

The Undergraduate Schools 14 

Wake Forest College 15 

Statement of Purpose 15 

History and Development 17 

Student Life 24 

Student Government 24 

Student Union 26 

Resident Student Association 26 

Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils 26 

Honor Societies, Professional Fraternities, and Clubs 27 

Academic Awards 27 

Intramural Athletics 28 

Intercollegiate Athletics 28 

Reserve Officer Training Corps 29 

Religious Activities 29 

Cultural Activities 30 

Career Planning and Placement 31 

University Counseling Center 31 

Learning Assistance Program 32 

Student Health Service 32 

Health Education Program 32 

Office of Minority Affairs 32 

Procedures 34 

Admission 34 

Application 34 

Early Decision 35 

Admission of Handicapped Students 35 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 36 

Admission of Transfer Students 36 

Expenses 36 

Tuition 37 

Room Charges 37 

Food Services 37 

Other Charges 37 

Refunds 38 

Housing 39 

Academic Calendar 39 



Orientation and Advising 39 

Registration 39 

Classification 40 

Class Attendance 40 

Auditing Courses 41 

Dropping a Course 41 

Withdrawal from the College 41 

Examinations 42 

Grading 42 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 43 

Dean's List 43 

Graduation Distinctions 43 

Repetition of Courses 43 

Probation 44 

Requirements for Continuation 44 

Requirements for Readmission 45 

Summer Study 46 

Transfer Credit 46 

Scholarships and Loans 47 

Scholarships 47 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 56 

Exchange Scholarships 58 

Loans 58 

Concessions 59 

Other Financial Aid 60 

Special Programs 61 

Honors Study 61 

Open Curriculum 61 

Study at Salem College 61 

International Studies 62 

Office of International Studies 62 

International Students 62 

Residential Language Centers 62 

International Studies House 62 

Foreign Area Studies 62 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 62 

London 62 

Venice 63 

France 63 

Spain 63 

Institute of European Studies 63 

China 63 

Other Opportunities Abroad 64 

Requirements for Degrees 65 

Degrees Offered 65 



General Requirements 65 

Basic Requirements 66 

Divisional Requirements 66 

Requirement in Health and Sport Science 68 

Proficiency in the Use of English 68 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 68 

Declaring a Major 68 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 69 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 69 

Double Majors and Joint Majors 70 

Minors 70 

Interdisciplinary Minors 70 

Foreign Area Studies 71 

Combined Degrees in the School of Law 73 

Combined Degrees in Medical Sciences 73 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 74 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 74 

Degrees in Microbiology 75 

Degrees in Dentistry 75 

Degrees in Engineering 75 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 76 

Courses of Instruction— Wake Forest College 77 

Anthropology 77 

Art 80 

Asian Studies 84 

Biology 86 

Chemistry 91 

Classical Languages 94 

Economics 98 

Education 102 

English 108 

German and Russian 114 

Health and Sport Science 118 

History 123 

Humanities 128 

Interdisciplinary Honors 131 

Mathematics and Computer Science 134 

Military Science 139 

Music 141 

Natural Sciences 148 

Philosophy 148 

Physics 152 

Politics 155 

Psychology 161 

Religion 165 



Romance Languages 171 

Sociology 182 

Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 186 

School of Business and Accountancy 194 

Objectives 194 

Admission 195 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 195 

Requirements for Continuation 196 

Requirements for Graduation 196 

Senior Honors Program 196 

Courses of Instruction 197 

Business 197 

Accountancy 200 

Degrees Conferred 202 

ROTC Graduates 214 

Honor Societies 215 

Enrollment 217 

The Board of Trustees 220 

The Board of Visitors 222 

School of Business and Accountancy Advisory Council 224 

The Administration 225 

The Undergraduate Faculties 236 

Emeriti 255 

The Committees of the Faculty 259 

Index 264 




Wait Chapel and the Quad 



The University 



Wake Forest University is characterized by its devotion to liberal learning and 
professional preparation for men and women, its strong sense of community and 
fellowship, and its encouragement of free inquiry and expression. 

Founded in 1834 by the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, the school 
opened its doors on February 3 as Wake Forest Institute, with Samuel Wait as prin- 
cipal. It was located in the forest of Wake County, North Carolina, on the plantation 
of Calvin Jones, near which the village of Wake Forest later developed. 

Rechartered in 1838 as Wake Forest College, it is one of the oldest institutions of 
higher learning in the state. It was exclusively a college of liberal arts for men until 
1894, when the School of Law was established. The School of Medicine, founded 
in 1902, offered a two-year medical program until 1941. In that year, the school was 
moved from the town of Wake Forest to Winston-Salem, became associated with the 
North Carolina Baptist Hospital, and was renamed the Bowman Gray School of Medi- 
cine in honor of the benefactor who made possible the move and expansion to a full 
four-year program. In 1942 Wake Forest admitted women as regular undergraduate 
students. 

A School of Business Administration was established in 1948 and for over two 
decades offered an undergraduate program of study in business. In 1969 the under- 
graduate school was succeeded by the Department of Business and Accountancy and 
the Department of Economics in Wake Forest College; at the same time the Babcock 
Graduate School of Management was established. In 1980 the undergraduate pro- 
gram in business and accountancy was reconstituted as the School of Business and 
Accountancy. The Division of Graduate Studies was established in 1961. It is now 
organized as the Graduate School and encompasses advanced work in the arts and 
sciences on both the Reynolda and Hawthorne campuses in Winston-Salem. The sum- 
mer session was inaugurated in 1921. 

In 1946 the Trustees of Wake Forest College and the Baptist State Convention of 
North Carolina accepted a proposal by the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation to relocate 
the non-medical divisions of the College to Winston-Salem, where the School of 
Medicine was already established. The late Charles H. Babcock and his wife, the late 
Mary Reynolds Babcock, contributed a campus site, and building funds were received 
from many sources. Between 1952 and 1956, the first fourteen buildings were erected 
in Georgian style on the new Winston-Salem campus. In 1956 the College moved 
all operations, leaving the 122-year-old campus in the town of Wake Forest to the 
Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. 

The decade that followed was the College's most expansive, and in 1967 its 
augmented character was recognized by the change in name to Wake Forest Univer- 
sity. Today, enrollment in all schools of the University stands at over 5,000. Governance 
remains in the hands of the Board of Trustees, and development for each of the six 
schools of the University is augmented by Boards of Visitors for the undergraduate 
schools and the Graduate School, the School of Law, the Babcock Graduate School 
of Management, and the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and by the Advisory 
Council for the School of Business and Accountancy. A joint board of University 



Trustees and Trustees of the North Carolina Baptist Hospital is responsible for the 
Medical Center, which includes the hospital and the medical school. Alumni and 
parents' organizations are active at Wake Forest, and support by the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Foundation and other foundations and corporations is strong and continuing. 

Wake Forest's relationship with the Baptist State Convention is an important part 
of the school's heritage. Wake Forest's founders proposed to establish an institution 
that would provide education under Christian influences. Wake Forest and the 
Convention have a fraternal, voluntary relationship under which Wake Forest is au- 
tonomous in governance. The University is an associate member of the Convention's 
Council on Christian Higher Education. Wake Forest receives some financial and 
intangible support from Convention-affiliated churches. 

The College, School of Business and Accountancy, Babcock Graduate School of 
Management, School of Law, and the Graduate School are located on the Reynolda 
Campus in northwest Winston-Salem. The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is about 
four miles away, near the city's downtown on what is known as the Hawthorne 
Campus. The University also offers instruction regularly at Casa Artom in Venice, 
at Worrell House in London, and in other places around the world. 

The College offers courses in more than forty fields of study leading to the 
baccalaureate degree. The School of Business and Accountancy offers courses of study 
leading to the baccalaureate in business and accountancy. The School of Law offers 
the juris doctor degree and the Babcock Graduate School of Management, the master 
of business administration degree. In addition to the doctor of medicine degree, the 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine offers, through the Graduate School, programs 
leading to the master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in the basic medi- 
cal sciences. The Graduate School confers the master of arts, master of arts in educa- 
tion, master of arts in liberal studies, and master of science degrees in the arts and 
sciences and the doctor of philosophy degree in biology, chemistry, and physics. 

Buildings and Grounds 

The Reynolda Campus of Wake Forest is situated on approximately 340 acres; its 
physical plant consists of over thirty buildings, most of which are of modified Georgian 
architecture and constructed of Old Virginia brick trimmed in granite and limestone. 
The Reynolda Gardens annex, consisting of about 150 acres and including Reynolda 
Woods, Reynolda Village, and Reynolda Gardens, is adjacent to the campus. The 
Graylyn Estate, an educational conference center, is nearby. 

Wait Chapel is named in memory of the first president of the College. Its main 
auditorium seats 2,300 and is also the home of the Wake Forest Baptist Church. The 
Wait Chapel tower contains the Janet Jeffrey Carlile Harris Carillon, an instrument 
of forty-eight bells. Wingate Hall, named in honor of President Washington Manly 
Wingate, houses the Department of Religion, the offices of the University chaplain- 
cy and the Wake Forest Baptist Church, and other classrooms and offices. 

Reynolda Hall, across the upper plaza from Wait Chapel, houses most of the 
administrative offices for the Reynolda Campus as well as the Computer and 
Microcomputer Centers. The Benson University Center will be open in the fall for all 
student activities. The Z. Smith Reynolds Library houses the main collection of books 



10 



and documents on the Reynolda Campus. Along with eight floors of open stacks, 
with a capacity for over 1,000,000 volumes, it has reading and reference rooms for 
study and some academic offices. The Department of Economics is also in the library. 

Winston Hall houses biology and psychology; Salem Hall, the chemistry department. 
Both buildings have laboratories as well as classrooms and special research facilities. 
The Olin Physical Laboratory is a new facility for the physics department. Harold W. 
Tribble Hall accommodates the humanities and social science departments and has 
a curriculum materials center, an honors seminar room, a philosophy library and 
seminar room, and a larger lecture area, DeTamble Auditorium, with an adjacent exhi- 
bition gallery. The Museum of Anthropology houses the anthropology department. In- 
struction in business, accountancy, and mathematics is carried out in Charles H. Babcock 
Hall, which also houses the Babcock Graduate School of Management. The School 
of Law occupies Guy T. Carswell Hall. 

The James R. Scales Fine Arts Center is of contemporary design appropriate to the 
functions of studio art, theatre, musical performances, and instruction in art history, 
drama, and music. Off its lobby is a large gallery for special exhibitions. In the art 
wing are spacious studios for drawing, painting, sculpture, and printmaking, along 
with a smaller gallery and classrooms. In the theatre wing are design and produc- 
tion areas and two technically complete theatres, the larger of traditional prosceni- 
um design and the smaller for experimental ring productions. The music wing contains 
Brendle Hall for concerts and lectures, classrooms, practice rooms for individuals and 
groups, and the offices of the music department. 

The William N. Reynolds Gymnasium has classrooms for instruction in health and 
sport science, courts for indoor sports, a swimming pool, and offices for the Depart- 
ment of Health and Sport Science and for military science. Adjacent are tennis courts, 
sports fields, a track, an Indoor Tennis Center, and the Athletic Center for intercollegiate 
athletics. 

The Wake Forest campus has a wide variety of housing choices available to stu- 
dents. There is one residence hall which houses only male students: Taylor House. 
Three residence halls house only female students: Bostwick, Babcock and Efird Halls. 
Huffman House, Davis House, Kitchin House, Poteat House, Luter Hall, Johnson Hall, and 
South Hall are coeducational by floor or wing. Freshmen live in Taylor, Kitchin, Davis, 
Bostwick, South, and Johnson. Some male scholarship athletes live in Palmer Hall and 
Piccolo Hall. Students may choose to live in one of a variety of theme houses including 
the French House, Wake Radio House, German House, Russian House, Italian House, Inter- 
national Studies House, or others which are currently being developed. Student housing 
is also available in the townhouse apartments and several small houses owned by 
the University. Just off the main campus are apartments for faculty and staff as well 
as graduate and married students. 

Computer Center 

The Computer Center supports the instructional, research, and administrative needs 
of the University with three central site computers. A Hewlett Packard 3000 Series 
70 system, used by the administration, has eight million bytes of memory and 1,142 
million bytes of disk storage. The Prime 4150 is used primarily for instruction and 
research. It has 24 million bytes of memory and 1,840 million bytes of disk storage. 



11 



A more recent acquisition, an AT&T 3B15/401 with 16 million bytes of memory and 
1,340 million bytes of disk storage, provides a UNIX operating environment. 

Computer languages available for academic computing include FORTRAN, 
FORTRAN77, BASIC, COBOL, C, Assembler, and Pascal. Statistical packages such 
as SPSSX, BMDP, Minitab, and TSP can be used for data analysis, forecasting, and 
financial modeling. Also available on the Prime is the ORACLE relational database 
management system, which is compatible with industry and ANSI standards. Two 
other software packages, TELLAGRAF and DISSPLA, provide powerful graphics sys- 
tems on the Prime. A graphics workstation with TELLAGRAF, DISSPLA, Harvard 
Graphics, LOTUS 1-2-3, and other graphics packages, as well as with SIMSCRIPT/SIM- 
GRAPH, simulation and modeling software, is available. The workstation includes 
a six-pen plotter and a Polaroid Palette for making prints or slides of the screen 
contents. 

In addition to the facilities at the main Computer Center, there are other computer 
systems on campus and connections to them from the Computer Center. Fibre optic 
cable links seven academic buildings to an AT&T Information Systems Network (ISN) 
in the Computer Center, through which the Prime 4150 and AT&T 3B15 are networked 
with an Ethernet connection. The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science 
operates a local area network which includes several Sun workstations, and the Depart- 
ments of Physics and Chemistry share two Convex mini supercomputers. A data link 
with the Bowman Gray School of Medicine provides a microwave connection to In- 
ternet, a \AX minicomputer at the North Carolina Educational Computing Services 
(UNC-ECS), and a Cray supercomputer at the North Carolina Microelectronics Center. 

Wake Forest is a member of the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social 
Research (ICPSR) located at the University of Michigan. Membership in ICPSR pro- 
vides faculty and students with access to a large library of data files, including public 
opinion surveys, cross-cultural data, financial data, and complete census data. Sum- 
mer programs at the University of Michigan are also available through ICPSR. 

Four microcomputer labs are available for general student use. There are three 
Macintosh labs, each having fifteen microcomputers, two dot-matrix printers, and 
a letter-quality printer, connected via an Apple Talk network. They are located in Poteat 
residence hall, Luter Hall, and in an area between Johnson and Bostwick residence 
halls. A laser printer is available in the Student Union. The fourth lab, located in 
Wingate Hall, contains fifteen Zenith microcomputers and a letter-quality printer. Some 
individual departments on campus have their own microcomputer clusters for their 
major students, containing software specific to their discipline. 

A physically separate but integral part of the Computer Center is the Microcom- 
puter Center. Through the Microcomputer Center, students, faculty and staff can buy 
microcomputers at substantial educational discounts. The staff of the Microcomputer 
Center also provides service for the machines they sell, advice on purchasing machines 
and software, and classes in the use of major software packages. 

Libraries 

The libraries of Wake Forest University support instruction and research at the 
undergraduate level and in each of the disciplines in which a graduate degree is 



12 



offered. An endowment provided by a substantial gift from the Mary Reynolds 
Babcock Foundation and another from the late Nancy Reynolds have been assigned 
to the sustained expansion and development of library resources, especially for the 
support of the graduate program. The libraries of the University hold membership 
in the Association of Southeastern Research Libraries. 

The library collections total 1,094,561 volumes. Of these, 848,381 constitute the 
general collection in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, 113,330 are housed in the School 
of Law, 112,584 in the library of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and 20,266 
in the library of the Babcock Graduate School of Management. Subscriptions to 18,830 
periodicals and serials, largely of scholarly content, are maintained by the four libraries 
of the University. The holdings of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library also include 34,305 
reels of microfilm, 605,332 pieces of microcards, microprint, and microfiche, and 88,059 
volumes of United States government publications. 

Special collections in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library include the Rare Books 
Collection, the Baptist Historical Collection, and the Artom Collection (a clipping 
file of national and international events in the post-World War II period). 

The Rare Books Collection, greatly enhanced by the donation of the collection of 
rare and fine books of the late Charles H. Babcock, emphasizes American and British 
authors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Among such collections 
are those of Mark Twain, Gertrude Stein, William Butler Yeats and T. S. Eliot. There 
is also an extensive Anglo-Irish literature collection. The Ethel Taylor Crittenden Baptist 
Historical Collection is housed in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library. It contains signifi- 
cant books, periodicals, manuscripts and church records relating to North Carolina 
Baptists, as well as a collection of the personal papers of prominent ministers, 
educators, and government officials. The Wake Forest College/University Archive is 
maintained in this area. 

The Reference Department of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library provides several use- 
ful services for the University community. Through a variety of vendors, reference 
librarians conduct on-line database searches from any of several hundred data files. 
Interlibrary loan service is also available for Wake Forest graduate students, faculty, 
and staff. Books, photocopies and microform materials can be borrowed at no charge. 
The reference staff oversees the operation of an Omnifax telefacsimile machine capa- 
ble of sending and receiving printed data worldwide. Reference librarians provide 
a variety of instructional services including an annual freshman orientation program, 
presentations to individual classes, general tours of the library, and assistance with 
independent and directed studies. 



Recognition and Accreditation 

Wake Forest College was first accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Schools, the regional accrediting agency, in 1921. The reaccreditation of 1965 
included the master's and doctoral degree programs in the Division of Graduate 
Studies. The University's accreditation was last reaffirmed in December 1987. 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is a member of the Association of American 
Medical Colleges and is on the approved list of the Council on Medical Education 



13 



of the American Medical Association. The School of Law is a member of the Associ- 
ation of American Law Schools and is listed as an approved school by the Council 
of the Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar of the American Bar 
Association and by the Board of Law Examiners and the Council of the North Carolina 
State Bar. The Babcock Graduate School of Management and the School of Business 
and Accountancy are accredited by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of 
Business. The program in counseling leading to the master of arts in education degree 
is accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education. 

Wake Forest University is a member of many of the major institutional organiza- 
tions and associations at the national, regional, and state-wide levels, including the 
following: the American Council on Education, the Association of American Colleges, 
the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, and the Council 
of Graduate Schools in the United States, the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools, the Southern Universities Conference, the Council of Southern Graduate 
Schools, the North Carolina Association of Colleges and Universities, and the North 
Carolina Association of Independent Colleges and Universities. In addition, many 
offices of the University are members of associations which focus on particular aspects 
of university administration. 

Wake Forest has chapters of the principal national social fraternities, professional 
fraternities, and honor societies, including Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. There is 
an active chapter of the American Association of University Professors on campus. 




14 



The Undergraduate Schools 



There are two undergraduate schools at Wake Forest University: Wake Forest 
College and the School of Business and Accountancy. The undergraduate schools 
are governed by the Board of Trustees, the University administration, and by their 
respective faculties. Responsibility for academic administration is delegated by the 
president and trustees to the vice president for academic affairs, who is chief academic 
officer of the University. The deans of the schools report to the vice president for 
academic affairs and are responsible for academic planning and administration for 
their schools. Collaborating with the dean of Wake Forest College are associate deans. 
The vice president for student life and instructional resources and the dean of stu- 
dent services coordinate student services. Other officers in the area of student ser- 
vices are the director of residence life and housing and the director of the Student 
Union, who direct residential, social, and cultural life with the assistance of a pro- 
fessional staff; and the directors of the Student Health Service and the University 
Counseling Center. A list of administrative officers is found in this bulletin begin- 
ning on page 225. In many administrative areas, responsibility is shared or advice 
is given by the faculty committees listed in this bulletin beginning on page 259. 




15 

Wake Forest College 

Wake Forest College is the undergraduate school of arts and sciences of Wake Forest 
University. It is the center of the University's academic life; through it, the University 
carries on the tradition of preparing men and women for personal enrichment, en- 
lightened citizenship, and professional life. 

Wake Forest College is a place of meeting. Its teachers and students are of diverse 
backgrounds and interests, and that diversity is crucial to the distinctive character 
of the College. Wake Forest continually examines its educational purpose and evalu- 
ates its success in fulfilling it. A formal statement of purpose was prepared as part 
of the school's decennial reaccreditation process and was adopted by the Board of 
Trustees. 

Purpose 

Following is the official statement of purpose of Wake Forest College. 

Statement of Purpose 

Wake Forest is a university dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in the 
liberal arts and in graduate and professional education. Its distinctiveness 
in its pursuit of its mission derives from its private, coeducational, and 
residential character; its size and location; and its Baptist affiliation. Each 
of these factors constitutes a significant aspect of the unique character of 
the institution. 

The University is now comprised of six constituent parts: two 
undergraduate institutions, Wake Forest College and the School of Business 
and Accountancy; the Graduate School; and three professional schools: the 
School of Law, the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and the Babcock 
Graduate School of Management. It seeks to honor the ideals of liberal learn- 
ing, which entail commitment to transmission of cultural heritages; teaching 
the modes of learning in the basic disciplines of human knowledge; 
developing critical appreciation of moral, aesthetic, and religious values; 
advancing the frontiers of knowledge through in-depth study and research; 
and applying and using knowledge in the service of humanity. 

Wake Forest has been dedicated to the liberal arts for over a century and 
a half; this means education in the fundamental fields of human knowledge 
and achievement, as distinguished from education that is technical or 
narrowly vocational. It seeks to encourage habits of mind that ask "why," 
that evaluate evidence, that are open to new ideas, that attempt to understand 
and appreciate the perspectives of others, that accept complexity and grapple 
with it, that admit error, and that pursue truth. Wake Forest College has 
by far the largest student body in the University, and its function is central 
to the University's larger life. The College and the Graduate School are most 
singularly focused on learning for its own sake; they therefore serve as 
exemplars of specific academic values in the life of the University. 



16 



Beginning as early as 1894, Wake Forest accepted an obligation to provide 
professional training in a number of fields, as a complement to its primary 
mission of liberal arts education. This responsibility is fulfilled in the con- 
viction that the humane values embodied in the liberal arts are also central- 
ly relevant to the professions. Professional education at Wake Forest is 
characterized by a commitment to ethical and other professional ideals that 
transcend technical skills. Like the Graduate School, the professional schools 
are dedicated to the advancement of learning in their fields. In addition, 
they are specifically committed to the application of knowledge to solving 
concrete problems of human beings. They are strengthened by values and 
goals which they share with the College and Graduate School, and the 
professional schools enhance the work of these schools and the University 
as a whole by serving as models of service to humanity. 

Wake Forest was founded by private initiative, and ultimate decision- 
making authority lies in a privately appointed Board of Trustees rather than 
in a public body. "Funded to a large extent from private sources of support, 
[Wake Forest] is determined to chart its own course in the pursuit of its goals. 
As a coeducational institution it seeks to 'educate together 7 persons of both 
sexes and from a wide range of backgrounds— racial, ethnic, religious, 
geographical, socio-economic, and cultural .... Its residential features are 
conducive to learning and to the pursuit of a wide range of co-curricular 
activities. It has made a conscious choice to remain small in overall size; 
it takes pride in being able to function as a community rather than a con- 
glomerate. Its location in the Piedmont area of North Carolina engenders 
an ethos that is distinctively Southern, and more specifically North 
Carolinian .... As it seeks further to broaden its constituency and to receive 
national recognition, it is also finding ways to maintain the ethos associat- 
ed with its regional roots." 

Wake Forest is proud of its Baptist and Christian heritage. For more than 
a century and a half, it has provided the University an indispensable basis 
for its mission and purpose, enabling Wake Forest to educate thousands of 
ministers and laypeople for enlightened leadership in their churches and 
communities. Far from being exclusive and parochial, this religious tradi- 
tion gives the University roots that ensure its lasting identity and branches 
that provide a supportive environment for a wide variety of faiths. The Baptist 
insistence on both the separation of church and state and local autonomy 
has helped to protect the University from interference and domination by 
outside interests, whether these be commercial, governmental, or 
ecclesiastical. The Baptist emphasis upon revealed truth enables a strong 
religious critique of human reason, even as the claims of revelation are put 
under the scrutiny of reason. The character of intellectual life at Wake Forest 
encourages open and frank dialogue and provides assurance that the Univer- 
sity will be ecumenical and not provincial in scope, and that it must 
encompass perspectives other than the Christian. Wake Forest thus seeks 
to maintain and invigorate what is noblest in its religious heritage. 



17 



History and Development 

Since 1834 Wake Forest College has persevered— sometimes barely— through wars, 
economic crises, and controversy. In spite of these difficulties, perhaps because of 
them, the College has developed its distinctive pattern of characteristics: tenacity, 
independence, a fierce defense of free inquiry and expression, and a concern that 
knowledge be used responsibly and compassionately. 

That these qualities have often been passed along to Wake Foresf s students is evident 
in the lives many have led. That these characteristics have served the school well 
is displayed by its growth from a small sectarian school to one of the nation's signifi- 
cant small private universities. 

A brief history of Wake Forest is useful in understanding the University as it is today 
and appreciating the process through which it developed. 

The founding of Wake Forest College in 1834 was one manifestation of the intellec- 
tual and humanitarian reform movement in North Carolina and the nation during 
the 1830s. The beginnings of the College and the formation of the Baptist State 
Convention of North Carolina were closely interwoven: a leading motive for the or- 
ganization of the Convention was that it serve as an agency for establishing an 
institution that would provide education under Christian influences. 

The leaders in the movement for Convention and College were ministers and lay- 
men from diverse backgrounds: Martin Ross, a North Carolinian; Thomas Meredith, 
a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania; and Samuel Wait, a graduate of Colum- 
bian College in Washington, DC. The inspiration of Ross, the scholarship of Meredith, 
and the leadership of Wait combined to lead the Baptists of North Carolina into the 
formation of the Baptist State Convention on March 26, 1830. Wait was appointed 
as the Convention's agent to explain to churches, associations, and others the need 
for a college to provide "an education in the liberal arts in fields requisite for 
gentlemen." 

For nearly three years, Wait traveled over the state in his wagon, speaking to a large 
number of the approximately 15,000 Baptists who lived in the Piedmont and coastal 
counties. Perhaps as many as one half opposed missions, education, and other benevo- 
lences; but after two years of educational canvassing, Wait reported enough senti- 
ment in favor of the program of the Convention to proceed. 

A 600-acre plantation, located sixteen miles north of Raleigh, was purchased from 
Calvin Jones in 1832 for $2,000, and the North Carolina Legislature was asked to grant 
a charter for a literary institution based on the manual labor principle. The lobbying 
of opponents, both Baptist and non-Baptist, was effective; only the tie-breaking vote 
of William D. Moseley, speaker of the Senate and a graduate of the University of North 
Carolina, secured passage of the charter-granting bill. It was a meager charter, subject 
to various restrictions and limited to a period of twenty years, but the birth of Wake 
Forest had been achieved. Its subsequent growth would be the result of creative 
adjustments and successful responses to a series of other challenges. 

After his successful three-year canvass of the state, Samuel Wait was elected prin- 
cipal of the new institution. Sixteen students registered on February 3, 1834; before 
the end of the year seventy-two had enrolled. The manual labor principle, adopted 



18 



as a partial means of financing the institution, was abandoned after five years, and 
the school was rechartered in 1838 as Wake Forest College. 

The economic crisis of 1837 had such an adverse effect that support for the College 
and student enrollment steadily declined; only a loan of $10,000 from the State Literary 
Fund in 1841 prevented bankruptcy. During these years of arduous struggle to keep 
the College alive, President Wait exhausted his physical strength and contracted an 
illness which forced him to resign the presidency in 1845. 

William Hooper succeeded Wait, and the prospects of the College became bright- 
er. Hooper, a grandson of one of North Carolina's three signers of the Declaration 
of Independence, had received his education at the University of North Carolina. 
As a native North Carolinian with family connections extending over several genera- 
tions, he was able to mobilize public opinion in support of the College. 

After Hooper's resignation, the Trustees elected to the presidency Professor of 
Mathematics John B. White, a graduate of Brown University. Since the mortgages 
on the physical facilities had been paid during Hooper's tenure, fund-raising efforts 
during President White's administration could be concentrated on increasing the 
College endowment. The Trustees authorized a capital campaign and selected as its 
leader Washington Manly Wingate, an 1849 graduate who within a year and a half 
raised approximately $33,000. 

But the temper of the times was not suited to leadership by a Northerner, and Presi- 
dent White resigned in 1854. The Trustees chose as his successor Wingate, then twenty- 
six years old and the first alumnus of the College to serve as president. Under his 
vigorous leadership, which spanned nearly three decades, the quality of students 
improved and new faculty members were added. During the first eight years of Win- 
gate's administration, sixty-six students graduated— more than half of the total gradu- 
ated during the first twenty-three years in the life of the College. In 1857 President 
Wingate launched a campaign to produce an additional endowment of $50,000, over 
one half of which was raised in a single evening during the 1857 meeting of the Con- 
vention. 

This period of growth and expansion was cut short by the division of the nation 
in 1861. The Conscription Act of 1863 did not exempt students, and for three years 
of the Civil War, the College suspended operations. The buildings were used briefly 
for a girls' school; after 1863 the Confederate government used College facilities as 
a military hospital. 

Following Sherman's march through the South and Lee's surrender at Appomattox, 
a peace of desolation pervaded the region. Supporters of Wake Forest surveyed what 
remained: College buildings, now leaky and in poor repair; approximately $11,700 
from a pre-war endowment of $100,000; the former president and faculty; and a loyal 
group of Trustees. There was also something else: an indomitable spirit of determina- 
tion that Wake Forest should emerge from the wreck of the war and fulfill its mission. 

The needs of the College were great and financial prospects poor, but in November 
1865, barely six months after the end of the war, nine members of the Board of Trustees, 
acting with unwarranted courage, authorized the resumption of classes. Wingate was 
persuaded to resume the presidency, and on January 15, 1866, fifty-one students 
enrolled. The number increased as the South and its economy slowly recovered. 



19 



President Wingate realized that the people of North Carolina had to be awakened 
to the need for education in the renascent South, and that they must be persuaded 
that Wake Forest could help serve that need. To launch this campaign, a Baptist- 
sponsored, statewide educational convention was held in Raleigh, but before funds 
could be collected, the financial crisis of 1873 ended all immediate hope for endow- 
ment. The failure of the 1873-74 fund-raising campaign placed the College in a precar- 
ious position. The triple encumbrances of war, reconstruction, and financial panic 
made it evident that little money could be raised in North Carolina. The Committee 
on Endowment of the Board of Trustees appointed James S. Purefoy, a local mer- 
chant and Baptist minister, as agent to solicit funds in the Northern states for con- 
tinued operation of the College. While serving as treasurer of the Board before the 
war, he had salvaged $11,700 from the pre-war endowment of $100,000 by persuading 
the Trustees to invest half of the endowment in state bonds. After two years of un- 
relenting and often discouraging labor, without remuneration, he placed in the hands 
of the Trustees the sum of $9,200. 

It was also in the bleak days of financial uncertainty that a Wake Forest student, 
James W. Denmark, proposed and founded the first college student loan fund in the 
United States. A Confederate veteran, Denmark had worked six years to accumulate 
enough money for his own college expenses. Soon after entering Wake Forest in 1871 
he realized that many students had the same great financial need. From his meager 
funds he spent five dollars for postcards and wrote to college presidents across the 
country asking how their loan funds were organized. When he found that the colleges 
had none, he enlisted the support of faculty and students at Wake Forest and in 1877 
persuaded the Legislature to charter the North Carolina Baptist Student Loan Fund. 
Now known as the James W Denmark Loan Fund, it is the oldest college student 
loan fund in the United States and has assets of $325,000 to serve the needs of stu- 
dents according to the purposes of its founder. 

By the close of President Wingate's second adrninistration in 1879, the College had 
been successfully revived. The endowment had been increased and new construc- 
tion had begun. Perhaps the greatest service President Wingate rendered was bring- 
ing to the College a faculty of highly qualified scholars who served the College with 
distinction and dedication over many years. Among them were Professors William 
G. Simmons (1855-88), William Royall (1859-70; 1880-92), William Bailey Royall 
(1866-1928), Luther Rice Mills (1867-1907), and Charles Elisha Taylor (1870-1915), who 
served as president from 1884 to 1905. Two other scholars who became tutors or 
adjunct professors in the last year of President Wingate's administration were also 
destined to play important roles in the life of the College: Needham Y. Gulley, who 
established the School of Law in 1894 and served as its first dean for thirty-six years, 
and biologist William Louis Poteat, who served the College for fifty years, twenty- 
two of them as president. 

The administration of President Thomas Henderson Pritchard, which followed that 
of President Wingate, was brief and served principally to further Wingate's efforts 
to persuade Baptists and other North Carolinians to improve the deplorable condi- 
tion of education in the state. The second alumnus of the College to serve as presi- 
dent, Pritchard was an eloquent speaker whose prominent leadership among Baptists 



20 



increased the patronage of the College and improved its image among its constituency. 

Charles Elisha Taylor, whom President Wingate had brought to the faculty in 1880, 
was elected in 1884 to serve as the sixth president. 

Taylor's administration from 1884 to 1905 brought enrichment of the academic 
program in a variety of ways. Academic departments were increased from eight to 
thirteen, and the size of the faculty more than doubled. Two new schools were added: 
the School of Law in 1894 and the School of Medicine in 1902. Progress in other areas 
included the addition of buildings and the landscaping of the campus. Over 400 trees 
were planted, making Magnolia grandiflora almost synonymous with the Wake Forest 
campus. 

President Taylor was succeeded by William Louis Poteat. Affectionately known as 
"Doctor Billy" to students during and after his twenty-two-year administration, he 
continued to promote the general growth of all areas of College life. Special empha- 
sis was placed on development in the sciences, reflecting in part the interests of the 
president and in part the need to enrich the pre-medical training required by the 
new School of Medicine. 

As student enrollment increased from 313 in 1905 to 742 in 1927, there was a 
corresponding increase in the size of the faculty. Registration in religion, English, 
education, and the social sciences required more administrative direction, and a dean 
and a registrar were employed along with a library staff. Propelled by the trend of 
the other colleges in the state, Wake Forest also gave more attention to sports and 
achieved an envied reputation in baseball and football. Also notable during Presi- 
dent Poteat's administration was the continued growth of the endowment. 

Beyond these significant material advances, President Poteat brought distinction 
in the form of state and national recognition. A devout Christian, an eloquent speaker, 
and an accomplished scholar, he became a national leader in education and proba- 
bly the foremost Baptist layman in the state. As a distinguished scientist, he was among 
the first to introduce the theory of evolution to his biology classes. The Christian 
commitment in his personal and public life enabled him to defend successfully his 
views on evolution before the Baptist State Convention in 1922, in a major victory 
for academic freedom that attracted nationwide attention. Through his influence and 
that of Wake Forest alumni who supported his view, the North Carolina Legislature 
refused to follow other Southern states in the passage of anti-evolution laws in the 
1920s. 

During the administration of Poteat's successor, Francis Pendleton Gaines 
(1927-1930), the academic program continued to improve. In 1930 the Trustees selected 
Thurman D. Kitchin, dean of the medical school, to fill the presidency. Kitchin was 
a member of a family prominent in state and national affairs: one brother, William 
W Kitchin, had served as governor of North Carolina; another, Claude Kitchin, had 
served as majority leader in the United States House of Representatives. Kitchin's 
twenty-year administration was one of progress in the face of many obstacles— the 
Depression, destructive campus fires (one of which destroyed venerable Wait Hall), 
the disruption caused by World War II, and a depleted student body. 

Notable accomplishments during this period were the approval in 1936 of the School 
of Law by the American Bar Association and in 1941 the relocation of the School 



21 



of Medicine to Winston-Salem, where it undertook full four-year operation in as- 
sociation with the North Carolina Baptist Hospital as the Bowman Gray School of 
Medicine, named after the benefactor whose bequest made expansion possible. 

World War II brought other changes. Although the College was able to remain open, 
enrollment dropped in 1942 to 474. The College met this crisis by modifying its century- 
old admissions policy and becoming a coeducational institution that year. In the post- 
war period, enrollment mushroomed with the return of the veterans and reached 
a peak of 1,762 by 1949. Just before World War II, a $7,000,000 capital expansion 
campaign for buildings and endowment had been launched by President Kitchin. 
The war forced the postponement of construction, but out of the campaign came 
a proposal which offered war-ridden Wake Forest an opportunity for yet another re- 
birth. The Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation proposed that up to $350,000 a year of its 
income (an amount which has steadily increased over the years) be given in per- 
petuity to the College, provided that the entire College be relocated to Winston- Salem 
and that other friends of the College provide a campus site and buildings. In 1946 
the Board of Trustees, the Convention, and the Baptist constituency of the state ac- 
cepted the Reynolds proposal. Charles H. Babcock and his wife, Mary Reynolds 
Babcock, offered a 320-acre tract of their Reynolda estate as a site for the new campus. 

To move an institution over 100 years old from its rural setting 110 miles to a new 
campus in an urban area required leadership of great vision, determination, and 
youthful vigor. To succeed President Kitchin, who retired on his sixty-fifth birthday, 
the Trustees in 1950 elected to the presidency Harold Wayland Tribble, then presi- 
dent of Andover Newton Theological Seminary and a noted Baptist theologian. Presi- 
dent Tribble immediately began to mobilize alumni and friends of the College, and 
the Baptist State Convention, in support of the great transition. 

In the spring of 1951, William Neal Reynolds and Nancy Reynolds offered an anony- 
mous challenge gift of $2,000,000 on the condition that the College raise $3,000,000 
by June 30, 1952. The deadline was extended and the challenge met by January 1953. 
Mr. Reynolds died in September 1951 (the Foundation assumed his $1,500,000 share 
of the challenge grant) and he willed Wake Forest $1,000,000, to be paid at the time 
of removal. In recognition of his bequest, the new gymnasium was named for him. 
Because of the capital funds received from the Reynolds Foundation, the Trustees 
voted that the library be named the Z. Smith Reynolds Library and the administra- 
tion building, Reynolda Hall. 

Groundbreaking ceremonies were held in Winston-Salem on October 15, 1951, when 
a crowd of more than 20,000 watched President Harry Truman lift the first shovel 
of dirt to begin construction of the new Wake Forest campus. Between 1951 and 1956, 
fourteen buildings were erected; the relocation of the College to its new home was 
accomplished in time for the opening of the sumrrier session in 1956. 

During the next eleven years of President Tribble's administration, the College ex- 
perienced many changes. It had revised its curriculum before moving to the new cam- 
pus, offering greater flexibility to students, whose number increased to 3,022. The 
size of the faculty expanded, reducing the student/teacher ratio to fourteen to one. 

Additional resources came to the College in its new home. In 1954 the will of Colonel 
George Foster Hankins provided over $1,000,000 to be used for scholarships. In 1956 



22 



the Ford Foundation contributed $680,000 to the endowment of the undergraduate 
program and $1,600,000 to the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. After the comple- 
tion of a challenge gift of $3,000,000 offered in 1965, the Foundation raised its annual 
contribution to $620,000. The holdings of the University's libraries more than tripled, 
and the Z. Smith Reynolds Library was awarded the income from an endowment 
fund of $4,500,000 contributed by the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation and Nancy 
Reynolds. 

Graduate work, first offered in 1866 but suspended during the removal program, 
was resumed in 1961 with the establishment of the Division of Graduate Studies. 
In 1967, recognizing the augmented resources of the College, the Trustees officially 
changed the institution's name to Wake Forest University. The Division of Graduate 
Studies became the Graduate School and the name Wake Forest College was retained 
as the designation for the undergraduate school. 

After seventeen years of strenuous effort, President Tribble retired in 1967, leaving 
as his lasting memorial the removal of the College from Wake Forest to Winston-Salem 
and its changed status from college to university, with enhanced resources and 
academic distinction. As his successor, the Trustees chose James Ralph Scales 
(1967-1983), former president of Oklahoma Baptist University and former dean of 
arts and sciences at Oklahoma State University. His administration saw important 
new developments. The Guy T and Clara H. Carswell Scholarship Fund, valued at 
$1,600,000, was established in support of the undergraduate College. The new Babcock 
Graduate School of Management in 1969 was named in honor of Charles H. Babcock. 
Through the generosity of the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation and Nancy Reynolds, 
a building was constructed to house the Babcock school; a subsequent gift of $2,000,000 
was received from the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation for endowment. The James 
R. Scales Fine Arts Center was opened in 1976, marking a major phase of the Col- 
lege's growth in comprehensive liberal arts education. An athletic center and addi- 
tions to the School of Law building, Guy T Carswell Hall, have further expanded 
the physical resources of the Reynolda Campus. 

Wake Forest has expanded its programs as well as its physical facilities. The Univer- 
sity offers study for the baccalaureate degree in over thirty areas listed on page 65. 
Exchange programs with local institutions and with universities abroad have further 
expanded the range of choice and opportunity. In addition, Wake Forest maintains 
residential language centers in Venice and London for foreign study within the college 
curriculum. 

President Scales left office on October 1, 1983 to return to teaching as the University's 
first Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies. The Trustees selected Thomas K. 
Hearn Jr., a philosopher and former dean for non-medical affairs at the University 
of Alabama (Birmingham), as the University's twelfth president. He was inaugurated 
on November 4, 1983. 

Wake Forest celebrated its sesquicentennial anniversary in 1984. 

The Olin Physical Laboratory which opened in the fall of 1989 was made possible 
by a grant from the F. W Olin Foundation, Inc. of New York. The new facility makes 
possible a physics program offering hands-on research and a significantly enlarged 
laser physics lab. 



23 



The Clifton L. Benson University Center, now nearing completion, will open in 
the fall of 1990. 




The skylight of the central open area of the Benson University Center, a modern facility 

for student activities and events. 



24 

Student Life 



Student life at the University is designed to offer a wide range of resources which 
promote intellectual, cultural, social, vocational, physical, psychological, and spiritual 
growth through the services of the offices of the Division of Student Life, which are 
represented by the dean of student services and the offices of Campus Ministry, Career 
Planning and Placement, Minority Affairs, Residence Life and Housing, Student De- 
velopment, Student Health Service, Health Education, Student Union, the Univer- 
sity Counseling Center, and the Learning Assistance Program. The University is a 
community, and the sense of community is fostered by rich opportunities for personal 
development. 

The Student Union offers a diverse range of entertaining and enriching programs 
for the campus community. Men's social fraternities and women's societies and sorori- 
ties are members of the Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils respectively. All stu- 
dents who live on campus are represented by the Resident Student Association. There 
are chapters of the major honor societies and professional societies for qualified stu- 
dents, and the University makes a number of academic awards for distinguished 
student achievement and service. Intercollegiate athletics for men and women and 
an intramural sports program are strong, distinguished by tradition and performance. 
Religious activities are central to the life of the University and, like campus cultural 
opportunities, are distinctive. The University offers a number of additional services 
to students relating to their physical and mental health, spiritual growth, and prepa- 
ration for life. 

Student Government 

Student Government plays an important role in students' lives. It is the voice of 
the student body in the consideration of new programs and the modification of stu- 
dent life policies. 

The executive branch of the Student Government is comprised of the four student 
body officers— president, vice president, secretary, treasurer— and the executive 
advisory committees. Reporting directly to the officers are various committees which 
work on improving service to students. These committees are open to all students. 

The legislative branch of the Student Government is composed of seventy-one 
student representatives; the vice president of the student body serves as speaker. 
The Legislature represents the interests of students in social and academic matters 
and promotes and funds projects of benefit to the student body and the larger 
community. It oversees disbursement of funds to student groups and recommends 
the chartering of student groups seeking recognition by the University. Major 
committees are the Charter Committee, the Committee on Committees, the Campus 
Life Committee, the Economics Committee, the Judicial Committee, the Academic 
Committee, the Appropriations and Budget Committee, and the Student Relations 
Committee. 

The honor system is an expression of the concern that students act with honor and 
integrity. It is an integral part of the Student Government as adopted by students 
and approved by the faculty. Its essence is that each student's word can be trusted 



25 



implicitly and that any violation of a student's word is an offense against the whole 
community The honor system obligates students neither to give nor receive 
unauthorized aid on academic work; to have complete respect for the property rights 
of others; to make no false or deceiving statements regarding academic matters to 
another member of the University community; not to interfere with the procedures 
of the honor system; and to confront any student who has violated the honor system 
and to remind that student of the responsibilities dictated by the honor system. 

The Honor Council consists of fourteen members— two officers selected by and from 
the Honor Council of the previous year plus three representatives from each class. 
There are three non-voting faculty advisers. 

It is the duty of the Honor Council to receive and investigate reports of honor sys- 
tem violations, to prefer charges where appropriate, and to arrange hearings for all 
charges of violations of the honor system. The minimum penalty for any violation 
of the honor system is a period of probation. A student who is found guilty of premedi- 
tated cheating is suspended or expelled from the University. Expulsion is normally 
automatic upon conviction for a second offense. All actions of the Honor Council 
are reported in writing to the dean of the College or the dean of the School of Busi- 
ness and Accountancy, and the dean of student services. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor system is ineligible to represent the 
University in any way until the period of punishment— whether suspension, proba- 
tion, or another form— is completed and the student is returned to good standing. 
A student who has been suspended can be readmitted to the College only on the 
approval of the faculty or its Committee on Academic Affairs. During the period of 
suspension, the student cannot be certified to another institution as being in good 
standing. 

The Case Referral Panel receives reports from the office of the dean of student ser- 
vices on student violations of University social regulations, conducts necessary inves- 
tigations, and draws up specific charges. When a plea of guilty is entered, the Case 
Referral Panel levies a penalty, if one is appropriate. If a plea of not guilty or no plea 
is entered, the case is forwarded to the Student Judicial Board. 

The Student Judicial Board is composed of twelve members, at least three men and 
three women, who are elected at large from the student body. It is the duty of the 
Board to receive, prefer, and try all charges of social misconduct and violations of 
University rules and regulations for individual students as well as student organiza- 
tions not covered by the Honor Council, the director of residence life and housing, 
or the Traffic Appeals Board. A student who violates these regulations or who be- 
haves in such a way as to bring reproach upon him/herself or upon the University 
is subject to penalties ranging from verbal reprimand to suspension on the first offense. 
For further offenses, expulsion may occur. 

The interim judicial process, which provides trial before a five-person panel of faculty 
and students, is available at times when the normal processes are not functioning. 

The Judicial Council, a nine-person panel consisting of five faculty members, two 
administrators, and two students, hears appeals from the Honor Council, the Case 
Referral Panel, the Student Judicial Board, and the Interim Judicial process. The Ju- 
dicial Council also supervises the undergraduate judicial system. 



26 



Student Union 

The Student Union is responsible for scheduling entertainment activities, developing 
and presenting educational and cultural programs to complement academic studies, 
assisting other student organizations, and providing supporting equipment and 
services. The Student Union board of directors, representing all students, cooperates 
with the staff in daily operations and supervises the efforts of nine committees and 
a large body of student volunteers. 

The Benson University Center will open for the Fall 1990 semester. The 
100,000-square-foot building has a central open area capped by a skylight containing 
modern facilities for activities and events. Starting with the lowest level underground, 
the five levels are: Exercise and Wellness (Nautilus and conditioning areas); Enter- 
tainment and Nutrition (eating facilities, film auditorium and TV lounge); Informa- 
tion and Leadership (lobby, Information Desk, offices); Conference and Events 
(conference rooms, art display areas); and Communication loft (student publications 
and radio station). 

Resident Student Association 

Each residence hall has a House Council which makes decisions about hall activities 
and budget allocations. House Council meetings also are forums for discussion of 
issues affecting student life in the residence halls. The Councils are comprised of 
an executive board of resident student representatives from each floor. Although each 
floor elects a House Council representative, every resident is encouraged to attend 
and to participate in meetings and functions. 

The House Councils fall under the guidance and supervision of a larger student 
governing organization: the Resident Student Association (RSA). The RSA consists 
of representatives from each House Council and elected student executive officers. 
The RSA provides financial and programming support to the House Councils, and 
acts as a liaison between the Councils and the Office of Residence Life and Housing. 
RSA and the House Councils also sponsor campus-wide programs which serve the 
Wake Forest and Winston-Salem communities. 

The House Councils and RSA not only provide social and educational opportunities 
for the university community, but also give students valuable leadership experience. 

Inter fraternity and Intersociety Councils 

The Interfraternity Council is the governing body of twelve social fraternities: Alpha 
Phi Alpha, Alpha Sigma Phi, Chi Psi, Delta Sigma Phi, Kappa Sigma, Omega Psi 
Phi, Pi Kappa Alpha, Sigma Chi, Sigma Nu, Sigma Phi Epsilon, Sigma Pi, and Theta 
Chi. The purpose of the council is to govern and coordinate the campus Greek af- 
fairs and activities while promoting high standards of conduct, scholarship, com- 
munity service, and fraternal operations. 

The Intersociety Council is the governing body of seven local societies (Delphi, Fi- 
deles, Lynks, Phoenix, SOPHs, Strings, and Thymes) and two national sororities 
(Delta Delta Delta and Delta Sigma Theta) each of which has selective membership 
for women. 



27 



Both the Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils must follow University regula- 
tions and the national fraternities and sororities are subject to the rules of their national 
organizations. A student must have a C average for the previous semester or a 
cumulative C average to be pledged and initiated. Students who are on probation 
for any reason may not be pledged and initiated into any fraternity society or sorority 
until the end of their probationary period. The Greek system is an excellent oppor- 
tunity for men and women to gain leadership experience, develop life-long friend- 
ships, serve the Wake Forest community, and perpetuate excellence in scholastic 
achievement. 

Honor Societies, Professional Fraternities, and Clubs 

Phi Beta Kappa, established in 1776, is the oldest American Greek letter society. 
Election to membership is the highest recognition of excellence in scholarship that 
an undergraduate can achieve. Students must have qualifications of "high scholar- 
ship, liberal culture, and good character." The number elected each year at Wake Forest 
is approximately eight percent of the graduating class. 

A number of nationally affiliated honor societies have been established: Beta Beta 
Beta (biology), Delta Phi Alpha (German), Eta Sigma Phi (classics), Anthony Aston 
Society (drama), Lambda Alpha (anthropology), Omicron Delta Epsilon (economics), 
Phi Alpha Theta (history), Pi Mu Epsilon (mathematics), Pi Sigma Alpha (political 
science), Omicron Delta Kappa, and Mortar Board. There are student sections of the 
American Institute of Physics, the American Chemical Society, and the American 
Society of Personnel Adrninistration. There are also chapters of the national service 
fraternities Alpha Phi Omega and Circle K. 

Other student organizations include an Accounting Society, an Anglican Student 
Fellowship, an Anthropology Club, the Baptist Student Union, a Black Christian 
Fellowship, a Black Student Alliance, a Catholic Student Association, the Circolo 
Italiano, the College Democrats, the College Republicans, a Dance Club, an Economics 
Society, an Equestrian Club, a Fellowship of Christian Athletes, a Frisbee Club, a 
Gospel Choir, an Intervarsity Christian Fellowship, an Infra-Faith Council, a Karate 
Club, a Literary Society, a Marketing Society, a Politics Club, a Pre-Law Society, a 
Presbyterian Fellowship, a Rugby Football Club, a Scuba Club, a Soccer Club, a 
Sociology Club, the Students for America, the Students for Life, the Student Alumni 
Council, and the Wesley Foundation. 

Academic Awards 

The following awards are made annually: the A. D. Ward Medal for the senior making 
the best address at commencement; the /. B. Currin Medal for the best oration, essay, 
or work of music or art on the topic "Christ in Modern Life"; the D. A. Brawn Prize 
to the student whose writing most merits recognition; the M. D. Phillips Prize to the 
outstanding senior in Greek or Latin; the John Y. Phillips Prize to the outstand- 
ing senior in mathematics; the H. Broadus Jones Award to the student whose paper 
shows greatest insight into the works of Shakespeare; the Ruth Foster Campbell Award 
to the student whose ability in the Spanish language and spirit of joyful inquiry into 



28 



Spanish culture have been most outstanding; the Forrest W. Clouts Award to the out- 
standing senior in history; the C. Chilton Pearson Research Prize for the outstanding 
paper written by a junior or senior American history major; the Forrest W. Clonts 
Research Prize for the outstanding paper written by a junior or senior non-American 
history major; the Phi Alpha Theta Research Prize for the best paper written by a junior 
or senior member; the Claud H. Richards Award to the outstanding senior in politics; 
the John Allen Easley Medal to the outstanding senior in religion; the American Bible 
Society Award for the outstanding senior Bible student; the Lura Baker Paden Medal 
to the outstanding senior in business; the Wall Street Journal Medal and a year's sub- 
scription to the Journal to the outstanding senior in finance; the A. M. Pullen and Com- 
pany Medal to the senior with the highest achievement in accounting; the William E. 
Speas Award to the outstanding senior in physics; the Carolina Biological Supply Com- 
pany Award to the major in biology who is judged by the department to have com- 
pleted the outstanding undergraduate research project of the year; the Walter S. Flory 
Award to the senior major in biology who is judged by the department to have made 
the greatest overall contribution by an undergraduate to the Department of Biology. 
The William C. and Ruth N. Archie Award, established by a grant from Ruth N. Archie 
and from the Archies' son and daughter-in-law, William Archie Jr. and Margaret 
Archie, is given each year to the graduating senior who, in the opinion of the dean 
of the College and a faculty committee appointed by the dean, has shown most con- 
spicuously a commitment to liberal learning, to scholarship, and to the ideals of Wake 
Forest College. In odd-numbered years the award is presented to a female student; 
in even-numbered years it is presented to a male student. 

Intramural Athletics 

The intramural program operates under the auspices of the Department of Health 
and Sport Science. It provides a variety of competitive activities for students, faculty, 
and staff. There are sports for male, female, and coed participation. Activities usual- 
ly included in the intramural program are basketball, cross-country, football, golf, 
racquetball, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, volleyball, water polo, wrestling, and 
weight lifting. 

Students occasionally organize club teams for other sports and activities, which 
are not taught or directed by the College, but which are conducted as student organiza- 
tions with the approval of Student Government and the faculty. Currently these in- 
clude rugby, karate, equestrian, scuba diving, soccer, outing, and dance. Students 
who are interested in a sport not offered through the College may organize them- 
selves and petition the Student Government and faculty for approval. 

Intercollegiate Athletics 

For men: 

Under the director of athletics, Wake Forest is a member of the Atlantic Coast 
Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and participates in inter- 
collegiate football, basketball, baseball, golf, tennis, soccer, cross-country, and track. 



29 



The full scholarship allowed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association covers 
tuition, fees, room, board, and books. Wake Forest offers several special scholarships 
and awards: the Arnold Palmer Award for the Wake Forest Athlete of the Year, as judged 
by lettermen from each team; the Buddy Worsham Memorial Scholarship, the John R. 
Knott Scholarship, and the Lanny Wadkins Scholarship for golf; the Carl They, Lowell "Lefty" 
Davis, Horace "Bones" McKinney, and Vernon Nelson Scholarships for basketball; the 
Granger Ancarrow Scholarship for track/cross country; the Nikos Ridle and John H. Vernon, 
Jr. Scholarships for tennis; and the John T. Hicks Scholarship for baseball. The George 
C. Mitchell, Helen Ann Ward Straughan, Claude and Anne Bruce Brewer Gore, and Addison 
Hewlett, Jr. Scholarships are general athletic scholarships. 

For women: 

Under the director of women's athletics, Wake Forest is a member of the Atlantic 
Coast Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and participates in 
basketball, field hockey, golf, tennis, cross-country, and track. 

The full scholarship allowed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association covers 
tuition, fees, room, board, and books. 

Reserve Officers' Training Corps 

The Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) has served the nation with distinction 
for over seventy years. The Corps exists to commission the future officer leadership 
of the United States Army, the United States Army Reserve and the Army National 
Guard. 

The Wake Forest ROTC program was established in 1953. Its graduates, both male 
and female, have served and are serving in positions of leadership at the highest 
levels of all three components of the Army of the United States. The Corps of Cadets 
is organized as a Cadet Battalion. Participation in its activities develops self-confidence, 
physical and mental stamina, and leader competence, and instills in the cadet the 
tradition of selfless service to the nation. 

Officership is the centerpiece of the ROTC program of instruction. A baccalaureate 
degree and a commission are the two principal goals of the cadet. Cadets are well- 
rounded, fully-participating members of the Wake Forest community who have chosen 
to take advantage of the leadership development opportunities available through the 
Reserve Officers' Training Corps while simultaneously repaying their country for its 
gifts of freedom and security. 

Religious Activities 

The Campus Ministry provides a variety of opportunities for the spiritual develop- 
ment of students, faculty, and staff. Thursday Worship is a weekly service which 
addresses the needs of the community through scripture, prayer, preaching, and 
music. A Pre-School Conference for freshmen each fall, a Church Vocations day in 
winter, and a Faith and Reason forum each spring promote the integration of spiritual 
and educational concerns. A Volunteer Service Corps enables students to get involved 
in the needs of the Winston-Salem community. There are nine student religious 
organizations which provide regular programs, including Bible study, music, worship, 



30 



mission opportunities, and guest speakers on contemporary Christian concerns: 
Baptist Student Union, Black Christian Fellowship, Catholic Student Association, 
Episcopal Fellowship, Fellowship of Christian Athletes, Inter-Varsity Christian Fellow- 
ship, Lutheran Fellowship, United Methodist Fellowship, and University Gospel Choir. 
The University chaplain, assistant chaplain/Baptist campus minister, Methodist 
chaplain, Roman Catholic chaplain, Episcopal chaplain, Lutheran campus minister, 
and the coordinator of Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship compose the Campus Minis- 
try staff. The chaplains are available for counseling in a variety of areas: spiritual 
direction, advice to religious organizations, and help in dealing with crisis situations 
such as serious illness or death. The Wake Forest Baptist Church cooperates with 
Campus Ministry in both joint and individual efforts to serve the community. 

Cultural Activities 

The University Theatre presents four major productions and several lab plays 
annually, employing faculty, student, and visiting professional directors. Each year 
the Student Union, with the assistance of the University Theatre, sponsors a dinner 
theatre, directed and performed by students. WFDD (FM) broadcasts a program service 
of classical music, news and information, jazz, and folk music, 24 hours per day, 
365 days per year to Piedmont North Carolina as a member of National Public Radio. 
In addition to student announcers, producers, and technicians, it has a professional 
staff of seven. WAKE Radio (AM), a completely student-operated radio station, plays 
popular music 24 hours per day. Intercollegiate debate at Wake Forest has a long record 
of excellence, and the College hosts two annual debate tournaments: the Franklin 
Shirley Dixie Classic and the National Early Bird High School Forensics Tournament. 

Student publications include Old Gold and Black, a weekly newspaper; The Student, 
a literary magazine; and Heavier, the yearbook. The Student Union sponsors major 
speakers and symposia throughout the academic year, and departments in the Col- 
lege engage specialists for other series. The Hester Philosophy Seminar, occurring every 
two years, is a colloquium devoted to the major problems of philosophy and their 
impact on the Christian faith and is sponsored by the Department of Philosophy. 
The Albritton, Easley, and Robinson Lectures are sponsored by the Department of 
Religion, one being held each year. The Department of Psychology sponsors a col- 
loquium series throughout the academic year. 

The Tocqueville Forum and the Luce Lectures bring nationally-known speakers to 
campus— to lecture and teach— under major grants from the Smith Richardson Foun- 
dation and the Henry Luce Foundation. 

Student musicians perform for academic credit in the Choral Union, the Concert 
Choir, the Madrigal Singers, the Opera Workshop, the University Orchestra, the Dea- 
con Marching Band, the Symphonic Band, the Jazz Ensemble, various chamber en- 
sembles, and the Collegium Musicum. All student ensembles give public 
performances each semester. 

Major concerts by orchestras and artists from around the world are performed in 
Wait Chapel and Brendle Recital Hall in the Scales Fine Arts Center under the auspices 
of the Secrest Artists Series. The Department of Music also sponsors performances 
by faculty, students, and visiting artists, and, in cooperation with the University 



31 



Theatre, presents musical theatrical productions. Visiting dance soloists and companies 
and other musical programs are held in Brendle Recital Hall. Recitals are played by 
both students and guest carillonneurs on the Janet Jeffrey Carlile Harris Carillon. 
Students in the Chapel Bell Guild play English handbells for convocations and services 
in Wait Chapel. 

All concerts are open to students and to others in the community. 

In addition to studio instruction in the Department of Art, visiting artists teach 
on campus and at the nearby Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art. Reynolda 
House has frequent lectures related to its special collection in American art. The 
Student Union has an expanding collection of contemporary works of art, under stu- 
dent administration and exhibited in Reynolda Hall and elsewhere on campus. The 
T. J. Simmons Collection of paintings, etchings, lithographs, and sculpture also is 
on permanent display throughout the campus. Cultural resources in the community, 
in addition to the Reynolda House Museum of American Art and the Southeastern 
Center for Contemporary Art, include the restored historic Moravian village of Old 
Salem, the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, the North Carolina School 
of the Arts and its associated professional performing companies in theatre, dance, 
and music, and the Winston-Salem Symphony and Chorale. Folk art, professional 
art, and crafts fairs are frequent. 

Career Planning and Placement 

The office for Career Planning and Placement in Reynolda Hall offers a full range 
of career services, including placement counseling, library resources, and a computer 
program which helps students determine career and graduate or professional school 
interests. Other services include career exploration, choice of an academic major, 
resume writing and interviewing skills, and interviews with prospective employers. 
The office helps students choose careers and find full-time, part-time, and summer 
jobs. The office directs a comprehensive internship program which provides experien- 
tial learning opportunities for underclassmen. 

The office maintains a file on each registered student to help with on-campus 
interviews and off -campus job search. More than 200 companies, agencies, and 
colleges and universities interview registered undergraduate and graduate students 
during the year. Job vacancy listings, employer directories, company profiles, and 
alumni contacts provide leads for the off -campus job search. 

Students are invited to take advantage of these services, beginning early in their 
college years. The office resources are available on a walk-in basis during regular office 
hours and individual consultations are available by appointment. 

University Counseling Center 

The University Counseling Center (118 Reynolda Hall) offers a broad range of 
counseling and psychological services. Students can discuss their personal, educa- 
tional, and career concerns with a professional counselor or psychologist. A variety 
of tests are available to help students identify their vocational and educational in- 
terests, study skills and personality traits. 



32 



There are a number of programs and groups designed to assist students with specific 
concerns such as self-confidence, eating disorders, stress management, relationships, 
substance abuse, etc. Educational materials about these and other topics are avail- 
able. The Center also provides referrals when necessary. Psychological emergencies 
are handled through the Center in cooperation with the Student Health Service. Ap- 
pointments are available Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. - 5 p.m. Confidentiality 
is assured and no fees are charged to students. 

Learning Assistance Program 

Another service sponsored by the Counseling Center is the Learning Assistance 
Program. The program's services include study skills training through individual 
academic counseling, computer-assisted instruction in subject areas, and individual 
and group tutoring. The Learning Assistance Program staff presents courses and 
seminars in academic skills throughout the year. Located in the East Lounge of 
Reynolda Hall, the Learning Assistance Program is open Monday through Friday 
from 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. and from 1:30 p.m. to 5 p.m. Students may call 759-5929 
to schedule an appointment. 

Student Health Service 

The Student Health Service is located in Kitchin House and provides primary care 
services, including general health maintenance, diagnostic and treatment procedures, 
and referral to specialists. It is open when residence halls are in operation; a health 
information questionnaire is required to be on file for all students. The services of 
the clinical staff are covered by tuition; there are additional charges for injections, 
medications, laboratory tests, special physical examinations, and in-patient care. (See 
"Admission," page 34, and "Other Charges," page 37 for further detailed information.) 

The Health Education Program 

In association with the Student Health Service, the Health Education Program pro- 
vides a variety of services geared to promote healthy living. The health educator 
develops programs for substance abuse prevention and intervention, and informs 
students about the effects of alcohol and other drugs in classroom, residence halls, 
and other settings. The Office of Health Education, located in the Benson Center, 
can also provide information on a variety of issues concerning college students in- 
cluding nutrition and weight control, exercise, sexually-transmitted disease, and con- 
traceptive information. 

Office of Minority Affairs 

The Office of Minority Affairs helps minority students to assess their educational 
goals and academic skills in order to achieve a satisfying college experience at Wake 
Forest. The staff also helps students to understand the history of the University and 
promotes an appreciation of each student's heritage and background. A variety of 



33 



orientation services are offered to new students to facilitate their transition into campus 
life. 

The office serves as a resource for programs that foster positive race relations. In 
addition, the Office of Minority Affairs, through the work of the counselor for minority 
recruitment, has primary responsibility for the recruitment of minority students. 




34 

Procedures 



All students are responsible for familiarizing themselves with the portions of this bulletin 
which pertain to their course of study. Statements concerning courses and expenses are not 
to be regarded as irrevocable contracts between the student and the institution. The University 
reserves the right to change the schedule of classes and the cost of instruction at any time 
within the student's term of residence. 

Admission 

Candidates for admission must furnish evidence of maturity and educational 
achievement. The Committee on Admissions carefully considers the applicant's aca- 
demic records, scores on tests, and evidence of character, motivation, goals, and gener- 
al fitness for study in the College. The applicant's secondary school program must 
establish a commitment to the kind of broad liberal education reflected in the aca- 
demic requirements of the College. 

Admission as a freshman normally requires graduation from an accredited 
secondary school with a nuriimutn of sixteen units of high school credit. These should 
include four units in English, three in mathematics, two in history and social studies, 
two in a single foreign language, and one in the natural sciences. An applicant who 
presents at least twelve units of differently distributed college preparatory study can 
be considered. A limited number of applicants may be admitted without the high 
school diploma, with particular attention given to ability, maturity, and motivation. 

All persons admitted are required to submit a health history, along with the results 
of a physical examination, certain laboratory tests, and immunization lecords, to the 
director of the Student Health Service. If a person who has been accepted but has 
not yet enrolled has or develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the 
director of the health service, creates a danger to the safety and well-being of the student 
or others, that person may be required to delay matriculation until the problem is resolved. 

North Carolina law and Wake Forest University require that all new, transfer, read- 
mit, unclassified or visiting students submit proof of immunization against tetanus 
and diphtheria (Td), polio, rubeola, rubella, and mumps before registration. The stu- 
dent handbook has a detailed statement. A certificate from the student's high school, 
physician, or county health department director containing the approved dates is 
acceptable proof of immunization. The Student Health Service will furnish a form 
for this purpose. North Carolina law requires that students who do not submit proper 
proof of immunization within thirty days of enrollment cannot attend Wake Forest 
University until these immunizations have been documented. 

Application 

An application is secured from the Office of Admissions in person or by mail (7305 
Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109). It should be completed 
and returned to that office no later than January 15 for the fall semester. Most admis- 
sions decisions for the fall semester are made by April 1, with prompt notification 
of applicants. For the spring semester, applications should be completed and returned 



35 



no later than October 15. Except in emergency, the final date for applying for the 
fall semester is August 1 and for the spring semester January 1. Application on this 
last-date basis is primarily for non-resident students. 

The admission application requires records and recommendations directly from 
secondary school officials. It also requires test scores, preferably from the senior year, 
on the Scholastic Aptitude Test of the College Entrance Examination Board. Accom- 
panying achievement tests are optional. All test scores should be sent directly to the 
University by Educational Testing Service. A $25 fee to cover the cost of processing 
must accompany an application. It cannot be applied to later charges for accepted 
students or refunded for others. The University reserves the right to reject any applica- 
tion without explanation. 

A $200 admission deposit is required of all students accepted and must be sent 
to the Office of Admissions no later than May 1 following notice of acceptance. It 
is credited toward first semester fees. Students notified of acceptance after May 1 
for the fall semester or November 1 for the spring semester should make the admis- 
sion deposit within two weeks of notification. Deposits made after May 1 and Novem- 
ber 1 are not refundable. Failure to make the admission deposit is taken as cancellation 
of application by the student. No deposit is required for summer session enrollment. 

Early Decision 

An early decision plan is available to well-qualified high school students who decide, 
by the close of their junior year, to apply only to Wake Forest University. An early 
decision agreement is required with the application, which is sent to the Office of 
Admissions after completion of the junior year and not later than November 15 of 
the senior year. Along with the high school record, recommendations, and scores 
on the Scholastic Aptitude Test, at least one achievement test, especially in English 
composition, is strongly recommended. 

Candidates for early decision are normally expected to have completed, or be 
enrolled in courses to complete, all the natural science, foreign language, literature, 
and mathematics requirements of the secondary school. Decisions are based upon 
junior year grades and test scores; SATs and achievement tests taken in the fall of 
the senior year cannot be considered for early decision. 

Early decision applicants with completed applications are notified of acceptance 
on a rolling basis and not later than December 1 for the fall semester, and the admission 
deposit is required by January 1. Applicants not admitted are asked to submit a senior 
year Scholastic Aptitude Test score and first semester senior year grade record, or 
are advised to apply elsewhere. 

Admission of Handicapped Students 

Wake Forest University will consider the application of any qualified student, regard- 
less of handicap, on the basis of the selection criteria established by the University 
which include personal and academic merit. Upon matriculation all students will 
be required to meet the same standards for graduation. Programs at Wake Forest are 
accessible to all of its students. The University will assist handicapped students in 



36 



making arrangements to meet special needs. Students who seek further information 
should consult the Office of Admissions or the University's equal opportunity officer. 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 

Advanced placement credit for college-level work done in high school is available 
on the basis of the Advanced Placement Examination of the College Entrance 
Examination Board and supplementary information. Especially well-qualified 
applicants for advanced standing may also be exempt from some basic and division- 
al courses with credit on the authorization of the department concerned. Credit by 
advanced standing is treated in the same manner as credit transferred from another 
college. 

Under certain conditions, especially well-prepared applicants may be granted limited 
college credit through the subject tests of the College Level Examination Program 
(CLEP) of the Educational Testing Service. Such credit may be assigned with the 
approval of the department concerned or the dean of the School of Business and 
Accountancy. 

Admission of Transfer Students 

The number of transfer students who can be admitted each year depends upon 
the availability of space in the freshman (second semester), sophomore, and junior 
classes. In recent years such space has been very limited. An applicant for admis- 
sion who has attended another college must be a graduate of a standard junior college 
or furnish a certificate of honorable dismissal stating eligibility in all respects to enter 
the college last attended, and must have an overall average of at least C on all college 
work attempted. A student who is admitted from another college before fully meeting 
the prescribed admissions requirements for entering freshmen must remove the 
entrance conditions during the first year at Wake Forest. 

The writing of transfer students is evaluated during the orientation period each 
semester, and students whose writing is deficient are given a composition condition. 
For removal of a composition condition, the student is required to take English 11 during 
the first semester for which he or she registers following the assignment of the cc. 
Removal of the deficiency is prerequisite to graduation. 

Courses satisfactorily completed in other accredited colleges are accepted subject 
to faculty approval. In general, no credit is allowed for courses not found in the Wake 
Forest curriculum. The minimum residence requirement for a baccalaureate degree 
is two academic years, the senior and one other. 

Expenses 

Statements concerning expenses are not to be regarded as forming an irrevocable contract 
between the student and the University. The costs of instruction and other services outlined 
herein are those in effect on the date of publication of this bulletin, and the University reserves 
the right to change without notice the cost of instruction and other services at any time. 

An admission deposit of $200, which is applied toward tuition and fees for the 
semester for which the student has been accepted, is required to complete admission. 



37 



Charges are due in full on August 1 for the fall semester and December 15 for the 
spring semester. Faculty regulations require that student accounts be settled in full 
before the student is entitled to receive a grade report, transcript, or diploma, or to 
register for the following semester or term. 

Tuition 

Per Semester Per Year 

Full-Time (twelve or more credits) $4,850 $9,700 

Part-Time $275 per credit 

Based on recent years, students should expect an average increase in excess of 10 
percent yearly. However, admittance to the undergraduate college is not based on 
financial resources. The University meets the demonstrated financial needs of all quali- 
fied students. 

Students enrolled in the College or in the School of Business and Accountancy 
for full-time residence credit are entitled to full privileges regarding libraries, labora- 
tories, athletic contests, concerts, publications, the Student Union, the University 
Theatre, and the health service. Part-time students are entitled to the use of the libraries 
and laboratories but not to the other privileges mentioned above. They may secure 
a part-time student ID card, admissions to games and concerts, and publications by 
paying an activity fee of $125 per semester. 

Room Charges 

Per Semester Per Year 

Double occupancy $765 $1,530 

Most rooms available for first-year students are $765 per semester. Other room rentals 
range from $605 to $1,015. 

Food Services 

A cafeteria, soda shop, and table service (lining room are located in Reynolda Hall. 
Board plans are available which range from approximately $1,200 to $2,000 per year. 
The format of these plans is a credit card system in which the student is charged 
only for the amount of food purchased at the time it is purchased. The plan may 
be used at any University food services facility, and it allows a great deal of flexibility 
for eating off campus. 

Freshmen living in dormitories are required to participate in both the fall and spring semesters 
in one of the board plans. 

Other Charges 

Admission application fee of $25 is required with each application for admission to cover 
the cost of processing and is non-refundable. 

Admission deposit of $200 is required of each student entering for the first time or 
returning after a period of non-attendance and must be sent to the director of 



38 



admissions. The deposit is credited to the student's charges for the semester for which 
he or she has been accepted for admission. 

Applied music fees are required in addition to tuition for students enrolling for individual 
study in applied music in the Department of Music and are payable in the controller's 
office. The fee for one credit per semester is $110; for more than one credit per 
semester, $175. 

Hospital bed and board charges, made when the student is confined to the Student 
Health Service, are $50 per day. An additional charge is made for special services 
(minimum $10) and expensive drugs. Students must have hospital insurance. A group 
plan is available through the University for those not covered by a family plan. A 
$2 charge is added to overdue bills. 

Late registration fee of $10 is charged to students registering after the dates set by the 
faculty. 

Library fines are charged for lost books and for violation of other library regulations 
and are payable in the library. 

A tuition deposit of $200 is required, at a date set by the Office of the Controller, of 
students enrolled in the spring semester who expect to return for the fall semester. 
It is credited to the student's University charges and is refunded if the controller is 
notified in writing prior to June 1 that the student will not return. 

Room change fee of $25 is charged for any unauthorized change. 

Motor vehicle registration and traffic fines are $60 and $10 to $20, respectively. All stu- 
dents operating a vehicle on campus (including student apartments and the Gray- 
lyn Conference Center) must register vehicles they are operating day or night, whether 
or not owned by the operator. All vehicle registrations must be completed 
within twenty-four hours from the first time the vehicle is brought to campus. Fines 
are assessed against students violating parking regulations; copies of the violations 
are obtainable from the University security office. Proof of ownership must be present- 
ed when applying for vehicle registration. 

Transcripts of a student's record are issued at a cost of $2 each. 

Refunds 

During the academic year, all students, full-time and part-time, receive tuition re- 
funds according to the following schedule. This policy applies to students dropping 
courses as well as those withdrawing. Withdrawals must be official and students must 
return their ID cards before claiming refunds. There is no refund of room rent. 

Number of Weeks Percentage of Total Tuition 

Attendance to be Refunded 
(Including first day of 
registration) 

1 week Total Tuition Less $200 

2 weeks 75 percent 

3 weeks 50 percent 

4 weeks 25 percent 



39 



Fees for applied lessons in the Department of Music will be refunded on the fol- 
lowing basis: If a student drops the course before the seventh lesson the fee will be 
one-fourteenth the full semester's instruction fee times the number of lessons the 
student has had. There is no refund after the seventh lesson. 

Housing 

All unmarried first-year students are required to live in residence halls, except (1) 
when permission is given by the dean of student services for the student to live with 
parents or a relative in the Winston-Salem area or (2) by special arrangement when 
space is not available on campus or (3) if the student has lost residence hall space 
because of a room contract violation or disciplinary action. Fifth-year students and 
part-time students are ineligible for housing except when permitted to do so by the 
director of residence life and housing. Married students are not usually allowed to 
live in residence halls except when permitted to do so by the director of residence 
life and housing. Residence halls and apartments are supervised by the director of 
residence life and housing, associate directors of residence life and housing, assis- 
tant directors of residence life and housing, and residence hall directors. 

The charges for residence hall rooms for 1990-91 will range from $1,210 per year 
for a triple room to $2,030 for a single room in an air-conditioned building. These 
rates will vary depending upon the building to which a student is assigned. 

Academic Calendar 

The academic calendar of the College and the School of Business and Accountancy 
includes a fall semester ending before Christmas, a spring semester beginning in 
January and ending in May, and two five-week summer sessions. Semesters usually 
last fifteen weeks. 

Orientation and Advising 

A four-day orientation period for new students in the College precedes registra- 
tion for the fall semester. A faculty adviser and an upperclass student provide guidance 
during and between registration periods throughout the student's freshman and 
sophomore years. Advisers meet with students both individually and in small groups. 
Students are encouraged to take the initiative in arranging additional meetings at 
any time they feel a need for advice or other assistance. The adviser suggests and 
approves courses of instruction until the student declares a major in a field of study 
toward the end of the sophomore year. At that time, a new adviser is assigned from 
the department or departments concerned. 

Registration 

A registration period for all students in the College and the School of Business 
and Accountancy opens the fall semester and the spring semester. Registration in- 
volves (1) payment of all tuition and fees in full to the controller, (2) obtaining a sum- 
mary of prior record from the registrar, (3) consultation with the academic adviser, 



40 



and (4) sectioning into courses. In certain semesters, part of these processes are 
accomplished ahead of time through pre-registration. 

Classification 

Classification of students by class standing and as full-time or part-time is calcu- 
lated in terms of credits. Most courses in the College and the School of Business 
and Accountancy have a value of four credits, but others vary from one credit to 
five. The normal load for a full-time student is eighteen credits per semester, with 
a maximum of nineteen (twenty if only four courses are involved) permitted on regis- 
tration day. A student wishing to register for more than twenty credits per semester 
must seek the permission of the appropriate dean or the Committee on Academic 
Affairs after registration day. 

Twelve credits per semester constitutes minimum full-time registration. (Recipients 
of North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants must be enrolled by the tenth day of 
classes for at least fourteen credits each semester. Recipients of veterans' benefits, 
grants from state government, and other governmental aid must meet the guide- 
lines of the appropriate agencies.) A student may not register for fewer than twelve 
credits without specific permission from the Committee on Academic Affairs to 
register as a part-time student. 

A full-time student in the fall semester of any year may not be a part-time student 
in the spring semester immediately following. Any student who petitions for part- 
time status within the semester in which he or she wishes to gain such status is 
not eligible for a tuition refund. 

The requirements for classification after the freshman year are as follows: 
sophomore— the removal of all entrance conditions and the completion of no fewer 
than 29 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 58 grade points; junior— the 
completion of no fewer than 60 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 120 
grade points; senior— no fewer than 108 credits toward a degree, with a minimum 
of 216 grade points. 

Class Attendance 

Attendance regulations place the responsibility for class attendance on the stu- 
dent, who is expected to attend classes regularly and punctually. A vital aspect of 
the residential college experience is attendance in the classroom; its value cannot 
be measured by testing procedures alone. Students are considered sufficiently ma- 
ture to appreciate the necessity of regular attendance, to accept this personal respon- 
sibility, to demonstrate the self-discipline essential for such performance, and to 
recognize and accept the consequences of failure to attend. Students who cause their 
work or that of the class to suffer because of absence or lateness may be referred 
by the instructor to the dean of the College or to the dean of the School of Business 
and Accountancy for suitable action. Any student who does not attend classes regu- 
larly or who demonstrates other evidence of academic irresponsibility is subject to 
such disciplinary action as the Committee on Academic Affairs may prescribe, 



41 



including immediate suspension from the College or from the School of Business 
and Accountancy. 

The Office of the Dean of the College maintains a list of students who have been 
absent from class because of illness as certified by the Student Health Service, be- 
cause of other extenuating circumstances, or as authorized representatives of the 
College whose names have been submitted by appropriate officials forty-eight hours 
in advance of the hour when the absences are to begin. Such absences are consi- 
dered excused and a record of them is available to the student's instructors upon 
request. The instructor determines whether work missed may be made up. 

Auditing Courses 

When space is available after the registration of regularly enrolled students, others 
may request permission of the instructor to enter the course as auditors. No addi- 
tional charge is made to full-time students in the College or the School of Business 
and Accountancy; for others the fee is $80 per course. Permission of the appropriate 
dean, as well as that of the instructor, is required. An auditor is subject to atten- 
dance regulations and to other conditions imposed by the instructor. Although an 
auditor receives no credit, a notation of audit is made on the final grade report and 
entered on the record of regularly enrolled students who have met the instructor's 
requirements. In no case may anyone register for an audit course before the first 
meeting of the class. An audit course may not be changed to a credit course, and 
a credit course may not be changed to an audit course. 

Dropping a Course 

The last day in each term for dropping a class without a grade of F is listed in 
the calendar in the front of this bulletin. A student who wishes to drop any course 
before this date must obtain the necessary form from the registrar and confer with 
his or her faculty adviser. After this date, a student who wishes to drop a course 
must consult his or her faculty adviser, the course instructor, and the dean of the 
College or the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, as appropriate. If 
the dean approves the request, he or she authorizes the student to discontinue the 
course. Except in cases of emergency, the grade in the course will be recorded as F. 

If, at any time, a student drops any course without prior, written approval of the 
appropriate dean, the student will be subject to academic probation for the following 
semester or to such other penalties as the Committee on Academic Affairs of the 
faculty may impose. 

Withdrawal from the College 

A student who finds it necessary to withdraw from the College or the School of 
Business and Accountancy must do so through the office of the appropriate dean. 
With the approval of the dean of the College or the dean of the School of Business 
and Accountancy, no grades are recorded for the student for that semester, but the 
student's standing in courses at the time of the withdrawal is taken into consideration 



42 



when readmission is sought. If withdrawal is for academic reasons, failing grades 
may be assigned in all courses in which the student is doing unsatisfactory work. 
A student who leaves the College or the School of Business and Accountancy without 
officially withdrawing is assigned failing grades in all current courses, and the un- 
official withdrawal is recorded. 

Examinations 

Final examinations are given at regularly scheduled times. All examinations are 
conducted in accordance with the honor system adopted by the student body and 
approved by the faculty. Under it, the student is expected to refrain from unfair- 
ness in any form and to report to the Honor Council any student whom he or she 
knows to be cheating. 

Grading 

For most courses carrying undergraduate credit, there are five final and two 
conditional grades: A (exceptionally high achievement), B (superior), C (satisfactory), D 
(passing but unsatisfactory), E (conditional failure), F (failure), and I (incomplete). 

Grade of E. The grade of E entitles the student to re-examination at any regular 
examination period within a year, or during the first week of the fall semester. A 
permit for re-examination must be obtained in advance from the registrar, and no 
grade higher than D may be assigned as a result of re-examination. A student who 
does not remove a conditional failure by re-examination must repeat the course to 
obtain credit for it. 

A candidate for graduation in the final semester who has received a grade of E 
in the previous semester may apply to the registrar for re-examination thirty days 
after the opening of the final semester but no later than thirty days before its close. 
All conditions, including the grade of E, must be removed no later than thirty days 
before the end of the term in which the student graduates. The name of a candidate 
who has a condition after that date is dropped from the list of candidates. A candi- 
date who receives a grade of E in the final semester or term of the graduation year 
is not allowed re-examination before the next examination period. 

Grade of I. The grade of I may be assigned only when a student fails to complete 
the work of a course because of illness or some other emergency. If the work recorded 
as I is not completed within thirty days after the student enters for his or her next 
semester, the grade automatically becomes F. The instructor must report the final 
grade to the registrar within forty-five days after the beginning of that semester. 

Grade Points. Grades are assigned grade points for the computation of academic 
averages, class standing, and eligibility for continuation, as follows: for each credit 
of A, four points; for each credit of B, three points; for each credit of C, two points; 
for each credit of D, one point; for each credit of E or F, no points. 

Pass/Fail. To encourage students to venture into fields outside their major areas 
of competence and concentration, the undergraduate schools make available the 
option, under certain conditions, of registering in courses on a pass/fail basis rather 
than for a letter grade. Courses taken under the pass/fail option yield full credit when 



43 



satisfactorily completed but, whether passed or not, they are not computed in the 
grade-point average. In no case may a student change from grade to pass/fail mode, 
or from pass/fail to grade mode, after the last day to add a course, listed in the calendar 
at the front of this bulletin. 

A student may count toward the degree no more than twenty-four credits taken 
on a pass/fail basis. Freshmen and sophomores are not eligible to elect the pass/fail 
mode, but may enroll for courses offered only on a pass/fail basis. Juniors and seniors 
may elect as many as sixteen credits on a pass/fail basis, but no more than five credits 
in a given semester. Courses used to fulfill basic, divisional, or major requirements 
may not be taken on a pass/fail basis unless they are offered only on that basis. 
Courses in the major(s) not used for satisfying major requirements may be taken 
on a pass/fail basis if the department of the major does not specify otherwise. 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 

A mid-term report and a final report of grades are issued to students by the regis- 
trar in the fall and spring semesters. A final report of grades is issued for each sum- 
mer term. 

Copies of a student's cumulative record are issued by the registrar, but only on 
the written authorization of the student and payment of $2 per transcript. 

Dean's List 

The Dean's List is issued at the end of the fall and spring semesters. It includes 
all full-time students in the College and the School of Business and Accountancy 
who have a grade-point average of 3.0 or better for the semester and who have earned 
no grade below C during the semester. 

Graduation Distinctions 

Graduation distinctions are determined by the grade-point system. A degree 
candidate with a cumulative average of not less than 3.80 for all courses attempted 
is graduated with the distinction summa cum laude. A candidate with a cumulative 
average of not less than 3.50 for all courses attempted is graduated with the distinc- 
tion magna cum laude. A candidate with a cumulative average of not less than 3.00 
for all courses attempted is graduated with the distinction cum laude. The entire record 
of a student is considered, with the understanding that a student offering transfer 
work for credit may receive no distinction which requires a grade-point average great- 
er than that earned at Wake Forest University. Details are available in the Office 
of the Registrar. 

Repetition of Courses 

A student may not repeat a course in which he or she has received a grade of C 
or higher. When a student repeats a Wake Forest course in which he or she has 
received a grade of D or F, all grades received will be shown on the transcript, but 
the course may be counted only one time for credit. For purposes of determining 



44 



the grade-point average, a course will be considered as attempted only once, and 
the grade points assigned will reflect the highest grade received. If a student fails 
a course previously passed, the credit originally earned will not be lost. All provi- 
sions in this paragraph apply only to courses attempted at Wake Forest. 

Probation 

Students are responsible at all times for knowing their academic standing. Any 
student who, at the end of the fall semester, does not have the grade-point average 
normally required for continuation at the end of the following spring semester is 
automatically on academic probation. 

Any student who is placed on probation because of honor code or conduct code 
violations may be placed on such special academic probation as the Committee on 
Academic Affairs imposes. The Committee on Academic Affairs may at any time 
suspend or place on probation any student who has given evidence of academic 
irresponsibility, as, for example, by failing to attend class regularly or to complete 
papers, examinations, or other work on time. 

If poor academic performance is attributable to circumstances over which the 
student clearly had no control (e.g., serious injury or illness), the student may, after 
consultation with one of the academic deans, petition the Committee on Academic 
Affairs for further consideration of his or her status. 

In deciding whether to permit exceptions to the foregoing eligibility requirements, 
the Committee on Academic Affairs will take into account such factors as convic- 
tions for violations of the College honor code or social conduct code, violations of 
the law, and any other behavior demonstrating disrespect for the rights of others. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor code is ineligible to represent the 
University in any way until the period of suspension or probation is completed and 
the student is returned to good standing. Students who are on probation for any 
reason may not be initiated into any fraternity, society, or sorority until the end of 
their probationary period. 

Requirements for Continuation 

Students are expected to be aware at all times of their academic status and to be 
responsible for knowing whether they have met the University's minimum academic 
requirements for continuation as outlined below. 

Eligibility to continue is based on the student's cumulative credit load and grade- 
point average. The cumulative credit load is a total of credits granted for work else- 
where and credits taken at Wake Forest College and the School of Business and Ac- 
countancy. The grade-point average is computed only on work attempted in Wake 
Forest College and the School of Business and Accountancy and excludes both non- 
credit and pass/fail courses. 

At the end of the spring semester, students will be declared academically ineligible 
to enroll for the following fall (1) whose grade-point average on a cumulative credit 
load of less than 54 is less than 1.35; (2) whose grade-point average on a cumulative 
credit load of 54 or more but less than 98 is less than 1.65; (3) whose grade-point 



45 



average on a cumulative credit load of 98 or more but less than 135 is less than 1.85; 
(4) whose grade-point average on a cumulative credit load of 135 or more is less than 
1.90. 

Students who, at the end of the spring semester, have not met the above condi- 
tions to continue in the following academic year may— unless they are ineligible for 
other reasons— attend the first summer session at Wake Forest College, but not else- 
where. If successful in raising the grade-point average to the required minimum, 
they may enroll for the following fall semester. Students may attend the second 
summer session if unsuccessful in the first, and if successful then, may enroll for 
the following spring semester. If unsuccessful in meeting the minimum requirements 
by the end of the second summer term, the student may apply for readmission no 
earlier than the following summer session. 

Under unusual circumstances and after consultation with the appropriate dean, 
the student may petition the Committee on Academic Affairs for an exception to 
the foregoing eligibility requirements. 

The Committee on Academic Affairs may suspend or place on probation at the 
end of any semester or term any student who has not attended class regularly or 
has otherwise ignored the rules and regulations of the College or the School of Bus- 
iness and Accountancy, or whose record for that term has been unsatisfactory, par- 
ticularly with regard to the number of courses passed and failed. The Committee 
will suspend at the end of any semester any student who has earned no more than 
eight grade points in courses other than Military Science 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 
211, 212, 251, 252; Music 111-113 (ensemble courses); and elective 100-level courses 
in health and sport science. 

A student who has or develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the 
director of the Student Health Service, creates a danger to the safety and well-being 
of the student or others may be required to withdraw until the problem is resolved. 



Requirements for Readmission 

A student seeking consideration for readmission to the College should be in good 
standing and meet the minimum academic requirements for continuation. However, 
a student who has not met the requirements (1) may apply for admission to the 
summer session only, (2) may apply for readmission after an absence from the Col- 
lege of at least a year and a half, or (3) may apply for readmission if the failure to 
meet minimum requirements was due to circumstances over which the student clearly 
had no control. 

When applications for readmission to the College are considered, both academic 
and non-academic criteria will be taken into account. Non-academic grounds for 
possible denial of readmission may include convictions for violations of the College's 
honor code or social conduct code, for violations of the law, and other behavior 
demonstrating disrespect for the rights of others. If a student is readmitted, the Com- 
mittee on Academic Affairs may impose on that student conditions designed to pro- 
mote academic progress. The conditions may include but are not limited to the 
following: a reduced course load, choice of courses approved by one of the appro- 



46 



priate academic deans, and a specified number of courses satisfying basic and divi- 
sional requirements. 

Summer Study 

In addition to regular courses, a number of special summer programs for credit 
are described in the bulletin of the summer session. 

In order to be eligible to take summer courses at another college or university, 
the student must have a cumulative grade-point average of no less than 2.0, and 
must obtain advance approval of the head of the department concerned, the regis- 
trar, and in some cases, the dean's office. Courses taken elsewhere on the semester- 
hour plan are computed as transfer credit at 1.125 credits for each approved semester 
hour. 

Courses taken outside the U.S. require in addition prior approval from the Office 
of International Studies. Students must obtain a transfer of credit form from the Office 
of International Studies. 

Transfer Credit 

All work attempted in other colleges and universities must be reported to the regis- 
trar of Wake Forest University. Students wishing to receive transfer credit for work 
satisfactorily completed elsewhere must obtain faculty approval in advance. 

Students who wish to receive transfer of credit for courses taken outside the U.S., 
need to obtain prior approval from the Office of International Studies and then faculty 
approval. Transfer of credit forms are available in the Office of International Studies. 

Students should be aware that the minimum grade-point average for graduation 
and for graduation distinctions is computed in two ways: on all work attempted 
in Wake Forest College and the School of Business and Accountancy; and also on 
work attempted at Wake Forest and other accredited colleges and universities col- 
lectively. 



47 

Scholarships and Loans 

Any student admitted to Wake Forest College who demonstrates financial need 
will receive assistance commensurate with that need. 

By regulation of the Board of Trustees, all financial aid must be approved by the 
Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. Applications should be requested from 
the committee at Box 7246 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109. 
Scholarships supported by funds of the undergraduate schools are not granted to 
students enrolled in other schools of the University. To receive consideration for 
financial aid, the applicant must either be enrolled as an undergraduate or have been 
accepted for admission. The financial aid program comprises institutional, state, and 
federal scholarship, loan, and work funds. Students enrolled at least half-time are 
eligible to apply for federal funds. Half-time and part-time students are eligible to 
apply for limited institutional funds. 

Need is a factor in the awarding of most financial aid, and each applicant must 
file a financial statement with the application for financial aid. After reviewing the 
standard financial analysis, the Committee on Scholarships determines aid awards, 
and aid is credited, by semester, to the student's account in the Office of the 
Controller. The Committee on Scholarships reserves the right to revoke financial 
aid for unsatisfactory academic achievement or for violation of University regula- 
tions or federal, state, or local laws. To be eligible for renewal of aid, a student must 
remain enrolled on a normal full-time basis and be in good standing, making satis- 
factory progress toward a degree. The committee does not award institutional scholar- 
ships to students earning less than a 2.0 grade average on all work attempted at 
Wake Forest. 

Scholarships 

The Reynolds Scholarships are awarded each year to five extraordinarily capable men 
and women entering the College as first-year students. Made possible through a 
grant from the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation in honor of Nancy Susan Reynolds, 
these scholarships cover the cost of tuition, room, and board, and include an al- 
lowance for books and personal expenses. Scholars may receive up to $1,500 each 
summer for travel or study projects approved by the Reynolds Committee. The 
Reynolds Scholarships are awarded without regard to financial need and will be 
renewed annually through the recipient's fourth year of college, subject to satisfac- 
tory performance. A separate application is required by December 1. 

The O. W. Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of O. W. Wilson of Yancey 
County, N.C., is awarded to an individual who demonstrates outstanding qualities 
of intellectual promise and leadership. The scholarship has a value equivalent to 
annual tuition and provides summer grant opportunities to encourage individual 
study projects. No separate application is required. 

The Doctor George E. and Lila C. Bradford Fund awards a renewable full-tuition 
academic scholarship annually to a student possessing outstanding leadership and 
aptitude who intends to pursue a pre-medical course of study. No separate applica- 
tion is required. 



48 



The Robert P. Holding Scholarship Fund, given by members of the Holding family 
of North Carolina, recognizes North Carolina students with exceptional promise of 
intellect and leadership. One or more renewable full-tuition scholarships are offered 
annually. No separate application is required. 

The Guy T. Carswell Scholarships, made possible by and established in honor of the 
late Guy T. Carswell and his wife Clara Carswell of Charlotte, N.C., have an annual 
value ranging from a minimum stipend of $3,000 to a maximum stipend of $12,300, 
with awards for more than $3,000 determined on the basis of need. Each scholar 
may apply for at least one summer grant of up to $1,000 to fund travel and study 
projects of the student's design. A Carswell scholar must be a student applying to 
the College who possesses outstanding qualities of intellect and leadership. Up to 
forty scholars are selected annually. A separate application is due by January 15. 

The Presidential Scholarships for Distinguished Achievement, established by the Univer- 
sity's alumni, award twenty renewable $3,000 scholarships on the basis of excep- 
tional talent and leadership. Candidates must be students who will enrich and add 
to the diversity of life at Wake Forest through their special talents in the areas of 
the fine arts (including music, art, theatre, dance, film, and other arts), debate and 
public speaking, writing, leadership, public service, and entrepreneurial achieve- 
ment. A separate application must be submitted by December 15. 

The Z. Smith Reynolds and Wake Forest Black Student Scholarships, established by 
endowment from the University's Sesquicentennial Fund and gifts from the Z. Smith 
Reynolds Foundation, recognize the outstanding achievements of black students and 
are awarded each year to entering freshmen who demonstrate academic promise 
and leadership potential. This program provides seven full-tuition scholarships and 
three $2,000 per year scholarships. All scholarships are renewable annually through 
the recipient's fourth year. Awards are made without regard to financial need. A 
separate application is required by January 15. 

The George Foster Hankins Scholarships for Freshmen, made possible by the late Colonel 
George Foster Hankins of Lexington, N.C. for residents of North Carolina or children 
of alumni living in other states with preference given to residents of Davidson County, 
have an annual value of up to $12,300. Recipients must demonstrate need as well 
as academic promise. A separate application is due by January 15. 

The Graylyn Scholarship provides one renewable $3,500 merit scholarship to a stu- 
dent who demonstrates outstanding evidence of academic leadership and commit- 
ment to campus life. 

The Robert P. and Dorothy Caldwell Scholarships, given by family and friends of Robert 
P. and Dorothy Caldwell, provides up to three scholarships annually on the basis 
of outstanding academic achievement, demonstrated leadership ability, record of 
community service, and a commitment to helping others. A portion of these funds 
give preference to students from Gaston and Catawba (N.C.) counties who need 
assistance in order to attend Wake Forest. 

The Holding Scholarship, provided by a gift from the Robert P. Holding Foundation 
in memory of Mr. Holding, a member of the Class of 1916, offers one full tuition 
renewable scholarship annually to a student of exceptional leadership and academic 
promise, who is in residence at least one year in North Carolina. Separate application 



49 



is not required, but the student must complete an application for either the Nancy 
Susan Reynolds or Cars well Scholarship. 

For all the following scholarships, there is no separate application required ex- 
cept where noted. Students who complete the normal application for financial aid, 
including the Wake Forest application and an FAF (Financial Aid Form), will be 
considered for appropriate scholarships. 

The Alcoa Foundation Scholarship, donated by the Alcoa Foundation, is available to 
a freshman from the Piedmont area of North Carolina who is majoring in chemis- 
try. The scholarship has a value of $2,000 and is awarded on the basis of need. 

The Charles I. and Louise Allen Scholarship Fund, established under the will of Louise 
Lambeth Allen, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student who may 
be interested in pursuing a medical career. 

The Alpha Phi Omega Scholarship, established by the Kappa Theta Chapter of Alpha 
Phi Omega, is made available in alternate years to a freshman who presents evi- 
dence of need and an excellent high school record. It has a minimum value of $200. 

The Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) Scholarships are awarded for aca- 
demic and personal achievement. These four, three, and two-year scholarships 
annually pay: (1) $7,000 or 80% of tuition, whichever is higher; (2) a flat-rate for 
texts and supplies (presently $390); (3) a subsistence allowance of up to $1,000 ($100 
per month for the months spent in school); and (4) up to a maximum amount 
(presently $350) for certain required on-campus educational and laboratory fees. All 
benefits are tax-free. Recipients must enroll and fully participate in Army ROTC. 
Four-year AROTC scholarships are applied for during the junior or senior year of 
high school. Two and three-year AROTC Scholarships are applied for during the 
sophomore and freshmen years, respectively, through the Department of Military 
Science. 

The Arthur Andersen Accounting Leadership Award is presented to a senior accounting 
major who has demonstrated excellence in the areas of academic performance, leader- 
ship, and civic/community responsibility. 

The Camillo Artom Fund for Italian Studies was established in 1976 in honor of Camillo 
Artom, professor of biochemistry from 1939 to 1969. Scholarship aid is made avail- 
able, usually to one or two students each semester, to assist with their expenses. 
Well-qualified students who can demonstrate need are eligible to apply. (Interested 
persons should apply in the Office of the Provost.) 

The George M. and Daisy Olive Beavers Scholarship Fund, donated by Lydia Beavers 
in memory of her parents, is for one scholarship awarded on the basis of leader- 
ship, good citizenship, and excellence of character. 

The Robert D. Bridgerjr. Scholarship, donated by George R. Bridger in honor of his 
father, is made to a senior major in the School of Business and Accountancy. Selec- 
tion of the recipient is based on demonstrated academic ability and financial need, 
with preference given to students from Bladen County or southeastern North 
Carolina. 

The Claude U. Broach Scholarship is awarded to a freshman or upperclassman with 
preference given to students from St. John's Baptist Church of Charlotte. 



50 



The J. Melville and Alice W. Broughton Scholarship Fund, established in honor of 
Governor, Senator, and Wake Forest Trustee J. Melville Broughton and his wife, 
Alice W. Broughton, by the Broughton family of Raleigh, N.C., awards one scholar- 
ship annually to a North Carolina student on the basis of academic ability and financial 
need. 

The Eliza Pratt Brown Scholarship, donated by the late Junius Calvin Brown of Madi- 
son, N.C., in honor of his wife, Eliza Pratt Brown, is used to assist needy, worthy, 
and deserving students from North Carolina, with preference given to students from 
the town of Madison and Rockingham County, for a maximum of $2,000. 

The Dean D. B. Bryan Memorial Scholarship Fund was established in honor of D. B. 
Bryan, dean of Wake Forest College from 1923 to 1957. It awards a partial or full- 
tuition scholarship to a student who plans to pursue a career in education, and who 
demonstrates financial need and academic ability. The recipient must pledge to work 
in the education field for a minimum of five years following graduation or must re- 
pay the scholarship to the University. 

The J. G. Carroll Memorial Athletic Scholarship, donated in memory of J. G. Carroll, 
former associate professor of mathematics, is made to a deserving athlete who is 
not on a regular athletic scholarship, for a value of approximately $100. 

The fames Lee Carver Scholarship, donated by Jean Freeman Carver with her chil- 
dren, James Lee Carver II and Elizabeth Jeanine Carver, in memory of her husband, 
James Lee Carver, is for deserving and promising students who demonstrate a need 
for financial assistance, with preference given to students from the Oxford Orphanage 
in Oxford, N.C., for a value of approximately $300. 

The J. D. Cave Memorial Scholarship is awarded to a North Carolina male student 
who demonstrates strong character, a willingness to grow intellectually, and evi- 
dence of need, for an approximate annual value of $600. 

The Neal M. Chastain Memorial Scholarship, established by Mrs. June Booth of 
Charlotte in memory of her son, is awarded to a senior business major exhibiting 
Christian ideals and good academic achievement. 

The College Scholarships, in the amount of $100 to $6,000 each, are available to fresh- 
men and upperclassmen presenting satisfactory academic records and evidence of 
need. 

The William Henry Crouch Scholarship for ministerial students has been established 
by the Providence Baptist Church of Charlotte in honor of its pastor. The scholar- 
ship is valued at $3,000 per year and is available for a North Carolina Baptist 
ministerial student or students based upon merit or need. 

The O. B. Crowell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by Louise T. Crowell of 
Hendersonville, N.C., in memory of her husband, O. B. Crowell, is awarded on 
the basis of character, need, and promise, for a value of approximately $600. 

The Gary Franklin Culler Scholarship Fund, donated in memory of Gary Franklin 
Culler, is awarded on the basis of academic ability and outstanding leadership 
potential, with preference given to students from High Point, N.C., for a value of 
approximately $700. 

The Egbert L. Davis Jr., Scholarship, provided by the Davis family in honor of Egbert 
L. Davis Jr., noted Wake Forest alumnus and benefactor, provides merit and need 



51 



assistance to one or more students demonstrating outstanding academic performance, 
diligence, integrity, character, leadership, and reasonable athletic competence. 
Awards are renewable on the basis of a B average, exemplary personal conduct, and 
participation in the religious life of the University. 

The Eleanor Layfield Davis Art Scholarship Fund awards a scholarship to a student 
with interest and ability in studio art, who has been recommended by the chairper- 
son of the art department, to exemplify the talents and interests of Eleanor Layfield 
Davis. 

The Thomas H. Davis Business Scholarship, established by employees of Piedmont 
Aviation Inc. in honor of its founder and retired chairman, is awarded to a senior 
business major based on academic achievement, financial need, and potential for 
business leadership. 

The A. J. Fletcher Music Scholars Program, established by the A.J. Fletcher Founda- 
tion, awards eight scholarships annually. All awards are based on musical merit. 
Applications must be made to the Department of Music. 

The Lecausey P. and Lula H. Freeman Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. G. H. 
Singleton of Raleigh in memory of the parents of Mrs. Singleton, is available to a 
freshman, sophomore, or junior whose home is within the West Chowan Baptist 
Association of North Carolina, with preference given to Bertie County students, on 
the basis of need and ability. Residents of the Roanoke Association may be considered 
for the scholarship, which is renewable on the basis of need and ability (except for 
the senior year), for a value of approximately $200. 

The Charles A. Frueauff Scholarships are provided annually by the Charles A. Frueauff 
Foundation for middle-income students who live outside North Carolina. Amounts 
vary according to need, up to $1,500. 

The F. Lee Fulton Scholarship Fund, established by friends and associates of F. Lee 
Fulton, is awarded on the basis of leadership, citizenship, moral character, academic 
ability, and need. 

The Gaddy Scholarship Fund awards a need-based scholarship each year to a North 
Carolina student, with preference given to residents of Anson, Union, and Wake 
counties. 

The Lewis Reed Gaskin Scholarship Fund, established by E. Reed Gaskin and Jean 
H. Gaskin in honor of Lewis Reed Gaskin, is awarded to a freshman or upper- 
classman with preference given to a pre-medical student. The award shall be made 
on the basis of academic ability and potential as a physician. Recipients shall be known 
as Lewis Reed Gaskin scholars. 

The Daniel Eugene and Beulah B. Gatewood Scholarship in Accountancy, given by Beulah 
B. Gatewood in honor of her husband, is awarded to an undergraduate accounting 
major based on academic merit and financial need. 

The A. Royall Gay Scholarship is awarded on the basis of scholarship, character, 
and high ideals to a graduating senior from Youngs ville, N.C. 

The Christopher Giles Competitions in Musical Performance have been held within the 
University annually since 1978. Five cash awards, ranging from $100 to $500, are 
awarded to the winners. All entrants must compete on the instrument on which 



52 



they currently are receiving applied instruction at Wake Forest. For more informa- 
tion, apply to the Department of Music. 

The James W. Gill Scholarship, donated by Ruth R. Gill in memory of her husband, 
James W. Gill, provides a scholarship for a deserving student, with preference given 
to students from Montgomery and Prince Georges counties, Maryland, for a value 
of approximately $600. 

The Eugene Basil Glover Memorial Scholarship is awarded to an incoming or enrolled 
student based on ability and need, with slight preference given to students from 
Halifax County, N.C. 

The Wallace Barger Goebel Scholarship, made possible through a donation from Miri- 
am M. Goebel, is based upon ability and financial need, with first preference given 
to a student with an interest in literature, second preference to a student with an 
interest in history, and third preference to a student enrolled in the pre-medical pro- 
gram, for a value of approximately $400. 

The Stanley McClayton Guthrie Scholarship Fund awards one scholarship each year 
to a needy student, with preference given to students from Halifax County, Va. 

The Fuller Hamrick Scholarship, created under the will of Everett C. Snyder of Wake 
Forest, N.C, in memory of Fuller Hamrick, is used to educate students from the Mills 
Home in Thomasville, N.C, for a value of approximately $550. 

The George G. and Georgeine M. Harper Charitable Trust awards scholarships of varying 
stipends annually to students with high academic potential and financial need, with 
preference to a North Carolinian. 

The Henry Russell and Clara Stephenson Harris Scholarship Fund, established by 
Elizabeth Harris in memory of her parents, provides a scholarship awarded on the 
basis of academic ability and financial need to a senior business major who plans 
to pursue a career in banking. 

The Margaret S. Hasty Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Judge Fred H. Hasty 
in memory and honor of his beloved wife, is for one or more female undergraduate 
students with good academic ability and financial need. The scholarship is renewa- 
ble if the student places in the upper third of her class. 

The Frank P. Hobgood Scholarship, donated by Kate H. Hobgood of Reidsville, N.C, 
in memory of her husband, is available to those who qualify on the basis of charac- 
ter, purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to those who plan to enter 
the ministry, do religious work, become teachers, or become lawyers, the preference 
being in the order named, for the residents of the Reidsville area, recommended by 
the deacons of the First Baptist Church of Reidsville, and for a value of $500. 

The W. D. and Alberta B. Holleman Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Robert 
D. Holleman in memory of his parents, is awarded on the basis of academic ability, 
need, Christian commitment, and leadership to a student from Durham County with 
the advice and counsel of the minister of the Brasstown Baptist Church of Durham, 
N.C. 

The Forrest H. Hollifield Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Hollifield in 
memory of their son, Forrest H. Hollifield, is awarded to upperclassmen with evi- 
dence of character and need, with preference given to natives of Rowan and Ruther- 
ford counties, N.C, and to members of the Delta Nu Chapter of Sigma Chi Fraternity. 



53 



The Jeanette Wallace Hyde Scholarship, donated by Jeanette Wallace Hyde of Raleigh, 
is awarded on the basis of financial need and academic ability. Preference is given, 
but not limited to, students from Yadkin County. 

The Jones-Holder Business Scholarship Fund, awarded upon the recommendation of 
the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, recognizes a rising senior busi- 
ness major who has demonstrated a high level of achievement. 

The J. Lee Keiger Sr. Scholarship is an academic scholarship awarded annually to a 
North Carolina student, with preference given to students living in the ALLTEL- 
Carolina Telephone Company service region, for a value of $750. 

The Sarah C. and C. A. Kent Scholarships are awarded to freshmen and upperclass- 
men on the basis of leadership, academic merit, and financial need, without regard 
to race, religion, sex, or geographical origin. 

The Kirkpatrick-Howell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by the Delta Nu Chapter 
of Sigma Chi Fraternity, makes available one or two scholarships, with preference 
given to members of the Sigma Chi Fraternity, upon recommendation of the 
Kirkpatrick-Howell Memorial Scholarship Board, for a value of approximately $800. 

The Charles L. Little Scholarship Fund, established by Charles L. Little, is given to 
upperclass students. Preference is given to pre-medical students from Anson County 
and immediately adjacent counties in North Carolina who provide satisfactory evi- 
dence of a willingness to give serious consideration to practicing medicine in Wades- 
boro or Anson County. 

The James C. Mason Scholarship Fund, created under the will of Oscar W. McManus 
of Laurinburg, N.C., is awarded to a worthy student for an annual value of approxi- 
mately $900. 

The Burke M. McConnell Management Excellence Scholarship, established by Pace 
Communications, Inc. of Greensboro, is given to the senior in the School of Busi- 
ness and Accountancy who holds the highest grade-point average for his or her first 
three years at the University. 

The Wilma L. McCurdy Memorial Fund Scholarship is awarded on the basis of charac- 
ter, academic standing, and need, in the amount of $750 per academic year. Applica- 
tion must be made annually. 

The Thane Edward McDonald and Marie Dayton McDonald Memorial Scholarship Fund, 
made possible by the late Thane Edward McDonald, professor of music, is available 
to a deserving and qualified music student. Applications must be made to the Depart- 
ment of Music. 

The McGladrey & Pullen Scholarship, granted by the public accounting firm, 
McGladrey & Pullen, is awarded to a senior accounting major designated by the 
accounting faculty on the basis of merit, financial need, and interest in public 
accounting, and has a value of $750. 

The Robert Lee Middleton Scholarship, donated by Sarah Edwards Middleton of 
Nashville, Tenn., in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of character, 
purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to the student planning to 
enter the field of literature, accounting, teaching, or the gospel ministry or other full- 
time religious work. 



54 



The Mildred Branson Miller Scholarship Fund, donated by Mildred B. Miller of Atlanta, 
Ga., is awarded to students on the basis of leadership, dedication, competitiveness, 
and citizenship. 

The Hiram Abif Myers III Scholarship Fund, established in memory of Hiram Abif 
("Bif ') Myers who died early in his freshman year at Wake Forest, awards one scholar- 
ship to a senior from Roswell High School, Roswell, Ga., who best exemplifies the 
ideals and characteristics of Bif Myers. The candidate is recommended by the Roswell 
High School principal. 

The Norfleet Scholarships, donated by Mr. and Mrs. Eustace Norfleet of Wilmington, 
N.C., in memory of his parents, John A. and Mary Pope Norfleet, are available to 
deserving and promising students needing financial assistance, for a value of $200. 

The North Carolina Scholarships are made available by the North Carolina General 
Assembly and are awarded on the basis of financial need to full-time students who 
are bona fide residents of North Carolina. 

North Carolina Student Incentive Grants are available to undergraduate residents of 
North Carolina with exceptional financial need who require these grants in order 
to attend college, for a value of from $200 to $1,500 per year. The amount of assistance 
a student may receive depends upon need, taking into account financial resources 
and the cost of attending the college chosen. 

The Benjamin Wingate Parham Scholarship, donated by Kate J. Parham of Oxford, N.C., 
in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need and may 
be renewed for succeeding years. 

The Thomas F. Pettus Scholarships, administered by the North Carolina Baptist 
Foundation under the terms of the will of the late Thomas F. Pettus of Wilson County, 
N.C., make two or more scholarships available each year in memory of Mr. Pettus 
and are awarded on the basis of merit and need, with preference given to North Caro- 
lina Baptist students. 

The William Louis Poteat Scholarships, valued at $3,000 per year, are available to eleven 
freshmen, one from each Congressional District of North Carolina. To be eligible, 
a student must be an active member of a Southern Baptist Church in North Caroli- 
na, must be likely to make a significant contribution to church and society, and must 
be appreciative of the quality of education available at Wake Forest University. A 
separate application is required by December 15. 

The H. Ray Pullium Scholarship Fund, established by Mrs. H. Ray Pullium in honor 
of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need. Preference is given to 
students from North Carolina Baptist Children's Homes. 

The Kenneth Tyson Raynor Scholarship, donated by friends of the late Kenneth Tyson 
Raynor, professor of mathematics, is awarded annually by the mathematics faculty. 
The award is made on the basis of academic ability to an individual majoring in 
mathematics who has achieved junior standing. 

The Franklin R. Shirley Debate Scholarship, established in honor of the late Franklin 
R. Shirley, professor emeritus of speech communication, is awarded to a student who 
has debate experience and who successfully participates in the University's debate 
program. 



55 



The James F Slate Fund provides an annual scholarship or loan to a student who 
plans a ministerial career. It is renewable upon evidence of a continuing need and 
interest in the ministry. 

The Joseph Pleasant and Marguerite Nutt Sloan Memorial Scholarship, established by 
Patricia Sloan Mize in honor of her parents, is awarded annually to an applied music 
student on the basis of academic ability and need. It has a value of approximately 
$500. Applications must be made to the Department of Music. 

The Robert Forest Smith III Scholarship Fund, donated by the Rev. and Mrs. Robert 
Forest Smith Jr. and other citizens of Hickory N.C., in memory of Robert Forest Smith 
HI, is awarded to an entering freshman who qualifies on the basis of need and dis- 
tinction in high school government. Preference is given to those who plan to enter 
government service, with strong preference given to students exemplifying positive 
Christian principles. It has a value of $1,000. 

The Sigmund Stemberger Scholarships, donated by the Sigmund Sternberger Foun- 
dation, are for needy North Carolinians, with preference given to undergraduate stu- 
dents from Greensboro and Guilford Counties, for a value of $2,000. 

The John Belk Stevens Scholarship in Business, donated by the Belk Foundation in honor 
of John Belk Stevens, is given to senior business majors with particular interests in 
retailing or marketing and is based on academic merit and financial need. 

The Edna and Ethel Stowe Scholarship is awarded to a freshman or an upperclass- 
man, with preference given to female students who have a physical handicap. 

The J. W. Straughan Scholarship, donated by Mattie, Mable, and Alice Straughan in 
memory of their brother, J. VV. Straughan, of Warsaw, N.C., with preference given 
to students from Duplin County, N.C. who are interested in pursuing a medical career 
(especially in the field of family practice), is for those who need financial assistance 
to continue their education. 

The Gilbert T Stephenson Scholarship, established by Grace W. Stephenson in memory 
of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student from Kirby 
Township or Northampton County, N.C. 

The Saddye Stephenson and Benjamin Louis Sykes Scholarship, donated by Charles L. 
Sykes and Ralph J. Sykes in memory of their mother and father, is awarded on the 
basis of Christian character, academic proficiency, and financial need, with prefer- 
ence given to freshmen from North Carolina, renewable for a value of approximately 
$400. 

The Harold Wayland and Nelle Futch Tribble Scholarship Fund, established to honor 
President Emeritus and Mrs. Tribble, provides a scholarship to students enrolled in 
the College who demonstrate superior academic ability. 

The Tyner-Pitman Scholarship Fund, donated by Cora Tyner Pitman, makes availa- 
ble at least one scholarship for needy North Carolina students. 

The Jesse A. Williams Scholarships, created under the will of the late Jesse A. Williams 
of Union County, N.C, with preference given to deserving students of Union County, 
have a value of up to $1,200. 

The James Bennett Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James B. Willis of Hamlet, 
N.C, gives preference to North Carolina Baptist students interested in the ministry 



56 



and Christian education. It is awarded on the basis of need. Applications must be 
made to the Department of Music. 

The Maria Thornton and Miriam Carlyle Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James 
B. Willis in memory of his wife and daughter, gives preference to North Carolina 
Baptist students who are interested in all phases of the ministry of music. It is awarded 
on the basis of need. 

The Charles Littell Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of Jennie Mayes Wilson 
in memory of her husband, Charles Littell Wilson, is for a freshman, with a value 
from $200 to $600. 

The O. W. Wilson-Yancey County Scholarships, created under the will of O. W Wilson 
of Yancey County, N.C., are awarded to students from Yancey County who have ex- 
cellent academic records and who demonstrate need. 

The Phillip W. Wilson/Peat Marwick Memorial Scholarship, established as a memorial 
to Phillip W Wilson by his friends, colleagues, and family, is awarded to a senior 
accountancy major who has demonstrated leadership skills, outstanding interper- 
sonal skills, and a strong commitment to the community and the accounting profes- 
sion. The recipient must also be in the top fifth of his or her class based on grade-point 
average within the School of Business and Accountancy. 

The Matthew T Yates Scholarship Fund awards scholarships to the children of 
missionaries of the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention on 
the basis of merit and need. The applicant must notify the Office of Financial Aid 
of his or her eligibility to be considered for this award. 

The William Luther Wyatt III Scholarship Trust, donated by Mr. and Mrs. William L. 
Wyatt Jr. of Raleigh in memory of their son, William Luther Wyatt III, with preference 
given to a male student entering the junior year who has shown an interest and an 
ability in the field of biology, is based on need and ability, for a value of approxi- 
mately $500. 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 

The federal government, through the Department of Education, sponsors six 
programs to help pay college costs. These programs are Pell Grants, Supplemental 
Educational Opportunity Grants (SEOG), College Work-Study (CWS), Perkins Loans, 
Stafford Loans (formerly Guaranteed Student Loans [GSL]), and PLUS 
Loans/ Supplemental Loans for Students (SLS). To receive assistance through these 
programs, a student must complete the necessary applications, meet basic eligibility 
requirements, and maintain satisfactory academic progress. (See the statement in bold 
face on page 57.) The six programs are outlined as follows: 

Pell Grants are federal funds awarded to undergraduate students with exceptional 
financial need who require these grants to attend college, for a value of from $150 
to $2,300 per year. The amount of assistance a student may receive depends upon 
need, taking into account financial resources and the cost of attending the college 
chosen. 

The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants are available to a limited number 
of undergraduate students with exceptional financial need who require these grants 
to attend college and who show academic or creative promise, for a value from $200 



57 



to $4,000 a year. The amount of financial assistance a student may receive depends 
upon need, taking into account financial resources and the cost of attending the college 
chosen. 

The College Work-Study Program makes on-campus employment available to students 
who show evidence of financial need. Students work during the academic year for 
campus minimum wage or above, at an average of ten to fifteen hours per week in 
the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, Reynolda Hall, Student Union, Reynolda Gardens, 
and other places on campus. 

The Carl D. Perkins Loan Program (formerly National Direct Student Loans) makes 
available loans for students in need of financial assistance with an interest rate of 
5 percent. These are examples of typical repayment schedules: 



•egate Loan 


Quarterly 


Amount of 


Total Interest 


Total 




Payments 


Payment 


Paid 


Payment 


$2,500 


35 


$ 90.00 


$ 590.22 


$3,090.22 


5,000 


40 


159.61 


1,384.27 


6,384.27 


7,500 


40 


239.41 


2,076.44 


9,576.44 



Aggregate undergraduate sums may not exceed $4,500 for the first two years or 
$9,000 for four years, but may be extended to $18,000 for those who also borrow for 
graduate or professional study, with an interest rate of 5 percent. 

The Stafford Program makes available loans up to $2,625 for the first two years of 
undergraduate study and $4,000 for subsequent undergraduate study. Aggregate 
undergraduate sums may not exceed $17,250, but may be extended to $54,750 for those 
who also borrow for graduate or professional study. The maximum loan per year 
for graduate students is $7,500. Loans are insured by the federal government or guaran- 
teed by a state or private nonprofit guarantee agency. The federal government pays 
the interest during in-school and grace periods. Applications and information may 
be obtained from state guarantee agencies or the financial aid office. 

The PLUS and Supplemental Loan Programs make available loans to parents and some 
undergraduate students. PLUS enables parents to borrow up to $4,000 per year, to 
a total of $20,000, for each child who is enrolled at least half-time and is a dependent 
student. Independent undergraduates may borrow up to $4,000 per year to a total 
of $20,000 from the Supplemental Loan Program. In exceptional circumstances, 
dependent undergraduates may also apply for a Supplemental Loan. Applications 
and information may be obtained from the state guarantee agencies or from the finan- 
cial aid office. 

Financial aid under the Federal Title IV Program is available to eligible students 
enrolled in a course of study leading to a degree. The normal time in which the 
course should be completed is four years. Federal regulations specify that the student 
maintain satisfactory progress in order to receive federal financial aid. Satisfactory 
progress is defined as meeting the University's minimum academic requirements 
for continuation outlined as follows: On the basis of cumulative records at the end 
of the spring semester, students are academically ineligible to enroll for the follow- 
ing fall (1) who have attempted fewer than 54 credits with a grade-point average 
less than 1.35, (2) who have attempted as many as 54 but fewer than 98 credits with 



58 



a grade-point average of less than 1.65, (3) who have attempted as many as 98 but 
fewer than 135 credits with a grade-point average of less than 1.85, or (4) who have 
attempted 135 credits with a grade-point average of less than 1.90. Students who 
do not meet the minimum requirements at the end of the spring semester may be 
allowed to continue with the permission of the Committee on Academic Affairs. 
Such students may be granted federal financial aid for a period of one additional 
semester. Failure to bring the grade-point average to the stated minimum will result 
in termination of all federal financial aid. 

Exchange Scholarships 

The Gentian Exchange Scholarship, established in 1959 with the Free University of 
Berlin, is available to a student with at least two years of college German or the equiva- 
lent, who has junior standing by the end of the semester in which application is made, 
but who need not be a German major. It provides 750 German marks per month 
for ten months, remission of fees, 200 marks per semester for books, and 250 marks 
per month for rent. (Interested students should communicate with the chairman of 
the Department of German.) 

The Spanish Exchange Scholarships are available for study at the University of the 
Andes in Bogota, Colombia, and at the University of Salamanca in Spain. The Bogo- 
ta scholarship may be awarded to two students for one semester's study each or to 
one student for two semesters. Applicants must have completed at least two years 
of college Spanish or the equivalent. Scholarships provide remission of fees and the 
cost of books, board, and accommodations. (Interested students should communi- 
cate with the chairman of the Department of Romance Languages.) 

The French Exchange Scholarship, established with the University of Burgundy, France, 
is available to a graduating senior, who receives a graduate teaching assistantship 
at a lycee in Dijon for two semesters. (Interested students should communicate with 
the chairman of the Department of Romance Languages.) 

Loans 

The James F. and Mary Z. Bryan Foundation Student Loan Plan is for residents of North 
Carolina enrolled full-time for a value of up to $7,500 for undergraduate study. The 
amount of each loan is determined by the College Foundation, with an interest rate 
of 1 percent during the in-school and grace periods and 7 percent during the repay- 
ment period. 

The Bushnell Baptist Church Loan Fund, established in 1945 with funds supplied by 
the Bushnell Baptist Church of Fontana Dam, N.C., is for needy students. 

The Council Fund, established in 1935 by C. T. Council of Durham, is for the aid 
of senior students. 

The James W. Denmark Loan Fund, originated in 1875 by James William Denmark of 
Dudley, N.C., is available to qualified students, with preference given to students 
from North Carolina, for an amount not exceeding $2,500 each year and $10,000 during 
the entire period of enrollment. 



59 



The Olivia Dunn Student Loan Fund, established under the will of Birdie Dunn of 
Wake County, N.C., in memory of her mother, is for needy students. 

The Duplin County Loan Fund, donated in 1942 by anonymous friends of the College, 
is limited to students from Duplin County, N.C. 

The Elliott B. Earnshaw Loan Fund, established by the Board of Trustees, is a memorial 
to the former bursar. 

The Friendly Student Loan Fund, established in 1948 by Nell E. Stinson of Raleigh 
in memory of her sister, Mary Belle Stinson Michael, is for the benefit of worthy stu- 
dents who need financial aid. 

The George Foster Hankins Loan Fund, established under the will of George Foster 
Hankins of Lexington, gives preference to applicants from Davidson County, N.C. 

The Harris Memorial Loan Fund, established by the late J. P. Harris of Bethel, N.C, 
in memory of his first wife, Lucy Shearon Harris, and his second wife, Lucy Jones 
Harris, is for students who have demonstrated ability to apply educational advantages 
to the rendition of enriched and greater Christian service in life and who require 
financial assistance to prevent the disruption of their education. 

The Hutchins Student Loan Fund, originated by Robert W. Hutchins Jr. on behalf of 
himself and his late wife, Nancy D. Hutchins of Winston-Salem, is in honor of mem- 
bers of the Hutchins' family who have attended Wake Forest and is for the benefit 
of needy undergraduate students. 

The Edna Tyner Langston Fund, established in 1942 by Henry J. Langston of Danville, 
Va., in memory of his wife, is available to a student agreed upon by the donor and 
the College. 

The Watts Norton Loan Fund, established in 1949 by L. Watts Norton of Durham, 
is for worthy students enrolled with the Department of Religion who need financial 
assistance. 

The Powers Fund, established in 1944 by Frank P. Powers of Raleigh in memory of 
his parents, Frank P. and Effie Reade Powers, is for the benefit of needy students, 
with preference given to orphans. 

The Grover and Addy Raby Loan Fund, established in 1945 by J. G. Raby of Tarboro, 
N.C, in memory of his parents, gives preference to applicants from the First Baptist 
Church of Tarboro. 

The James F Slate Loan Fund, established in 1908 by J. F. Slate of Stokes County, 
N.C, is available for ministerial students who have been licensed to preach. 

The Sidney G. Wallace Loan Fund, created under the will of Mrs. Blanche Wallace, 
is used to assist undergraduate students. Preference is given to students studying 
in a Wake Forest-sponsored or approved overseas program. 

Concessions 

North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants. The North Carolina General Assembly 
provides yearly grants to all legal residents of North Carolina. To be eligible a student 
must be enrolled for at least fourteen credits each semester (through October 1 in 
the fall and through the tenth day of classes in the spring) and complete a Residency 
Form 100. The student must not have received a bachelor's degree previously. To receive 



60 



the grant, the student must also complete an NCLTG application and return it to 
the financial aid office. 

Ministerial students receive an $800 concession per year if they (1) have a written 
recommendation or license to preach from their own church body and (2) agree to 
repay the total amount, plus 4 percent interest, in the event that they do not serve 
five years in the pastoral ministry within twelve years of attendance in the College. 

Children and spouses of pastors of North Carolina Baptist churches receive an $800 
concession per year if they are the children or spouses of (1) ministers, (2) mission- 
aries of the Southern Baptist Foreign Mission Board, (3) officials of the Baptist State 
Convention of North Carolina, or (4) professors in North Carolina Baptist colleges 
or universities who are ordained ministers. Pastors themselves are also eligible. 

Children of other ministers who are not eligible for the above concession receive a 
$150 concession per year if their parent makes a living chiefly by the ministry and 
they have a demonstrated need. 

Other Financial Aid 

Church Choir Work Grants, given by the College and Wake Forest Baptist Church 
to encourage outstanding music students, are awarded on the basis of talent, reli- 
ability, and interest in the church on the recommendation of the music committee 
of the church and the Department of Music, for the value of $300. (Interested students 
should communicate with the chairwoman of the Department of Music.) 

The Ministerial Aid Fund, established in 1897 by the estate of J. A. Melke, is avail- 
able to pre-ministerial students on a loan or grant program on the basis of merit and 
need, and, particularly in the case of grants, academic achievement. 

Student/Student Spouse Employment is possible for part-time, on-campus and off- 
campus work, for a recommended maximum of twenty hours per week for full-time 
students. Summer employment may also be available. (Interested students should 
communicate with the Office of Career Planning and Placement.) 

Veterans' Benefits are administered by the Office of the Veterans' Administration in 
the Federal Building at 251 North Main Street in Winston-Salem. Records of progress 
are kept by this institution on veteran and non-veteran students alike. Progress records 
are furnished to the students, veterans and non-veterans alike, at the end of each 
scheduled school term. 

Outside Assistance 

Students who apply for financial aid from Wake Forest must advise the College 
if they receive any assistance from outside organizations, including but not limited 
to National Merit or Achievement Scholarships; College Scholarship Service- 
sponsored scholarships; local, state, and national scholarship and loan programs. 
This outside assistance will be considered when the financial aid award is calculated. 



61 

Special Programs 

Students in the College are encouraged to apply to special programs, both on and 
off campus, which correspond to their special abilities and interests. These include 
the special programs described below, and the special degrees, minors, and concen- 
trations described on page 65 and beyond. 



Honors Study 

For highly qualified students, a series of interdisciplinary honors courses is described 
under Courses of Instruction. Under the supervision of the coordinator of the Honors 
Program, students may participate in three or more honors seminars during the fresh- 
man, sophomore, and junior years. Those who complete four seminars with a su- 
perior record and who are not candidates for departmental honors may complete 
a final directed study course. With a superior record in that course and a grade-point 
average of 3.0 in all work, a student may be graduated with the distinction "Honors 
in the Arts and Sciences." 

For students especially talented in individual areas of study, most departments in 
the College offer special studies leading to graduation with honors in a particular 
discipline. The rninimum requirement is a grade-point average of 3.0 in all work and 
3.3 (or higher in some areas) in the major. Other course, seminar, and research re- 
quirements vary from one department to another. 

Open Curriculum 

For students with high motivation and strong academic preparation, the Open Cur- 
riculum provides the opportunity to follow a course of study planned within the 
framework of a liberal arts education but not necessarily fulfilling all basic and divi- 
sional requirements for the degree. Under the Committee on Open Curriculum, a 
limited number of students is selected before or during the freshman year by previ- 
ous record of achievement, high aspirations, ability in one or more areas of study, 
strength of self-expression, and other special talents. The course of study for the degree 
is designed by the student and his or her adviser. 

Study at Salem College 

For full-time students, Wake Forest and Salem College share a program of exchange 
credits for courses taken at one institution because they are not offered at the other. 
An application must be approved by the academic adviser and the dean of the College 
or the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy. Except in courses of private 
instruction, there is no additional cost to the student. Grades and grade points earned 
at Salem College are evaluated as if they were earned at Wake Forest. 



62 

International Studies 



Office of International Studies 

The Office of International Studies provides information on all programs in inter- 
national studies. Students interested in studying abroad should visit the office for 
assistance and program approval. Any student taking non-Wake Forest courses over- 
seas for either the summer, semester, or year needs to come by the office and get 
a transfer of credit form. The office also administers the international studies minor. 
For a full description of the minor see page 70. 

International Students 

International students can obtain information and assistance in the Office of the 
Dean of the College. 

Residential Language Centers 

For students prepared to speak French, German, Italian, or Russian on a regular 
basis with other students studying the same language, the University offers residen- 
tial language centers coordinated by members of the Romance languages department 
and the German and Russian department. Such students attend regular classes on 
the campus. Organized social and conversational programs are available in all these 
languages. 

International Studies House 

Students interested in international studies who would like to live with other stu- 
dents sharing these interests may apply to live in the International Studies House. 
Further information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Foreign Area Studies 

The Foreign Area Studies program enables students to choose an interdisciplinary 
concentration in the language and culture of a foreign area. For a full description 
of these programs, see page 71. 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 

Wake Forest Programs 

London 

A program of study is offered each semester at Worrell House, the University's 
residential center near Regent's Park in London. Courses typically encompass aspects 
of the art, theatre, literature, and history of London and Great Britain. (See, for 
example, Art 2320: English Art, Hogarth to the Present, and History 2260: History of 
London, in the course listings of those departments.) Each term a different member 



63 



of the faculty serves as the director of the program, which accommodates sixteen 
students. Further information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Venice 

For students wishing to spend a semester in Italy, a program of study is available 
at Casa Artom, the University's residential center on the Grand Canal in Venice. Direct- 
ed by various members of the faculty, approximately twenty students focus on the 
heritage and culture of Venice and Italy. (Courses offered usually include Art 2693: 
Venetian Renaissance Art, Italian 153: Intermediate Italian, Italian 215: Introduction to Italian 
Literature I, Italian 216: Introduction to Italian Literature II, and other courses offered 
by the faculty member serving as director.) Students selected for the Venice program 
are normally required to have completed elementary training in Italian. Limited 
scholarship aid is available to one or two students each semester to assist with ex- 
penses. Further information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

France 

For students wishing to study in France, arrangements are made for a semester's 
instruction at the University of Burgundy. Under the direction of a faculty residential 
adviser from the Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the Univer- 
sity of Burgundy by student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major in French 
is not required, but French 221 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Spain 

For students wishing to study in Spain, arrangements are made for a semester's 
instruction at the University of Salamanca. Under the direction of a faculty residen- 
tial adviser from the Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the 
University of Salamanca by student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major 
in Spanish is not required, but Spanish 221 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Institute of European Studies 

For students who wish to spend a semester or year in a German-speaking country, 
programs of study are available through the Institute of European Studies. Qualified 
Wake Forest applicants may study during their junior or senior year in Freiburg, 
Germany or Vienna, Austria. As with other Wake Forest programs, students receive 
direct credit for all courses taken with I.E.S. and may apply any form of financial 
aid available to them here on campus to their program of study in Freiburg or Vienna. 
Interested students should contact the chair of trie Department of German and 
Russian. 

China 

Students who wish to study in China may apply to participate in the Wake 
Forest/ SASASAAS program in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. Offered only in 
the fall semester, the program includes courses in both Chinese language and culture. 



64 



It is open to students with no previous knowledge of Chinese or to those wishing 
to continue their study of the language. Further information may be obtained in the 
Office of International Studies. 

Other Opportunities Abroad 

The Independent Study Program of the Experiment in International Living is recog- 
nized by the College. To participate in this program, a student must be regularly 
enrolled and plan to return to the College after study abroad; arrangements must 
be made with the chair of the department of the major and the director of the Office 
of International Studies. Up to fourteen credits for a one-semester program may be 
granted upon evidence of satisfactory completion of work taken, but this is subject 
to evaluation by the dean of the College. 

Students wishing to study abroad in a non-Wake Forest program should visit the 
Office of International Studies for assistance. The office houses a sizable collection 
of material on a wide variety of overseas programs. 

All non-Wake Forest programs must be approved in advance by the director of 
international studies. A transfer credit form is available in the Office of International 
Studies. Transfer credit is computed at 1.125 credits for each approved semester hour 
taken abroad. Students in programs other than those offered by Wake Forest must 
apply for readmission to the University. Further information is available in the Office 
of International Studies. 




The Worrell House (left), the University's residential center in London. 



65 

Requirements for Degrees 

Degrees Offered 

The College offers undergraduate programs leading to the bachelor of arts and 
bachelor of science degrees. The bachelor of arts degree is conferred with a major 
in anthropology, art, chemistry, classical studies, economics, English, French, French- 
Spanish, German, Greek, history, Latin, music, philosophy, physics, politics, psy- 
chology, religion, sociology, Spanish, or speech communication and theatre arts. The 
bachelor of science degree is conferred with a major in biology, chemistry, computer 
science, health and sport science, mathematical economics, mathematics, or phys- 
ics. The bachelor of arts degree is available with a major in intermediate education 
or education with a state teacher's certificate in social studies, and the bachelor of 
science degree is available with a major in education with a state teacher's certificate 
in science. The bachelor of science degree may be conferred in combined curricula 
in dentistry, engineering, forestry and environmental studies, medical sciences, med- 
ical technology, microbiology, and the physician assistant program. The School of 
Business and Accountancy offers undergraduate programs leading to the bachelor 
of science degree with a major in accountancy or business. (See page 194 of this 
bulletin.) 

A student who receives the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree may not 
thereafter receive the other of the two degrees. 



General Requirements 

Students in the College have considerable flexibility in planning their courses of 
study. Except for two semesters of required health and sport science courses, only 
three specific courses are required, one in English composition and two in a foreign 
language. To complete preparation for more specialized work in a major field or fields, 
students select three courses in each of four divisions of the undergraduate curricu- 
lum: (1) literature and the arts; (2) the natural sciences and mathematics; (3) history, 
religion, and philosophy; and (4) the social and behavioral sciences. Normally the 
basic and divisional requirements are completed in the freshman and sophomore 
years and the requirements in the field or fields of the major are completed in the 
junior and senior years. 

All students must complete (1) the basic and divisional requirements (unless ac- 
cepted for the Open Curriculum), (2) a course of study approved by the department 
or departments of the major, and (3) elective courses for a total of 144 credits. No 
more than sixteen credits toward graduation may be earned from among all of the 
following courses: Education 353; all military science courses; Music 111-123 (ensemble 
courses); and elective 100-level courses in health and sport science. 

All students must earn a C average on all work attempted at all colleges and univer- 
sities and on all work attempted in Wake Forest College and the School of Business 
and Accountancy. Of the 144 credits required for graduation, at least 72 must be 



66 



completed in the undergraduate schools of Wake Forest University, including the work 
of the senior year (except for combined degree curricula). 

A student has the privilege of graduating under the requirements of the bulletin 
of the year in which he or she enters, provided that course work is completed within 
six years of entrance. After six years, the student must fulfill the requirements for 
the class in which he or she graduates. 

Basic Requirements 

All students must complete three required basic courses (unless exempted through 
procedures established by the departments concerned): 

English 110 (composition) or 112 (composition and literature) 
Foreign language 153 (intermediate level) 
Foreign language (literature) 

French 213, 216, 217, or the equivalent 

Spanish 214, 217, 218, or the equivalent 

Italian 215, 216, or the equivalent 

German 215 or 216 

Russian 215 or 216 

Greek 211 or 212 

Latin 211, 212, or 216 

Hebrew 211 

Japanese 211 

Chinese 211 

No credit is given for any language course below the one recommended by the 
department on the basis of the placement test unless the student is given permis- 
sion to earn such credit by the Language Placement Appeals Board. 

Divisional Requirements 

All students must complete three courses in each of the four divisions of the un- 
dergraduate curriculum (unless exempted by completion of advanced placement 
requirements or by participation in the open curriculum): 

Division I. Literature and the Arts (three courses; no more than one course from 
any one of the four groups) 

1. English literature (English 160 or 165) 

2. American literature (English 170 or 175) 

3. Foreign literature (other than the one used for the basic requirement) 
Classical languages 

Greek 211, 212, 231, 241, or 242 
Latin 211, 212, 216, 221, 225, or 226 
Classics 253, 254, 263, 264, 265, or 272 
German 215 or 216 



67 



Chinese 211* 
Japanese 211 

Romance languages (French, Italian, or Spanish) literature 
Russian 215 or 216 

Humanities 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, or 222 
4. Fine Arts 
Art 103 or 111 
Music 101, 102, 181, or 182 
Theatre Arts 121 

* Subject to faculty approval 

Division II. The Natural Sciences and Mathematics (three courses, selected from two 
of the four groups) 

1. Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (any one; if two, may be any two taken 
in any order) 

2. Chemistry 111, 116 (unless advanced preparation indicates a higher 
course); if one course, 111; if two courses, 111, 116. 

3. Physics 101, 109, 110, 113, 114 (Physics 101 may not be paired with 
any other physics course) 

4. Mathematics 108, 109, 111, 112, 117, Computer Science 173 (any 
one; if two, the pair must include 108 or 111 but not both) 

Division III. History, Religion, and Philosophy (three courses; no more than one course 
from each group) 

1. History 101, 102, 103, or 104 

2. Religion (100-level course) 

3. Philosophy 111, 171, or 172 

Division TV. The Social and Behavioral Sciences (three courses, no more than one from 
any one department) 

1. Anthropology 151 or 152 

2. Economics 150 

3. Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116 

4. Psychology 151 

5. Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154 



68 



Requirement in Health and Sport Science 

All students must complete Health and Sport Science 111 and one additional course 
selected from the 100-series of health and sport science courses. The requirement 
must be met before enrollment in additional health and sport science elective courses, 
and in any case before the end of the second year. 

Proficiency in the Use of English 

Proficiency in the use of the English language is recognized by the faculty as a re- 
quirement in all departments. A composition condition, indicated by cc with the grade 
for any course, may be assigned in any department to a student whose writing is 
unsatisfactory, regardless of previous credits in composition. The writing of transfer 
students is checked during the orientation period each term, and students whose 
writing is deficient are given a composition condition. For removal of a composition 
condition, the student is required to attempt English 11 during the first semester for 
which he or she registers following the assignment of the cc. Removal of the deficiency 
is prerequisite to graduation. 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 

The basic and divisional requirements are intended to introduce the student to 
various fields of knowledge and to lay the foundation for concentration in a major 
subject and related fields during the junior and senior years. For this reason, as many 
of the requirements as feasible should be taken in the freshman and sophomore years. 

No course requirements may be set aside or replaced by substitutes except through 
regular procedures already established by the faculty, or through a specific vote of 
the faculty in regular session. 

Declaring a Major 

To enter upon a major, a student should have earned at least sixty credits. The normal 
time for reaching this point is the end of the second semester of the sophomore year. 
Thirty days before the end of the sophomore year, each student who will have acquired 
the requisite credits by the end of the semester or the end of the summer school 
is required to indicate to the registrar and to the department or departments con- 
cerned the selection of a major for concentration during the junior and senior years. 
Before this selection is recorded by the registrar, the student must present a written 
statement from the authorized representative of the department or departments in- 
dicating that the student has been accepted as a candidate for the major in that depart- 
ment. An adviser is available to assist the student in planning a course of study for 
the junior and senior years. A department which rejects a student as a major must 
file with the dean of the College a written statement indicating the reason(s) for the 
rejection. 



69 



If thirty days before the end of the sophomore year a student sees that he or she 
will begin the fifth semester without attaining sixty credits, he or she should consult 
the registrar's office about the proper course to follow. 

A student wishing to major in business or in accountancy should make applica- 
tion to the School of Business and Accountancy. (See page 194 of this bulletin.) 

The undergraduate schools try to provide ample space in the various major fields 
to accommodate the interests of students. It must be understood, however, that the 
undergraduate schools cannot guarantee the availability of space in a given major 
field or a given course, since the preferences of students change and there are limits 
to both faculty and facilities. 

After the beginning of the junior year, a student may not change from one major 
to another without the approval of the departments concerned. The student's course 
of study for the junior and senior years includes the minimum requirements for the 
departmental major, with other courses selected by the student and approved by the 
adviser. 

At least half of the major must be completed at Wake Forest University. 

The following fields of study are recognized for the major: accountancy, 
anthropology, art, biology, business, chemistry, classical studies, computer science, 
economics, education, English, French, French-Spanish, German, Greek, health and 
sport science, history, Latin, mathematical economics, mathematics, music, 
philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish, and 
speech communication and theatre arts. Students preparing for the ministry are 
advised to elect three courses in religion beyond the course included in the divisional 
requirements. 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 

Within the College, a maximum of 48 credits in a single field of study is allowed 
within the 144 credits required for graduation. Fifty-six credits toward graduation 
are allowed in any department authorized to offer two fields of study or more, except 
for those double-majoring within the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science. 

These stipulations exclude required related courses from other departments. They 
further exclude, for students majoring in English, English 110 and 112; for students 
majoring in mathematics and minoring in computer science, Mathematics 111 and 
112; and, for students majoring in a foreign language, elementary courses in that 
language. These limits may be exceeded in unusual circumstances only by action of 
the dean of the College. 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 

For purposes of satisfying graduation requirements, a student must select one, and 
only one, of the following options, which will receive official recognition on the 
student's permanent record: (1) a single major, (2) a joint major, (3) a single major 
and a minor, (4) a double major. In addition to the options above, a student may complete 
the requirements of a foreign area studies program. 



70 



Double Majors and Joint Majors 

A student may major in two departments in the College with the written permis- 
sion of the chair of each of the departments and on condition that the student meet 
all requirements for the major in both departments. For administrative purposes, the 
student must designate one of the two fields as the primary major, which appears 
first on the student's record. For purposes of the double major only, the Department 
of Mathematics and Computer Science is considered as two departments. 

A joint major consisting of fifty-six credits in two fields of study is available in 
classical studies, in mathematical economics, and in French-Spanish. 

Minors 

A minor is not required. Those students, however, who select a single major— not 
those working toward a double or joint major— may choose a minor field from among 
the following: anthropology, art, biology, chemistry, computer science, educational 
studies, professional education, English, French language and culture, French litera- 
ture, German, Greek, health and sport science, history, Italian, Latin, mathematics, 
music, philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish 
language and culture, Hispanic literature, and speech communication and theatre arts. 

For details of the various minors, see the appropriate departmental headings in 
the section of this bulletin that lists course offerings. 

Interdisciplinary Minors 

A Minor in Cultural Resource Preservation. The Departments of Anthropology, Art, 
History, and Sociology offer an interdisciplinary minor in cultural resource preser- 
vation (CRP) which will give students preliminary training in the field of historic 
preservation and cultural resource management aimed at the protection and enhance- 
ment of archeological, historical, and architectural resources. 

The minor requires the following twenty credits: Anthropology 310, Museum Design 
and Operation; Anthropology 361, Conservation Archeology; Art 223, American Architec- 
ture; History 366, Studies in Historic Preservation; and Sociology 333, The Urban Com- 
munity. It is recommended but not required that students take some of the following 
courses: Anthropology 151, General Anthropology I: Archeology and Human Evolution 
(may count as a Division IV requirement); Sociology 151, Principles of Sociology (may 
count as a Division IV requirement); Anthropology 356, Old World Prehistory; 
Anthropology 359, Prehistory of North America; Art 294, Modern Architecture; Art 393, 
Practicum; Anthropology 261, Museum Practicum; and History 398, Individual Study. 
Students should consult the adviser for the minor in CRP before declaring such a 
minor. Students are strongly advised to declare their intention to minor in cultural 
resource preservation during the first semester of their junior year. Successful com- 
pletion of the minor in cultural resource preservation will be noted on the student's 
transcript. 

A Minor in International Studies. The minor in international studies consists of a total 
of twenty credits. Candidates for the minor are required to take Politics 116, 



71 



International Politics, and one of the following: Economics 251, International Trade; Eco- 
nomics 252, International Finance; Economics 253, Economics of Communism; Econom- 
ics 254, Capitalism and Planning; or Politics 253, The Politics of International Economic 
Relations. In addition, students must take twelve other credits in international studies 
from an approved list on file in the Office of International Studies. No more than 
eight of the twenty credits for the minor may be taken in a single department. Study 
of a foreign language beyond the basic requirement is strongly recommended. Formal 
advising of minors is not required but the director of international studies is respon- 
sible for certifying the successful completion of requirements for the minor. For more 
information, contact the director of international studies. 

A Minor in Women's Studies. The interdisciplinary minor in women's studies requires 
a core course (Humanities 121) and five other courses. At least two of the five courses 
must be in the humanities and two must be in the social sciences, and the courses 
must be distributed among at least three departments, for a total of twenty-four credits. 
It is recommended that one of these courses be the upper division seminar, Human- 
ities 321. This structure gives students an understanding of the interdisciplinary na- 
ture of women's studies within the context of the traditional liberal arts curriculum. 
A student minoring in women's studies might take Humanities 121 as a sophomore, 
one humanities and one social science course as a junior, and Humanities 321, another 
humanities course, and another social science course as a senior. 

The following courses may be included in the minor: 

Humanities: Art 251, Women and Art; Classics 252, Women in Antiquity; English 
340, Women and Literature; English 376, American Poetry from 1855 to 1900; History 
365, Women in American History; Music 208, Women and Music; Religion 334B, 
Feminist Theology; Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 357, The Rhetoric of 
the Women's Rights Movement. 

Social Sciences: Psychology 265, Human Sexuality; Psychology 270L, Sex Stereo- 
types and Roles; Psychology 358, Psychology of Women; Sociology 153, Marriage and 
the Family; Sociology 305, Male and Female Roles in Society; Sociology 309, Sex and 
Human Relationships; Sociology 311, Women in Professions. 

Students intending to minor in women's studies should consult the adviser 
appointed from one of the participating departments and listed with the registrar. 
Students are strongly urged to consult the adviser during the sophomore year. 
Successful completion of the minor in women's studies will be noted on the student's 
transcript. 

Foreign Area Studies 

The foreign area studies programs enable students to choose an interdisciplinary 
concentration in the language and culture of a foreign area. An area studies concen- 
tration may include courses in the major and also in the minor field, if a minor is 
chosen. Foreign area studies do not replace majors or minors; they may supplement 
either or both. A faculty adviser coordinates each foreign area studies program and 
advises interested students. Further questions may be directed to Richard Sears, 
director of international studies. These programs are currently available: 



72 



East European Studies. Coordinator, Perry Patterson (economics) 
Russian 215 or 216 is required, plus twenty-four credits from the following: 
four additional credits in Russian at the 200 level, History 331, History 332, Polit- 
ics 232, Economics 253, Anthropology 371, Humanities 215, Humanities 218, and 
relevant seminars, colloquia, or independent studies in any of the departments 
above. 

German Studies. Coordinator, Larry E. West (German/Russian) 
Twelve or thirteen credits from German 153, 215, 216, 217, 220, or 221 are required. 
In addition, the student should take four courses from the following groups, at 
least one from each group: (1) History 320 and History 318/ German 231; (2) Politics 
233 and 273; (3) Philosophy 241 and 242. Appropriate credit in the above areas 
may be obtained by study in Germany. 

Italian Studies. Coordinator, Antonio Vitti (Romance languages) 
Italian through the 215 level is required, plus three courses from the following 
groups, at least one each from 2 and 3. (1) Literature: Italian 216, Classics 251, 
Classics 272, and Religion 277; (2) Fine Arts: Art 245, 267, 268, 296C, and 2693; 
and Music 181, 201, 206, 220, and 221; (3) History and the Social Sciences: Classics 
271; History 221, 222, 223, and 398. A semester in Venice or another approved 
course of study in Italy is also required. 

Latin American Studies. Coordinators, Mary Friedman and Linda Maier (Romance 
languages) 

History 272, Politics 236, and Spanish 218 and 223 are required, plus twelve credits 
from the following: Anthropology 305, Anthropology 342, Economics 252, Polit- 
ics 235, Spanish 219, 221, and 229. Students are asked to take either Spanish 230, 
264, 265, or 266 to fulfill the foreign literature requirement in Division I and are 
strongly urged to spend a semester studying in Latin America. 

Spanish Studies. Coordinator, Kathleen Glenn (Romance languages) 
History 2019, Sociology 2029, Spanish 217, and Spanish 224 are required, plus 
twelve credits from the advanced courses in Spanish language and literature 
offered by the Department of Romance Languages or from the courses offered 
at the University of Salamanca. Students are required to participate in the semester 
in Spain program at Salamanca and are strongly urged to live at the Spanish House 
for at least one semester. 

Senior Testing 

All seniors are required to participate in a testing program designed to provide ob- 
jective evidence of educational development and employing measures of academic 
achievement such as selected portions of the Graduate Record Examination and other 
tests deemed appropriate by the Committee on Academic Affairs. The tests are 
administered during the spring semester, and relevant results are made available to 
the student for his or her information. The primary purpose of the program is to 
provide the University with information for assessing the total educational process. 
The program does not supplant the regular administration of the Graduate Record 
Examination for students applying for admission to graduate school. 



73 



Combined Degrees in the School of Law 

A combined course makes it possible for the student to receive the two degrees 
of bachelor of arts and juris doctor in six academic years or their equivalent, instead 
of the usual seven years. The first three years of the combined course are in the College 
and the last three are in the School of Law. 

A student pursuing this plan must (1) complete the basic and divisional course 
requirements and become qualified for admission to the upper division; (2) initiate 
an application for admission to the School of Law and secure through the law school 
adviser, who is a member of the law faculty, permission to pursue the combined course 
plan; (3) perform the junior year of study in the College under the supervision of 
a departmental academic adviser and the law school adviser; and (4) complete at 
least 110 credits in the College with a minimum average of C and the first full year 
of law in the School of Law with an average sufficient to remain in the School of 
Law. (Admission to the School of Law is based on the applicant's entire undergradu- 
ate record, Law School Admission Test scores, and other criteria, and permission 
to pursue the combined degree program does not constitute admission to the School 
of Law.) 

The last year of required college academic work must be taken in the College. A 
student who transfers from another college or university at the end of the first or 
second year must maintain a minimum average of C on all academic work under- 
taken in the College. 

A student who completes the program successfully is eligible to receive the bachelor 
of arts degree at the end of the first full year in the School of Law; the juris doctor 
degree is awarded to the student who, having received the bachelor of arts degree, 
also fulfills requirements for the juris doctor degree. The quantitative and qualitative 
academic requirements set forth here are minimum requirements for the successful 
completion of the combined degree program; satisfying the requirements of the three- 
year program in the College does not necessarily entitle an applicant to admission 
to the School of Law. 

Combined Degrees in Medical Sciences 

A limited number of students may receive a bachelor of science degree with a major 
in medical sciences. 

Under this plan, the student fulfills the requirements for the degree by completing 
three years of work in the College with a minimum average grade of C and by satis- 
factorily completing the first full year of medicine (at least thirty semester hours) as 
outlined by the faculty of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, with a record entitling 
promotion to the second-year class. (Under current scheduling, successful candidates 
receive the baccalaureate degree in August rather than in May.) At least one year 
(thirty-six credits) of the required academic work must be completed in the College. 

Before entering the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, candidates for the bachelor 
of science degree with a major in medical sciences must complete the basic course 
requirements; the divisional course requirements in Divisions I, III, and IV; the health 
and sport science requirement; Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (any two courses); Biology 
312, 320, 321, 326, 351, 360, 371 (any two courses); Chemistry 111 and 112; Chemistry 



74 



221 and 222; Physics 113 and 114; mathematics (one course); and electives for a total 
of 108 credits. 

The completion of the prescribed academic subjects does not necessarily entitle 
an applicant to admission to the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. (All other factors 
being equal, applicants who have done all their work in the College are given 
preference.) 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 

Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in medical technology by 
completion of the academic requirements outlined in the following paragraph and 
by satisfactory completion of the full program in medical technology offered by the 
Division of Allied Health Programs of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. A grade 
of at least C is required in all courses taken in the program in medical technology. 
At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the required academic work must be completed 
in the College. (Under current scheduling, successful candidates receive the 
baccalaureate degree in August rather than in May.) 

Students seeking admission to the program must file application in the fall of the 
junior year with the Division of Allied Health Programs of the medical school. 
Selection is based upon recommendations of teachers, college academic record, Allied 
Health Professions Admissions Test score, impressions made in personal interviews, 
and work experience (not essential, but important). Students must complete the basic 
course requirements; the divisional course requirements in Divisions I, III, and IV; 
the health and sport science requirement; Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (three courses 
or equivalents); Biology 326; Chemistry 111, 112, 221, and 222; mathematics (one 
course); and electives for a total of 108 credits. Desirable electives outside the area 
of chemistry and biology include physics, data processing, and personnel and manage- 
ment courses. (Interested students should consult a biology department faculty 
member during the freshman year for further information.) 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 

Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in the physician assistant 
program by completion of three years (108 credits) in the College with a minimum 
average grade of C, and by satisfactory completion of the full twenty-four-month course 
in the physician assistant program offered by the Division of Allied Health Programs 
of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the 
required academic work must be completed in the College. Candidates for the degree 
must complete the basic course requirements, the divisional course requirements, 
the health and sport science requirement, and at least four courses in biology 
(including one course in microbiology). At least four courses in the social sciences 
(including sociology, psychology, and economics), a course in statistics, and three 
or four courses in chemistry are recommended. Applicants to the program must have 
a minimum of six months of clinical experience in patient care services. (Interested 
students should consult a biology department faculty member during the freshman 
year for further information.) 



75 



Degrees in Microbiology 

Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in microbiology by com- 
pletion of three years (112 credits) in the College with a minimum average grade of 
C, and by satisfactory completion of a thirty-two hour major in microbiology in the 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine. At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the required 
academic work must be completed in the College. Candidates for the degree must 
complete the basic course requirements, the divisional course requirements, and the 
health and sport science requirement; Microbiology 302, 304 (or Biology 462), and 
Biology 371. Additional courses to complete the major will be selected from 
Microbiology 402, 403, 404, 405, 408, 410, 411, 413, 414, 432, 433, 434, Biology 321, 
360, 372, 373, 380, and 391, 392. Required related courses are two courses in physics 
and at least two courses in organic chemistry. Additional chemistry and mathematics 
courses may be suggested by the major adviser for students progressing toward 
advanced work in microbiology. The student should consult the microbiology adviser 
during the sophomore year to establish a program of study. Work on the major must 
begin no later than the fall semester of the junior year. 

Degrees in Dentistry 

A student may fulfill the requirements for the bachelor of science degree with a 
major in dentistry by completing three years of work in the College with a minimum 
average grade of C, and by satisfactorily completing the first two years of work in 
one of certain approved dental schools designated by the University, with a record 
entitling advancement to the third-year class. 

For this degree, the requirements in the College are the same as those for the degree 
with a major in medical sciences. 

Degrees in Engineering 

The College cooperates with North Carolina State University and other engineering 
schools in offering a broad course of study in the arts and sciences combined with 
specialized training in engineering. A program for outstanding students covers five 
years of study, including three years in the College and approximately two years in 
one of the schools of engineering. (Depending upon the field chosen, it may be ad- 
visable for a student to attend the summer session in the engineering school after 
transfer.) Admission to Wake Forest does not guarantee admission to the engineering 
school. Those decisions are based on the student's transcript, performance, and sta- 
tus at the time of application. Upon successful completion of the five years of study, 
the student receives the bachelor of science degree in engineering from the Univer- 
sity and the bachelor of science degree in one of the specialized engineering fields 
from the engineering school. 

The curriculum for the first three years must include the basic and divisional 
requirements. Suggested courses for the freshman year are English 110 and 160 (or 
a foreign literature); foreign language courses 211, 215, or 216; Mathematics 111, 112; 
Physics 113, 114; and Health and Sport Science 111, 112. Suggested courses for the 
sophomore year are English 170 (or a foreign literature); Philosophy 111; Mathematics 
301 or 251; Physics 141, 161, and 164; and Chemistry 111, 112. Suggested courses for 



76 



the junior year are a history course, a religion course, Mathematics 302, and Economics 
150. 

This rigorous curriculum demands special aptitude in science and mathematics. 
Electives are chosen in consultation with the chair of the Department of Physics. 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 

The College cooperates with the Duke University School of Forestry and 
Environmental Studies to offer students interested in these areas the possibility of 
earning both bachelor's and master's degrees within five years. For details about the 
program, students should consult a faculty member in the biology department. 




77 

Courses of Instruction 



Plans of study, course descriptions, and the identification of instructors apply to the academic 
year 1989-90, unless otherwise noted, and reflect official faculty action through March 16, 1990. 

The University reserves the right to change programs of study, academic requirements, 
assignment of lecturers, or the announced calendar. 

Odd-numbered courses are normally taught in the fall, even-numbered in the 
spring. Exceptions are noted after course descriptions. Number of credits is shown 
by numerals immediately after the course title— for example, (3) or (3,3). The symbols 
P— and C— followed by course numbers or titles are used to show prerequisites and 
corequisites for a course. 

Courses 101-199 are primarily for freshmen and sophomores; courses 200-299 are 
primarily for juniors and seniors; courses 301-399 are for advanced undergraduates 
and graduate students. (Other graduate courses are described in the bulletin of the 
Graduate School; a complete listing of summer courses is in the bulletin of the summer 
session.) 



Anthropology 

David S. Weaver, Chairman 

Professors E. Pendleton Banks, David K. Evans, 

Stanton K. Tefft, David S. Weaver, J. Ned Woodall 

Director/Curator, Museum of Anthropology/Assistant Professor Mary Jane Berman 

Adjunct Associate Professor Jay R. Kaplan 

Visiting Assistant Professor Dorothy J. Cattle 

A major in anthropology requires a minimum of thirty-six credits and must in- 
clude Anthropology 151, 152, 388, and either 356 or 359. 

Students are encouraged but not required to enroll in a course offering intensive 
field research training. However, only four credits from Anthropology 381, 382 and 
four credits from Anthropology 383, 384 may be used to meet major requirements. 
Additional courses are counted within the limits specified for a single field of study. 

A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in anthropology courses is required at the 
time the major is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all anthropolo- 
gy courses is required for graduation. 

A minor in anthropology requires twenty-four credits and must include 
Anthropology 151 and 152. Minors will not receive credit for Anthropology 388, 398, 
or 399. Only four credits from Anthropology 345, 381, 382, 383, and 384 may be used 
to meet minor requirements and departmental permission must be obtained for minor 
credit in these courses. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Anthropology," highly qualified 
majors should apply to the department for admission to the honors program. They 
must complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfactorily 
defend their work in an oral examination. For additional information, members of 
the departmental faculty should be consulted. 



78 



151. General Anthropology I: Archeology and Human Evolution. (4) Origin and 
evolution of man with a focus on human biological and sociocultural change during 
the Plio-Pleistocene. 

152. General Anthropology II: Cultural Anthropology. (4) A cross-cultural analysis 
of human institutions with a survey of major theories explaining cultural variety and 
human nature. 

261. Museum Practicum. (4) Designed to give the student practical experience while 
working at the Museum of Anthropology in six basic areas of museum operation: 
administration, research, curatorial duties, conservation, exhibition design, and edu- 
cation. P— Permission of instructor. 

310. Museum Design and Operation. (4) The principles of museum design and oper- 
ation through lectures, readings, workshops with visiting experts in the field, and 
field trips to neighboring museums (possibly to Washington, DC). Students have 
an opportunity to put some of the principles in practice by planning and designing 
exhibits in the Museum of Anthropology. P— Permission of instructor. 

321. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk and tribal cul- 
tures from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

331. The Ethnographic Documentary. (4) Through the use of ethnographic documen- 
tary films and videos from different historical periods and by filmmakers from different 
cultural backgrounds, this course will present a historical and cross-cultural perspective 
on cultural systems. The course will analyze the technological and aesthetic aspects 
of film and video production and assess the effectiveness of visual communication 
in conveying ideas about culture and society. P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 
152 or permission of instructor. 

344. Medical Anthropology. (4) The impact of Western medical practices and theory 
on non-Western cultures and anthropological contributions to the solving of world 
health problems. P— Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

345. Mountain Folklore in North Carolina. (4) The role folklore plays in all human 
cultures in general and in the culture of the mountain people of Western North 
Carolina in particular. Field trips to mountain counties conducted. P— Permission 
of instructor. 

351. Physical Anthropology. (4) Introduction to biological anthropology, human 
biology, evolution, and variability. P— Anthropology 151. 

353. Peoples and Cultures of Africa. (4) The ethnology and prehistory of Africa south 
of the Sahara. P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

354. Primitive Religion. (4) The world-view and values of non-literate cultures as 
expressed in myths, rituals, and symbols. P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 



79 



356. Old World Prehistory. (4) Survey of Old World prehistory, with particular atten- 
tion to geological and climatological events affecting culture change. P— Anthropology 
151 or permission of instructor. 

357. Archeology of Early Complex Societies. (4) Comparison of the archeology of 
early complex societies, with special attention to the Maya, Aztec, and Teotihuacan 
cultures in Mesoamerica; the Huari and Inca in South America; the Anasazi of North 
America; and Egyptian and Mesopotamian groups of the Old World. An emphasis 
will be given to theories of origins and change in complex societies. P— Anthropology 
151 or permission of instructor. 

358. The American Indian. (4) Ethnology and prehistory of the American Indian. 
P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

359. Prehistory of North America. (4) The development of culture in North America 
as outlined by archeological research, with an emphasis on paleoecology and so- 
ciocultural processes. P— Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

360. Archeology of the Southeastern United States. (4) A study of human adapta- 
tion in the Southeast from Pleistocene to the present, emphasizing the role of eco- 
logical factors in determining the formal aspects of culture. P— Anthropology 151. 

361. Conservation Archeology. (4) A study of the laws, regulations, policies, programs, 
and political processes used to conserve prehistoric and historic cultural resources. 
P— Anthropology 151 and Anthropology 359 or permission of instructor. 

362. Human Ecology. (4) The relations between the human being and the inorganic 
and organic environments as mediated by culture; laboratory experience with aerial 
photography and other remote sensing techniques. P— Anthropology 151 or 
Anthropology 152 or permission of instructor. 

363. Peoples and Cultures of China. (4) A survey of the Han and non-Han (Mon- 
golian, Tibetan, Shan, Mia, etc.) peoples of China and their traditional cultures 
drawing on ethnographic and village studies. P— Permission of instructor. 

364. Human Osteology. (4) A survey of human skeletal anatomy and analysis, 
emphasizing archeological and anthropological applications. P— Anthropology 151 
and permission of instructor. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. P— Anthropology 151 and permission 
of instructor. 

371. European Peasant Communities. (4) Lectures, reading, and discussion on selected 
communities and their sociocultural contexts, including folklore, folk art, and processes 
of culture change. P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152 or permission of 
instructor. 

380. Anthropological Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in 
anthropological research. (A student who receives credit for this course may not also 
receive credit for Biology 380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Sociology 380.) 



80 



381, 382. Archeological Research. (4,4) The recovery of anthropological data through 
the use of archeology, taught in the excavation and interpretation of a prehistoric site. 
P— Anthropology 151. 

383, 384. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology. (4,4) Training in techniques for 
the study of foreign cultures, carried out in the field. P— Anthropology 151 or 
Anthropology 152. 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline. The course concentrates on problems of contemporary 
interest. P— Permission of instructor. 

388. Senior Seminar. (4) A review of the contemporary problems in the fields of 
archeology and physical and cultural anthropology. P— Senior standing or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A reading, research, or internship course 
designed to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under 
the supervision of a departmental faculty member. 



Art 

Harry B. Titus Jr., Chairman 
Professors Robert Knott, Terisio Pignatti (Venice), Margaret S. Smith 

Associate Professor Harry B. Titus Jr. 

Assistant Professors Bemad ine Barnes, David Faber, Page H. Laughlin 

Visiting Assistant Professor David Finn 

Visiting Instructor Alix Hitchcock 

Lecturers Brian Allen (London), David Bindman 

Gallery Director and Lecturer Victor Faccinto 

The department offers courses in the history of art and in the practice of drawing, 
painting, printmaking, sculpture, and photography. The program is designed to 
introduce students to the visual arts within the context of liberal arts study. The courses 
are intended to increase the student's understanding of the meaning and purpose 
of the arts, their historical developments, their role in society, and their relationship 
to other humanistic disciplines. Work in both classroom and studio is designed to 
intensify the student's visual perception and to develop a facility in a variety of tech- 
nical processes. A visiting artist program and varied exhibitions in the gallery of the 
Scales Fine Arts Center as well as internships in local cultural organizations supple- 
ment the regular academic program of the department. 

The major in art requires forty credits. For an art history major, eight courses are 
to be in art history and two in studio art. For a studio art major, eight courses are 
to be in studio art and two in art history. 

A minor in art requires five courses, including at least one course in art history 
and one course in studio art. 



81 



Any student interested in majoring or minoring in art should consult the chair of 
the art department. 

Qualified students in both the art history and studio areas may ask to participate 
in the department's honors program. To be graduated with the designation "Honors 
in Art," students must execute a written project or create a body of work; the results 
of their efforts must be presented and defended before a committee of the depart- 
mental faculty. Interested students should consult any member of the department 
for additional information concerning the requirements for this program. 

Art History 

103. Introduction to the Visual Arts. (4) A historical introduction to the arts of vari- 
ous cultures and times with discussions of technique, style, methodology, and terms. 
Satisfies the Division I requirement. 

223. Idea and Form in Indian Art. (4) An examination of Indian ideas on the sacred 
and profane as revealed in architectural and sculptural forms in Hindu, Buddhist, 
and Muslim art in India. 

231. American Art. (4) A survey of American painting and sculpture from the Colonial 
period through the Armory Show held in 1913 in New York. 

233. American Architecture. (4) A survey of American architecture from 1650 to the 
present. 

235. Art and Architecture of the South. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and 
sculpture in the South from 1600 to the present. 

241. Ancient Art. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the pre- 
historic through the late Roman periods. 

244. Greek Art. (3) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the pre- 
historic through the Hellenistic periods. 

245. Roman Art. (4) A survey of Etruscan and Roman architecture, painting, and 
sculpture. 

246. Greek and Roman Architecture. (4) A survey of classical architecture, from the 
Archaic Greek through the late Roman period. 

251. Women and Art. (4) A historical examination of the changing image of women 
in art and the role of women artists. 

252. Romanesque Art. (4) Art and architecture from the Carolingian Renaissance 
through the twelfth century. 

253. The Gothic Cathedral. (4) The character and evolution of Gothic cathedrals and 
the sculpture, stained glass, metalworks, and paintings designed for them. 



82 



254. Luxury Arts in the Middle Ages. (4) Medieval illuminated manuscripts and 
precious objects made of gold, silver, ivory, enamel and other luxury materials are 
the subjects of this course. 

258. The History of Prints. (4) A survey of the technical and stylistic developments 
in printmaking from the 15th century to the present. Special attention will be given 
to the function of prints in society. Student research will focus on prints in the Univer- 
sity Print Collection. 

267. Early Italian Renaissance Art. (4) An introduction to the painting, sculpture, 
and architecture of Italy from 1250 to 1500, with a concentration on the arts in fifteenth 
century Florence. 

268. Italian High Renaissance and Mannerist Art. (4) A study of the arts in sixteenth 
century Italy, with emphasis on the achievements of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, 
Michelangelo, Giorgione, and Titian, and the dissolution of Renaissance idealism in 
the art of the early Mannerists. 

270. Northern Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of painting, sculpture, graphic art, and 
patronage in Northern European art from 1300 to the death of Durer in 1528. 

271. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculpture, 
and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Offered 
in Dijon. 

272. Baroque Art. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1600 to 1700. 

275. History of Landscape Architecture. (4) Study of garden design, beginning with 
Roman gardens and continuing through the creation of public parks in the nineteenth 
century. 

281. Modern Art to 1900. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1700 
to 1900, emphasizing the nineteenth century. 

282. Modern Art after 1900. (4) A survey of European and American painting and 
sculpture from 1900 to the present. 

283. Impressionism. (4) A detailed study of the French Impressionist painters, with 
some consideration of Impressionism in other forms. 

284. Contemporary American Art. (4) An intensive study of American painting and 
sculpture from 1950 to the present. 

288. Modern Architecture. (4) A survey of European and American architecture from 
1900 to the present. 

291. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

292. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

293. Practicum. (4) Internships in local cultural organizations, to be arranged by the 
art department. Pass/fail. 






83 



296. Art History Seminar. (4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty 
on topics of their choice. A paper is required. P— Permission of instructor. 

a. Ancient Art f. Contemporary Art 

b. Medieval Art g. American Art 

c. Renaissance Art h. Modern Architecture 

d. Baroque Art i. American Architecture 

e. Modern Art 

2320. English Art, Hogarth to the Present. (4) A survey of English painting, sculp- 
ture, and architecture in the Georgian, Victorian, and modern periods. Slide lectures, 
student reports, museum visits, and lectures. Taught by special lecturer. Offered in 
London. 

2693. Venetian Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of the art of the Venetian Renaissance, 
with slide lectures and museum visits. Offered in Venice. 

Anthropology 321. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk 
and tribal cultures from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P— 
Permission of instructor. 

Studio Art* 

111. Introduction to Drawing and Design. (4) An introduction to the basic elements 
of two-dimensional and three-dimensional design, to include drawing, painting, and 
sculpture. Six class hours per week. Satisfies the Division I requirement. 

112. Introduction to Painting. (4) An introduction to painting fundamentals in a var- 
iety of contemporary styles in the oil or acrylic medium. P— Art 111. 

115. Introduction to Sculpture. (4) An introduction to basic sculptural styles and multi- 
media, with emphasis on contemporary concepts. P— Art 111. 

117. Introduction to Printmaking. (4) An introduction to one or more of the following 
areas of printmaking: lithography, intaglio, and silkscreen. P— Art 111. 

119. Introduction to Photography. (4) An introduction to photography as an expres- 
sive medium, including basic camera and darkroom techniques. Preference to art 
majors. Not open to students who have had Sociology 205. P— Art 111. 

211. Intermediate Drawing. (4) Continuation of Art 111, with concentrated empha- 
sis on drawing fundamentals and idea development in realistic and abstract styles, 
emphasizing composition, value, line, and form. Six class hours per week. P— Art 111. 

212. Intermediate Painting. (4) Continuation of Art 112, with concentrated empha- 
sis on idea development. P— Art 112. May be repeated. 

215. Intermediate Sculpture. (4) Continuation of Art 115, with emphasis on idea de- 
velopment. P— Art 115. May be repeated. 



^Prerequisites may be waived with permission of instructor 



84 



217. Intermediate Printmaking. (4) Continuation of Art 117, with emphasis on idea 
development. P— Art 117. May be repeated. 

218. Figure Drawing. (4) An introduction to figure drawing. P— Art 111. 

221. Advanced Drawing. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P— Art 211. 

222. Advanced Painting. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P— Art 212. 

225. Advanced Sculpture. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. 
May be repeated. P— Art 215. 

227. Advanced Printmaking. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. 
May be repeated. P— Art 217. 

295. Studio Seminar. (2,4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty on 
topics of their choice and related studio activities. P— Permission of instructor. 



Asian Studies 

Balkrishna Govind Gokhale, Director 

The Asian Studies program, established in 1960 with financial assistance from the 
Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation, is interdisciplinary and involves the coopera- 
tion and resources of several departments in the humanities and social sciences. Its 
objectives are to broaden the traditional curriculum with the infusion of a systematic 
knowledge and understanding of the culture of Asia. 

Art 221. Idea and Form in Indian Art. (4) An examination of Indian ideas on the 
sacred and profane as revealed in architectural and sculptural forms in Hindu, 
Buddhist, and Muslim art in India. 

Chinese 111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of listening 
and speaking skills in Mandarin. Brief introduction to the writing system and to basic 
sentence patterns. Lab— one hour. 

Chinese 151, 152. Intermediate Chinese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, 
conversation and composition. Lab required. P— Chinese 111, 112 or equivalent. 

Chinese 211. Introduction to Modern Chinese Literature. (4) Readings in modern 
prose and poetry, primarily from the May Fourth era to the present. Comparison 
of modern written Chinese with classical literary and documentary styles. P— Chinese 
152 or permission of instructor. 

History 339. India in the English Mind. (4) An exploration of the changing images 
of India, its people, and culture as reflected in English literature, especially Kipling, 
Forster, Kaye, and Paul Scott. The three major themes will be confrontation, 
accommodation, and nostalgia. 



85 



History 342. The Middle East from Suleiman the Magnificent to the Present. (4) 

Major subjects covered are the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Arabs and 
Persians under Ottoman hegemony, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the emergence 
of the modern Arab states and their roles in the post-World War II era. 

History 343. Imperial China. (4) Development of traditional institutions in Chinese 
society to 1644; attention to social, cultural, and political factors, emphasizing 
continuity and resistance to change. 

History 344. Modern China. (4) The Manchu Dynasty and its response to the Western 
challenge, the 1911 Revolution, the warlord era and the rise of the Communists, 
Chinese Communist society, and the Cultural Revolution. 

History 345, 346. History and Civilization of South Asia. (4,4) An introduction to 
the history and civilization of South Asia, with emphasis on historical developments 
in the social, economic, and cultural life of the area. 

History 348. Modern Japan. (4) Tokugawa era; Meiji Restoration; industrialization 
and urbanization; relations with the West; World War II; occupation; Japan in the 
contemporary world. 

Japanese 111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of 
listening and speaking skills. Brief introduction to the writing systems. Basic sen- 
tence patterns covered. Lab required. 

Japanese 151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, 
conversation and composition. Lab required. P— Japanese 112 or equivalent. 

Japanese 211. Introduction to Modern Japanese Literature. (4) Readings in modern 
prose and poetry, primarily from the Meiji era (1868) to the present. P— Japanese 152 
or permission of the instructor. 

Politics 245. Government and Politics of South Asia. (4) A study of the governments 
of India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Ceylon; emphasis on political organizations, party struc- 
tures, and sub-national governmental systems. 

Religion 360. Hinduism. (4) A study of the fundamental features of the Hindu tra- 
dition. 

Religion 361. Buddhism. (4) A study of the Buddhist tradition, its fundamental 
features, and its impact on the cultures of Asia. 

Religion 364. Islam. (4) A study of the fundamental concepts of Islamic thought 
and the historical context of its development. Both ancient and contemporary im- 
pact of the teachings of Islam are considered. 



86 



Biology 

Ronald V. Dimock Jr., Chairman 

Professors Ralph D. Amen, Ronald V. Dimock Jr., 

Gerald W. Esch, Mordecai J. Jaffe, Raymond E. Kuhn, 

Peter D. Weigl, Raymond L. Wyatt 

Associate Professors Nina Stromgren Allen, Carole L. Browne, 

Robert A. Browne, William E. Conner, 

Herman E. Eure, Hugo C. Lane, Wayne L. Silver 

Assistant Professors James F. Curran, Michael J. Foote, 

Ellen L. Simms, William A. Thomas 

Adjunct Professors J. Whitfield Gibbons, Harold O. Goodman, 

Terry C. Hazen, Stephen H. Richardson 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Margaret Mulvey, John M. Aho 

At the end of the sophomore year, a student electing to major in biology meets 
with a major adviser to plan the course of study for the junior and senior years. The 
requirements for completion of the major are those in effect at the time of confer- 
ence, since the curriculum and departmental requirements may change slightly during 
the student's period of residence. All majors are required to take Biology 112, 113, 
114, in any order, plus Biology 250 and at least three 300-level 5-credit biology courses. 
Co-major requirements are Chemistry 111 and 116 and two additional courses in the 
physical sciences. 

For students declaring majors in the spring, the requirements for a major are a 
minimum of forty-one credits in biology. A mirumum grade average of C on all courses 
attempted in biology at Wake Forest University is required for graduation with a major 
in biology. (Students declaring a major later than the spring should consult with a 
biology major adviser for the specific major requirement at that time.) 

A minor in biology requires twenty credits. Courses taken pass/fail cannot count 
toward a minor. A minimum overall grade average of C must be earned on all Wake 
Forest University biology courses taken to complete a minor. 

Prospective majors are strongly urged to select their first course in biology from 
among Biology 112, 113 and 114 (any order). Most prospective majors also should 
take Chemistry 111-116 as freshmen; the majority continue with Chemistry 221 and 
222 (organic chemistry) as sophomores. 

Advanced work in many areas of biology may require additional courses in 
mathematics, the physical sciences, and other areas of biology. The adviser calls these 
to the attention of the student, depending on individual needs. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in biology. To be graduated with the distinction "Honors in 
Biology," they must complete a research project under the direction of a staff mem- 
ber and pass a comprehensive oral examination. 

All 300-level courses have the 112-114 series as prerequisites. Any exceptions to 
this arrangement must be approved by the chairman of the department. 



87 



111. Biological Principles. (5) A study of the general principles of living systems with 
focus on the cellular, organismal, and populational levels of biological organization, 
emphasizing the role of heredity and evolution in these systems. Course may count 
for major credit in biology but is intended for students with little or no previous 
experience in biology. Lab— three hours. 

112. Comparative Physiology. (5) An introduction to the form and function of 
organisms, with emphasis on physical principles, structural organization, and critical 
function of plants and animals. Intended as a beginning course in biology for 
prospective majors and for any students with adequate high school preparation in 
biology. Lab— three hours. No prerequisites. 

113. Evolutionary and Ecological Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles of 
genetics, ecology, and evolution as they apply to organisms, populations and 
communities, with emphasis on evolutionary processes within an ecological context. 
Intended as a beginning course in biology for prospective majors and for any stu- 
dents with adequate high school preparation in biology. Lab— three hours. No 
prerequisites. 

114. Cellular and Molecular Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles and process- 
es of cellular and molecular biology including molecular organization of cellular struc- 
tures, energetics, metabolism, and regulation of cellular functions. Intended as a 
beginning course in biology for prospective majors and for any students with adequate 
high school preparation in biology. Lab— three hours. No prerequisites. 

250. Scientific Writing and Communication. (1) An introduction to the processes 
and techniques of scientific writing and the oral presentation of information. The 
course will include training in the use of the library and primary literature, develop- 
ment of scientific term papers and the oral presentation of data. Should be taken 
no later than junior year. 

301-305. Topics in Biology. (1-5) Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, 
some involving laboratory instruction. 

312. Genetics. (5) A study of principles of inheritance, population genetics and the 
molecular mechanisms of gene activity. Laboratory work in the methods of genetic 
analysis with emphasis on compiling and presenting data. Lab— three hours. P— 
Biology 112-114. 

314. Evolution. (4) Analysis of the theories, evidences, and mechanisms of evolu- 
tion. P— Biology 112-114. 

315. Biology of Stress. (4) A study of the ways in which plants and animals react 
to and cope with abiotic and biotic stresses. Foci include mechanisms at the ecologi- 
cal, organismic, cellular and molecular levels. P— Biology 112-114. 

320. Comparative Anatomy. (5) A study of chordate animals, with emphasis on com- 
parative anatomy and phylogeny Dissection of representative forms in the laboratory. 
Lab— four hours. P— Biology 112-114. 



88 



321. Parasitology. (5) A survey of protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites from 
the standpoint of morphology, taxonomy, life histories, and host/parasite relation- 
ships. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal be- 
havior. (May count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to be made at regis- 
tration.) P— Permission of instructor. 

325. Plant Anatomy. (5) A study of comparative anatomy of the vascular plants, with 
emphasis on phylogeny Lab— four hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

326. Microbiology. (5) The structure, function, and taxonomy of microorganisms with 
emphasis on bacteria. Some immunological processes are considered. Lab— four 
hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

328. Vascular Plants. (5) A comparative survey of the vascular plants, with emphasis 
on structure, reproduction, classification, and phylogeny. Lab— four hours. P— Biology 
112-114. 

331. Invertebrates. (5) Systematic study of invertebrates, with emphasis on function- 
al morphology, behavior, ecology, and phylogeny. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 
112-114. 

333. Vertebrates. (5) Systematic study of vertebrates, with emphasis on evolution, 
physiology, behavior, and ecology. Laboratory devoted to systematic, field, and 
experimental studies. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

335. Insect Biology. (5) A study of the diversity, structure, development, physiology, 
behavior and ecology of insects. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

338. Plant Taxonomy. (5) A study of the classification of seed plants, with emphasis 
on the comparative study of orders and families. Lab— four hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

340. Ecology. (5) Interrelationships among living systems and their environments; 
structure and dynamics of major ecosystem types; contemporary problems in ecolo- 
gy. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

341. Marine Biology. (5) An introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological 
parameters affecting the distribution of marine organisms. Lab— three hours. P— 
Biology 112-114. 

342. Aquatic Ecology. (5) A course designed to cover the general principles and con- 
cepts of limnology and aquatic biology as they apply to lentic and lotic habitats. A 
major portion of the field study is centered at the Charles M. Allen Biological Station. 
Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

344. Evolutionary Theory. (4) Lectures, readings, and seminars on the scientific and 
philosophic implications of evolutionary theory, including: structure and content of 
evolutionary theory, role of chance in evolution, units-of-selection controversy, nature 
of populations, nature of species, nature of selection, adaptation, sociobiology, and 
the evolutionism/creationism debates. P— Biology 112-114. 






89 



345. Neurobiology. (4) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system 
including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical 
approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central nervous sys- 
tems. P— Biology 112-114. 

346. Neurobiology. (5) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous sys- 
tem including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neurochem- 
ical approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central nervous 
systems. The laboratory will emphasize electrophysiological techniques with 
experiments from the cellular to the behavioral level. Lab— three hours. P— Permission 
of instructor. 

350. Physiology. (5) A lecture/laboratory course dealing with the physiochemical func- 
tions common to multicellular organisms, with emphasis on the principles and 
processes of nutrition, metabolism, development, and behavior. Lab— three hours. 
P-Biology 112-114. 

351. Animal Physiology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course which discusses and 
demonstrates the principles of bioelectricity and biomechanics. Regulatory princi- 
ples and the physiology of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems of ver- 
tebrates are covered. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

352. Plant Physiology. (5) A study of the mechanisms by which various plant sys- 
tems function, thematically structured around the plant life cycle. Lab— three hours. 
P-Biology 112-114. 

354. Endocrinology. (4) A lecture course which considers the evolution of the 
endocrine glands and hormones and the physiology of the main hormonal pathways 
of vertebrates. P— Biology 112-114. 

355. Developmental Physiology. (5) The application of the principles and postulates 
of molecular biology to the phenomenon of development in multicellular organisms 
with emphasis on the genetic and hormonal mechanisms of differentiation, toti- 
potency, and morphogenesis. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

359. Photobiology. (4) A lecture/seminar exploring photochemical mechanisms and 
ecological roles common to a variety of photoresponses in living organisms, including 
vision, bioluminescence, phototaxis, photosynthesis, photoperiodism, and photomor- 
phogenesis. P— Biology 112-114. 

360. Development. (5) A description of the major events and processes of animal 
development, with an analysis of the causal factors underlying them. Special atten- 
tion is given to the embryonic development of vertebrates, but consideration is also 
given to other types of development and other organisms. Topics include fertiliza- 
tion, early development, growth and cell division, cell differentiation, the role of genes 
in development, cell interaction, morphogenesis, regeneration, birth defects, and 
cancer. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

362. Immunology. (4) A study of the components and protective mechanisms of the 
immune system. P— Biology 112-114. 



90 



363. Sensory Biology. (4) A study of the nature of energy in the environment, and 
how it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. Anatomical, physiological, 
biochemical, and biophysical approaches will be integrated in the study of sensory 
mechanisms in plants and animals. P— Biology 112-114. 

365. Cell Motility. (5) A lecture and laboratory course exploring the movements in 
and of cells (for example: mitosis, cytoplasmic streaming, muscle contraction, nerve 
transport). Light and electron microscopic methods as well as biochemical and 
biophysical approaches to the study of cell motility will be discussed. Lab— three 
hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. (May count as either biology or 
anthropology but not both; choice to be made at registration.) P— Permission of 
instructor. 

370. Biochemistry. (4) A lecture course introducing the principles of biochemistry 
with an emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. Included are 
surveys of essential biomolecules, their biosynthesis, and mode of action; techniques 
in the analysis of structure and function; enzyme kinetics; and macromolecular or- 
ganization. P— Biology 112-114. 

371. Biochemistry. (5) A lecture and laboratory course introducing the principles of 
biochemistry with an emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. 
Included are surveys of essential biomolecules, their biosynthesis, and mode of action; 
techniques in the analysis of structure and function; enzyme kinetics; and macro- 
molecular organization. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

372. Molecular Biology. (4) A lecture course that considers the role of biologically 
important molecules in membrane and intracellular regulation. Topics covered will 
include membrane receptors, transport processes, molecular models of hormonal regu- 
lation, and controls of gene expression. P— Biology 112-114. 

373. Techniques in Electron Microscopy. (5) An introduction to the electron micro- 
scope as an experimental tool in biology. Includes instruction in common techniques 
used in the field and lecture on recognition and interpretation of cellular ultrastruc- 
ture. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

375. Optical Methods in Biological Sciences (5) Methods in light and electron 
microscopy including specimen preparation, image generation and recording. Stu- 
dents will learn the basic techniques of photography (developing and printing), fixa- 
tion and sectioning of specimens, and video-enhanced, computer generated imaging 
as well as image and motion analysis. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

376. Ichthyology. (5) A comparative study of structure/function, classification, and 
phylogeny of fish. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

380. Biostatistics. (4) An introduction to statistical methods used by biologists, in- 
cluding descriptive statistics, hypothesis-testing, analysis of variance, and regression 
and correlation. May count as biology or anthropology but not both; choice to be 



91 



made at registration. A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive 
credit for Anthropology 380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Sociology 380. 

382. Paleobiology. (5) Analysis of the fossil record, with emphasis on biological and 
evolutionary principles. Topics include fossilization, paleoecology, morphologic anal- 
ysis, biogeography, macroevolution, diversification and extinction, systematics, and 
the role of chance in evolution. Lab/discussion— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

385. Cellular Physiology. (5) In-depth examination of current topics in cell biology 
such as cellular signalling, the extracellular matrix, biogenesis of mitochondria and 
chloroplasts, control of cell division, protein sorting in the Golgi, protein transloca- 
tion across membranes, and molecular motors. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

388. Bioenergetics. (4) Lecture/seminar course dealing with the energetic principles 
and thermodynamic relations of living systems. Attention will be paid to the ener- 
getics of cells and organisms, as well as ecosystems. P— Biology 112-114. 

391, 392. Research in Biology. (2,2) Independent library and laboratory investigation 
carried out under the supervision of a member of the staff. Pass/fail or for grade at 
discretion of the instructor. P— Permission of instructor. 

393, 394. Research in Biology. (2,2) Courses designed for students who wish to con- 
tinue research projects beyond Biology 391 and 392. Pass/fail optional. Not to be count- 
ed toward major. P— Permission of instructor. 

395. Philosophy of Biology and Medicine. (4) A lecture/seminar course dealing with 
the rational structure of biologic and biomedic sciences with major emphasis on the 
reductionistic, organismic, and telenomic paradigms of modern biology and medi- 
cine. The structure of selected biologic and biomedic theories will be included. P— 
Biology 112-114. 

396. Biomedical Ethics. (4) Lectures and seminars examining contemporary issues 
in biomedical ethics including the proper role of biomedical research, and current 
controversies in health care and medical practice. P— Biology 112-114. 

397. Seminar in Biology. (2-4) Consideration of major biological topics through 
intensive reading and discussions. P— Biology 112-114. 



Chemistry 

Phillip J. Hamrick Jr., Chairman 

Professors Phillip J. Hamrick Jr., Roger A. Hegstrom, 

Willie L. Hinze, Ronald E. Noftle 

Associate Professors Huw M. L. Davies, 

Charles E Jackels, Susan C. Jackels, 

Assistant Professors James C. Fishbein, N. Ganapathisubramanian, 

Bradley T. Jones, Dilip K. Kondepudi, Mark E. Welker 

Instructor Jimmy Turner III 



92 



The department offers programs leading to the BA and BS degrees in chemistry 
and is on the list of departments certified by the American Chemical Society. 

The bachelor of arts degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111, 116, 221, 222, 
341, 342 or 344 and 361; Mathematics 111-112; and Physics 113, 114. 

The bachelor of science degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111, 116, 221, 222, 
334, 341, 344, either 351 or 356/357, 361, 383, 391 or 392; Mathematics 111 and 112 
and either 113 or 301; and Physics 113 and 114. 

Additional mathematics and science courses are strongly recommended for the BS 
degree candidate. The number and selection of these courses depends on the profes- 
sional goals of the individual student. Examples of these courses are Mathematics 
302 and 304; Physics 161 and 164; and Biology 370 and 371. 

The department also offers a five-year BA/MS degree program. Students qualifying 
for the program may receive a tuition scholarship in the senior year. For informa- 
tion, consult the department chairman. 

A minor in chemistry requires twenty-three credits in chemistry and must include 
at least one of the following courses: 323, 325, 326, 334, 341, 342 or 344, 351, 361, 
362. The department will not accept courses taken pass/fail to count toward the minor. 

Unless otherwise stated, all chemistry courses are open to chemistry majors on 
a letter-grade basis only. Majors are also required to complete on a letter-grade basis 
the required physics and mathematics courses. 

A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in the first two years of chemistry is required 
of students who elect to major in the department. Admission to any class is contin- 
gent upon satisfactory grades in prerequisite courses, and registration for advanced 
courses must be approved by the department. Candidates for either the BA or BS 
degree with a major in chemistry must have a minimum GPA of 2.0 in their chemis- 
try courses numbered 200 or above. 

Qualified majors are considered for honors in chemistry. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Chemistry" a student must have a minimum GPA in chemistry 
courses of 3.3 and a minimum overall GPA of 3.0. In addition, the honors candidate 
must satisfactorily complete an approved research project, prepare a paper describing 
the project, and present results at a seminar for departmental approval. For additional 
information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

For the BS major, the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Chemistry 111, 116 Chemistry 221, 222 Chemistry 341, 344 Chemistry 334 

Mathematics 111, 112 Physics 113, 114 Chemistry 383 Chemistry 361 

Chemistry 391 or 392 Chemistry 

Mathematics or 300-Level 

Science Elective 

For the BA major the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Chemistry 111, 116 Chemistry 221, 222 Chemistry 341, 342 Chemistry 361 

Mathematics 111, 112 Physics 113, 114 



93 



For variations in either of the schedules above, the student should consult a mem- 
ber of the faculty in chemistry. 

Students electing laboratory courses in chemistry are required to pay for breakage 
and for certain non-returnable items as determined by the department. 

111. College Chemistry. (5) Fundamental chemical principles. Laboratory covers 
experimental aspects of basic concepts. Lab— three hours. 

116. Equilibrium and Analysis. (5) Fundamental principles of equilibrium as applied 
to inorganic and generalized acid-base systems. Laboratory covers aspects of quan- 
titative and inorganic qualitative analysis. Lab— three hours. P— Chemistry 111. 

221, 222. Organic Chemistry. (5,5) Principles and reactions of organic chemistry. Lab- 
four hours. P— Chemistry 116. 

301, 302. Elective Research. (0,0) P— Permission of instructor. Summers only. 

323. Organic Analysis. (4) The systematic identification of organic compounds. Lab- 
four hours. P— Chemistry 222. 

325, 326. Organic Synthesis. (4,4) Reagents for and design of synthetic routes to or- 
ganic molecules. P— Chemistry 222. 

334. Chemical Analysis. (5) Theoretical and practical applications of modern methods 
of chemical analysis. Lab— four hours. C— Chemistry 341. 

341. Physical Chemistry I. (5) Fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics and 
electrochemistry, phenomenological kinetics and introductory computational methods. 
Lab— four hours. P— Chemistry 116, Math 111, Physics 113-114. C— Math 112. 

342. Physical Chemistry IIA. (5) Fundamentals of quantum mechanics, statistical ther- 
modynamics and introductory computational methods. Lab— four hours. P— 
Chemistry 341, Math 111-112, Physics 113-114. 

344. Physical Chemistry IIB. (5) Fundamentals of quantum mechanics, statistical ther- 
modynamics and introductory computatational methods. Lab— four hours. P— 
Chemistry 341, Math 111-112 and 301 (or 113), Physics 113-114. 

351. Special Topics in Biochemistry. (4) Fundamentals of biochemistry, with partic- 
ular emphasis on mechanistic analysis of metabolic pathways, enzymatic activity, and 
drug action. P— Chemistry 222. 

356, 357. Chemical Spectroscopy. (2,2) Fundamental aspects of the theory and appli- 
cation of chemical spectroscopy, as found in the areas of analytical, inorganic, or- 
ganic, and physical chemistry. Emphasis will vary. Seven week courses. P— Chemistry 
342 or 344, 361, or permission of instructor. 

361. Inorganic Chemistry. (5) Principles and reactions of inorganic chemistry. Lab- 
four hours. P— Chemistry 342 or 344. 

362. Inorganic Chemistry. (4) Continuation of principles of inorganic chemistry with 
practical applications to inorganic systems. P— Chemistry 361. 



94 



381, 382. Chemistry Seminar. (0,0) Discussions of contemporary research. Attendance 
required of BS chemistry majors in the junior and senior years. 

383. Chemical Literature. (1) Introduction to the chemical literature and searching 
techniques for the acquisition of chemical information. P— Chemistry 222. 

391, 392. Undergraduate Research. (2,2) Undergraduate research. Lab— eight hours. 



Classical Languages 

John L. Andronica, Chairman 

Professors John L. Andronica, Robert W. Ulery Jr. 

Assistant Professors Mary L. B. Pendergraft, James T. Powell 

Visiting Assistant Professor James G. DeVoto 

The Department of Classical Languages offers three majors: Greek, Latin, and clas- 
sical studies. Minors are offered in Greek and Latin. 

A major in Greek requires forty credits in the department. Thirty-two of these credits 
must be in the Greek language. Classics 270 is also a requirement. 

A minor in Greek requires twenty-five credits: Greek 111-112, 153, 211, and either 
212 or 231; and Classics 270. 

A major in Latin requires thirty-two credits in the department beyond Latin 153. 
Twenty-four of these credits must be in Latin courses. Classics 271 also is a require- 
ment, and Classics 270 is recommended. 

A minor in Latin requires three 200-level courses in Latin; Classics 271; and one 
additional course (three or four credits) in Greek or Latin or classics. 

A major in classical studies requires fifty-six credits. A minimum of thirty-six credits 
of course work must be taken in the department. A maximum of forty-eight credits 
in the department may be exceeded only if a student undertakes course work in both 
Latin and Greek. The student must take a minimum of two courses at the 200-level 
in either Greek or Latin and the following: Art 241 (Ancient Art), Classics 265 (Greek 
Literature), Classics 272 (Latin Literature), Classics 270 (Greek Civilization), and Classics 
271 (Roman Civilization). 

A maximum of sixteen credits may be taken in the following: Art 244 (Greek Art), 
245 (Roman Art), 246 (Greek and Roman Architecture), 252 (Romanesque Art); History 
215, 216 (The Ancient World); Philosophy 201 (Ancient and Medieval Philosophy), 230 
(Plato), 231 (Aristotle); Politics 271 (Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy), 274 
(Noble Greeks and Romans); Religion 311 (Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible), 314 (Ancient 
Israel and her Neighbors), 363 (Hellenistic Religions); Hebrew 111, 112, 153, 211. Other 
courses may be allowed with the permission of the department. 

A minor in classical studies requires five courses in addition to Latin or Greek 153: 
Classics 265, 272, and either 270 or 271; and two additional courses (8 credits) in Greek, 
Latin, Classics, or other courses allowed by the department. 

The requirements for certification to teach Latin in high school are the same as 
the requirements for a major in Latin. A major in classical studies serves as an ap- 
propriate part of the program of studies required for certification to teach Latin in 
high school. 



95 



A student wishing to secure this certification should confer with the chairman of 
the department. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in Latin, Greek, or classical studies. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Latin," "Honors in Greek," or "Honors in Classical Studies," 
a student must complete an honors research project and pass a comprehensive oral 
examination. For honors in Latin or Greek, at least two of the courses counted toward 
the major must be seminar courses; for honors in classical studies, at least one semi- 
nar course in Latin or Greek is required. For additional information, members of the 
departmental faculty should be consulted. 

Greek 

111, 112. Elementary Greek. (5,5) Greek grammar; selections from Greek prose writers 
and poets. 

153. Intermediate Greek. (4) Grammar and selected readings. 

211. Plato. (4) Selections from the dialogues of Plato. 

212. Homer. (4) Selections from the Iliad and the Odyssey. 

221. Greek Readings. (2-4) A course designed to meet individual needs and interests. 
231. The Greek New Testament. (4) Selections from the Greek New Testament. 

241. Greek Tragedy. (3) Euripides' Medea. This course includes a study of the origin 
and history of Greek tragedy, with collateral reading of selected tragedies in transla- 
tion. Seminar. 

242. Greek Comedy. (3) Aristophanes' Clouds. This course includes a study of the 
origin and history of Greek comedy, with collateral reading of selected comedies in 
translation. Seminar. 

291, 292. Honors in Greek. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Latin 

111, 112. Elementary Latin. (4,4) Introduction to Latin grammar. 

113. Intensive Elementary Latin. (5) Introduction to Latin grammar. Covers material 
of Latin 111 and 112 in one semester. Not open to students who have had Latin 111 
or 112. 

153. Intermediate Latin. (5) Grammar review and selected readings. 

211. Introduction to Latin Poetry. (4) Readings primarily from Virgil's Aeneid, with 
an introduction to literary criticism. 

212. Introduction to Latin Prose. (4) Readings primarily from the orations of Cicero, 
with attention to the elements of rhetoric in Roman public discourse. 



96 



216. Roman Lyric Poetry. (4) An interpretation and evaluation of lyric poetry through 
readings from the poems of Catullus and Horace. 

221. Roman Historians. (4) Readings in the works of Sallust, Livy, or Tacitus, with 
attention to the historical background and the norms of ancient historiography. 

225. Roman Epistolography. (4) Selected readings from the correspondence of Cicero 
and Pliny the Younger and the verse epistles of Horace and Ovid. 

226. Roman Comedy. (4) Readings of selected comedies of Plautus and Terence, with 
a study of the traditions of comedy and dramatic techniques. 

231. Roman Elegy. (4) Readings from the poems of Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid, 
with study of the elegiac tradition. 

241. Roman Satire. (4) Selected readings from Horace and Juvenal, with attention 
to the origin and development of hexameter satire. 

243. Latin Readings. (2-4) A course designed to meet individual needs and interests. 

250. Prose Composition. (2) Exercises in writing of Latin prose, with an introduction 
to prose stylistics. 

398, 399. The Teaching of Latin. (4,4) A reading course and workshop in problems 
of Latin pedagogy and the secondary Latin curriculum, designed to meet the needs 
and interests of selected students. 

Seminars 

The following seminars are offered by members of the faculty on topics and authors 
of their choice. A paper is required. 

261. Seminar in Poetry of the Republican Period. (3) 

262. Seminar in Prose of the Republican Period. (3) 

281. Seminar in Augustan and Later Poetry. (3) 

282. Seminar in Augustan and Later Prose. (3) 

291, 292. Honors in Latin. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Classics 

151. Ethics in Greece and Rome. (2) Reading and discussion of Aristotle's Ethics and 
Cicero's On Moral Duties, with attention to our own ethical dilemmas. A knowledge 
of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

220. Greek and Latin in Current Use. (3) A systematic study of Greek and Latin loan 
words, roots, prefixes, and suffixes as elements of English and specialized vocabu- 
laries (e.g., scientific and legal). A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is 
not required. 



97 



251. Classical Mythology. (4) A study of the most important myths of the Greeks 
and Romans. Many of the myths are studied in their literary context. A knowledge 
of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

252. Women in Antiquity. (3,4) The course explores the place of women in Greek 
and Roman society men's views of them, their views of themselves, and their 
contribution to society, through primary source readings from the ancient authors. 
A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

253. Greek Epic Poetry. (4) Oral epic poetry, with primary emphasis on the Iliad and 
the Odyssey of Homer and the later development of the genre. A knowledge of the 
Greek language is not required. 

254. Roman Epic Poetry. (4) A study of the Latin treatment and development of the 
literary form, with emphasis on Lucretius, Virgil, Ovid, and Lucan. A knowledge 
of the Latin language is not required. 

263. Tragic Drama. (4) A study of the origins and development of Greek tragedy and 
its influence on Roman writers, with readings from Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euri- 
pides. A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

264. Greek and Roman Comedy. (4) Representative works of Aristophanes, Menander, 
Plautus, and Terence, with attention to the origins and development of comedy. A 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

265. A Survey of Greek Literature. (4) A study of selections from Greek literature 
in English translation. A knowledge of the Greek language is not required. 

270. Greek Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on those phases of Greek 
civilization which have particular significance for the modern world. A knowledge 
of the Greek language is not required. 

271. Roman Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on the general subject 
of Rome's contribution to the modern world. A knowledge of the Latin language is 
not required. 

272. A Survey of Latin Literature. (4) A study of selections from Latin literature in 
English translation. A knowledge of the Latin language is not required. 

280. Topics in Greek History. (4) The course will examine three central events in Greek 
history: the Persian War (490-479 B.C.), the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.), and 
the career of Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), through close study of the works 
of Herodotus and Thucydides and of the Alexander tradition. Particular attention 
will be devoted to literary form and historiographical method. A knowledge of the 
Greek language is not required. 

288. Individual Study. (2-4) 

291, 292. Honors in Classical Studies. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 



98 



Economics 

J. Daniel Hammond, Chairman 

Reynolds Professor John H. Wood 

Professors Donald E. Frey, John C. Moorhouse, J. Van Wagstaff 

Associate Professors J. Daniel Hammond, Claire Holton Hammond 

Assistant Professors Allin Cottrell, Michael S. Lawlor, Perry L. Patterson 

Visiting Assistant Professor Gregory A. Lilly 

Instructors Paul F. Huck, Glenn Michael Lail 

The objectives of the economics program are to help prepare students for effective 
participation in the decision-making processes of society, to develop analytical skills 
in solving economic problems, to promote a better understanding of alternative eco- 
nomic systems, and to provide a balanced curriculum to prepare students for gradu- 
ate study or positions in industry and government. 

The major in economics requires a minimum of thirty-six credits in economics, in- 
cluding Economics 150, 205, 206, 207, and 208. In order to major in economics, a student 
must have earned a rrtinimum of a C in Economics 150. The department recommends 
that majors take Mathematics 109 and 108 or 111, either to fulfill the Division II 
requirement or as electives. A student may offer up to five credits toward the thirty- 
six credits required for a major by taking one of the following courses, provided that, 
for (c), (d), (e), or (f), the complementary course in economics is successfully com- 
pleted. 

(a) Mathematics 112. Second semester of Calculus. (5) 

(b) Philosophy 279. Philosophy of Science. (4) 

(c) Politics 219. Fundamentals of Public Policy Analysis. (4) 

(Economics 221. Public Finance.) 

(d) Politics 253. The Politics of International Economic Relations. (4) 

(Economics 251. International Trade, or Economics 252. International Finance.) 

(e) History 332. Russia. (4) (Economics 253. Economics of Communism.) 

(f) History 344. Modern China. (4) (Economics 253. Economics of Communism.) 

(g) History 361. Economic History of the U.S. (4) 

The remaining courses for a major in economics and courses in related fields are 
selected by the student and his or her adviser. A minimum grade average of C on 
all courses attempted in economics is required for graduation. 

Economics majors with a grade average of at least 3.0 and 3.3 in economics may 
graduate with "Honors in Economics" by satisfying the research requirement of 
Economics 298. It is recommended but not required that Economics 297 be taken first. 

The Department of Economics and the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six credits, 
affords the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the develop- 
ment of economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major consists of 
the following course requirements: Economics 150, 205, 207, 208, 215, 218; Mathematics 
111, 112, 113, 121, 251; and three additional courses chosen with the approval of the 
program advisers. Recommended courses are Economics 206, 212, 223, 231, 232, 235, 



99 



251, 252, and Mathematics 253, 311, 312, 348, 352, 353, 357, and 358. Students elect- 
ing the joint major must receive permission from both the Department of Economics 
and the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. A minimum grade 
average of C in all courses attempted for the mathematical economics joint major 
is required for graduation. 

Highly qualified majors are encouraged to apply for admission to the honors pro- 
gram in the joint major. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Mathe- 
matical Economics," a student must satisfy the requirements of Economics 298 or 
Mathematics 381 by successfully completing a senior research project. Consult the 
program advisers for additional information. 

For the BA in economics the following schedule is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior* Senior 

Lower Division Economics 150 Economics 205, 206 Four electives 

requirements Mathematics 108 Economics 207, 208 in economics 

or 111 
Mathematics 109 

*It is expected that economics majors will complete the intermediate theory sequences in their junior year. 

For the BS in mathematical economics the following schedule is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Mathematics 111, 

112 Economics 150 Economics 205, 207 Economics 218 

Lower Division Mathematics 113, Economics 208, 215 Three electives in 

requirements 121 Mathematics 251 economics and/or 

mathematics 

150. Introduction to Economics. (4) A survey of micro and macroeconomic princi- 
ples. Introduction to basic concepts, characteristic data and trends, and some analyt- 
ic techniques. Preference in enrollment will be given to students with sophomore 
or upperclass standing. 

205. Intermediate Microeconomics I. (4) Development of demand and supply anal- 
ysis, neoclassical theory of household and firm behavior, and alternative market struc- 
tures. P— Economics 150. 

206. Intermediate Microeconomics II. (4) More advanced theory of maximizing 
behavior of economic agents with discussion of risk, uncertainty, and economic 
dynamics. Theory employed in assessment of policy issues. P— Economics 205. 

207. Intermediate Macroeconomics I. (4) Development of macroeconomic concepts 
of national income, circular flow, income determination, and monetary economics. 
The Keynesian, monetarist, and post-Keynesian analyses of aggregate economic per- 
formance are emphasized. P— Economics 150. 

208. Intermediate Macroeconomics II. (4) Survey of new equilibrium macroeconom- 
ic theories, including maximization and rational expectations hypotheses. Dynamics 
considered in analysis of economic performance. P— Economics 205, 207. 



100 



212. Economic Forecasting. (4) A computer-oriented application of modern econo- 
metric and time series methods for forecasting economic variables. P— Economics 
150. C— Economics 207. 

215. Introduction to Econometrics. (4) Economic analysis through quantitative 
methods, with emphasis on model construction and empirical research. P— Economics 
205, 207 and Mathematics 109 or 121. 

218. Seminar in Mathematical Economics. (4) Calculus and matrix methods used 
to develop basic tools of economic analysis. P— Economics 205, 207 and Mathematics 
111, 112. 

221. Public Finance. (4) An examination of the economic behavior of government. 
Includes principles of taxation, spending, borrowing, and debt-management. P— 
Economics 150. C— Economics 205. 

222. Monetary Theory and Policy. (4) An investigation of the nature of money, the 
macroeconomic significance of money, financial markets, and monetary policy. P— 
Economics 207. 

223. Financial Markets. (4) A study of the functions, structure, and performance of 
financial markets. P— Economics 205, 207. 

224. Law and Economics. (4) An economic analysis of property, contracts, torts, crimi- 
nal behavior, due process, and law enforcement. P— Economics 205. 

225. Public Choice. (4) Traditional tools of economic analysis are employed to explore 
such topics in political science as political organization, elections, coalition forma- 
tion, the optimal provision of public goods, and the scope of government. P— 
Economics 205. 

231. Economics of Industry. (4) Analysis of the link between market structure and 
market performance in U.S. industries from theoretical and empirical veiwpoints. 
Examines the efficiency of different firm practices including mergers and cartels. Case 
studies include automobiles, steel, agriculture, computers, sports, and telecommuni- 
cations. P— Economics 150. C— Economics 205. 

232. Business and Government. (2,4) Analysis of the logic and effectiveness of various 
regulatory instruments used by government to affect the structure and performance 
of industry. Principal topics include economic regulation of natural monopoly, an- 
titrust policy, and deregulation in transportation and other industries. P— Economics 
150. C— Economics 205. 

235. Labor Theory. (4) A survey of neoclassical labor economics. Includes recent 
developments in the macroeconomics of the labor market, including expectations and 
wage inflation and the wage-productivity-price relationship. P— Economics 205, 207. 

236. Economics of Human Resources. (4) Survey of diverse theories outside the neo- 
classical tradition dealing with wages and employment, education, and labor 
relations. Methods of program and policy evaluation are introduced where applica- 
ble. P— Economics 150. 



101 



246. Urban Economics. (4) Application of economic theory to suburbanization, land 
values, urban decay and redevelopment, zoning, location decisions of firms and house- 
holds, and metropolitan fiscal problems. P— Economics 205. 

247. Regional Economics. (4) Study of the economic structure of subnational and in- 
ternational regions, and of their interactions. Includes analysis of trends and of the 
economic welfare implications of spatial policies. P— Economics 205. 

248. Resource Economics. (4) The economic theory of natural resource allocation and 
environmental quality. P— Economics 205. 

251. International Trade. (4) Development of the theory of international trade patterns 
and prices and the effects of trade restrictions such as tariffs and quotas. P— Economics 
205. 

252. International Finance. (4) A study of foreign exchange and Eurocurrency mar- 
kets, balance of payments, and macroeconomic policy in open economies. P— 
Economics 205, 207. 

253. Economics of Communism. (4) A theoretical and institutional examination of 
several non-capitalist economies, with special reference to the Soviet Union, the 
People's Republic of China, and Eastern Europe. P— Economics 150. 

254. Capitalism and Planning. (2,4) The role of strategies of comprehensive govern- 
ment intervention in the economies of the West. Special attention to planning mecha- 
nisms and industrial policies in Japan and Western Europe. Four-credit version devotes 
additional attention to features of the welfare state. P— Economics 150. 

258. Economic Growth and Development. (4) A study of the problems of economic 
growth, with particular attention to the less developed countries of the world. P— 
Economics 205. 

261. American Economic Development. (4) The application of economic theory to 
historical problems and issues in the American economy. P— Economics 150. 

262. History of Economic Thought. (4) A historical survey of the main developments 
in economic thought from the Biblical period to the twentieth century. P— Economics 
205, 207. 

265. Economic Philosophers. (4) An in-depth study of the doctrines and influence 
of three major figures in economics, such as Smith, Marx, and Keynes. P— Economics 
205, 207. 

271, 272. Selected Areas in Economics. (2,4; 2,4) A survey of an important area in 
economics not included in the regular course offerings. The economics of housing, 
education, technology, and health services are examples. Students should consult 
the instructor to ascertain topic before enrolling. P— Economics 205, 207. 

290. Individual Study. (2,4) Directed readings in a specialized area of economics. P— 
Permission of instructor. 



102 



297. Preparing for Economic Research. (2) Designed to assist students in selecting 
a research topic and beginning the study of the selected topic. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

298. Economic Research. (4) Development and presentation of a senior research 
project. Required of candidates for departmental honors. P— Permission of 
department. 



Education 

Joseph O. Milner, Chairman 

Professors Patricia M. Cunningham, Thomas M. Elmore, 

John H. Litcher, Joseph O. Milner, J. Don Reeves 

Associate Professors Robert H. Evans, Linda N. Nielsen, Leonard P. Roberge 

Visiting Assistant Professor Mary Lynn Redmond 

Lecturers G. Dianne Mitchell, Marianne A. Schubert 

Instructors Patricia H. Campbell, Robert E. Nalley 

Adjunct Instructor John C. Cheska 

Wake Forest University believes that the teaching profession is important to socie- 
ty and that its welfare is significantly affected by the quality of educational leader- 
ship. One of the important objectives of the University has been and continues to 
be the preparation of teachers and other professional school personnel. The Univer- 
sity's commitment to quality in teacher education is demonstrated by selective ad- 
mission to the program, a wide range of professional courses, and closely supervised 
internships appropriate to the professional development of students. 

Prospective elementary, science and social studies teachers earn certification in 
those broad areas and majors in education. Prospective secondary teachers earn 
a professional minor in education and major in other departments. In addition to 
the professional program, the department provides elective courses open to all 
students. 

Teacher Certification. The North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction 
issues the Professional Class A Teacher's Certificate to graduates who have com- 
pleted an approved program, including the specified courses in their teaching fields 
and the prescribed courses in education, who have demonstrated specific competen- 
cies, and who receive recommendations from the designated officials in their teaching 
areas and from the chairman of the department or deputy. 

Students who have graduated from an institution of higher education but have 
not completed an approved certification program may seek admission to the depart- 
ment in order to complete the Class A Certificate. 

Admission Requirements. Admission to the teacher education program normally oc- 
curs during the sophomore year. Admission involves filing an official application 
with the department's certification officer, being interviewed, and being officially 
approved by the department. In addition, the North Carolina State Department of 
Public Instruction requires teacher education program applicants to successfully com- 
plete the General Knowledge and Communication Skills Sections of the National 



103 



Teachers' Examination before being formally admitted. All candidates for admission 
must have a 2.5 GPA at the time of formal admission. 

Program Area Goals. The goals and objectives for each certification area are availa- 
ble in the department's certification office. 

Course Requirements. The approved program of teacher education requires candi- 
dates to complete successfully a series of professional education courses. The exact 
sequence of professional and academic courses varies with a student's particular 
program and is determined by the advisor in conference with the candidate. For 
those seeking secondary certification, the majority of the professional work is taken 
during one semester of the senior year. Candidates for the elementary certificate 
may begin course work required for certification as early as the sophomore year. 

Student Teaching. Prerequisites for registering for student teaching include (1) senior, 
graduate, or special student classification; (2) completion of two field experience 
courses and the foundations of education course; (3) formal admission to the teacher 
certification program. 

Students are assigned to student teaching opportunities by public school officials 
on the basis of available positions and the professional needs of the student and 
the public school system. One semester of the senior year is reserved for the stu- 
dent teaching experience and the block of courses preparatory to that experience 
in the schools. Students may not take other courses during this semester without 
the approval of the department chairman. 

Exit Requirements. Students must maintain a 2.5 GPA while enrolled in the teacher 
education program, and complete the program with a minimum GPA of 2.5. The 
North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction requires candidates for profes- 
sional certification to successfully complete the Professional Knowledge Section and 
the area exam of the NTE. 

Teaching Area Requirements 

Secondary Certificate 

English— Thirty-six credits, including four credits from courses numbered 160-175; 
287; sixteen credits from courses numbered 300-399, 323, 390. 
French— Certification in K-12 in French: —Thirty-six credits, including French 216, 217, 
219, 221, 223, 224, or their equivalents; at least eight credits in French literature be- 
yond 217. 

Spanish— Certification in K-12 in Spanish:— Thirty-six credits, including Spanish 217, 
218, 221, 223, 224, or their equivalents; at least four additional credits in literature. 
German— Certification in K-12 in German: —Thirty-seven credits, including German 
153, 215, 216; eight credits from German 217, 218, 219, 220; at least twelve credits 
in German literature beyond 212. 

Latin— The requirements are the same as those for the major in Latin. 
Mathematics— Forty credits, including Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, 331; at 
least one additional four-credit, 300-level course. 

Music— Forty-eight credits, including Music 171, 172, 173, 174, 181, 182, 186, 187, 188; 
Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354. 



104 



Science— Ten credits each in biology, chemistry, and physics; eight credits in mathemat- 
ics; additional work in the area of concentration: biology (ten credits), chemistry 
(ten credits), or physics (ten credits). For certification in the individual 
fields of science, the following are required: biology (thirty-six credits), chemistry 
(thirty-six credits), or physics (thirty-six credits). 

Social Studies— Forty credits, including twenty-four credits in history, with course 
work in United States, European and Third World history; sixteen credits with one 
course in Economics, Geography, Politics, and Anthropology or Sociology. 

Education courses required for a secondary certificate include Education 201, 202, 
203, 311, 314, 354, 364, and 383. (Education 201, 202, 203 are replaced by 361, 362, 
363 respectively for students with graduate or unclassified standing.) In addition 
to these requirements, students seeking K-12 certification in foreign languages will 
take Education 390 and 313. They will take either Education 250 or 364. 

Elementary Certificate 

A major in elementary education requires 48 credits in education including Edu- 
cation 201, 202, 203, 221, 222, 250, 271, 293, 294, 295, 296, 311, 313 and 383 and an 
academic concentration in English, mathematics, science or social studies. Additional 
requirements for an elementary education teaching certificate include eight credits 
in language arts; eight credits in social studies; eight credits in science; four credits 
in mathematics; four credits in music or art; six credits in health and sport science 
(including HSS 223). 

A minor in professional education includes Education 201, 202, 203, 311, 314, 354, 
364, 383. 

201. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foun- 
dations of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

202. Field Experience One. (2) Practical experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only. 

203. Field Experience Two. (2) Further experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only. P— Education 
202. 

221. Children's Literature and Reading. (4) A survey of the types of literature ap- 
propriate for the elementary grades and an investigation of the basic problems in 
reading. P— Permission of instructor. 

222. The Arts in the Elementary Grades. (2) The development of skills in music, 
movement, and fine arts, appropriate to the elementary grades. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

223. Health and Physical Education for the Elementary Grades. (4) The develop- 
ment of physical education skills appropriate for the elementary grade teacher and 
an understanding of the personal and community health needs appropriate for the 
grade level. P— Education 201 or permission of instructor. 



105 



231. Adolescent Literature. (4) A study of recent fiction centering on the lives of 
adolescents. Attention is given to interpretation of literature ranging from the reader 
response approach to critical pluralism. 

250. Student Teaching: Elementary. (6) Supervised teaching experience in grades 
K-6. Pass/fail. P— Permission of instructor. 

271. Geography: The Human Environment. (4) A survey of the geography of human 
activity as it occurs throughout the world. Emphasis is placed on current problems 
related to population, resources, regional development, and urbanization. 

272. Geography Study Tour. (4) A guided tour of selected areas to study physical, 
economic, and cultural environments and their influence on man. Background 
references for reading are suggested prior to the tour. Offered in the summer. 

273. Geography: The Natural Environment. (4) A systematic study of the major com- 
ponents of physical geography with special emphasis on climate and topography. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestra and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical 
scoring and manuscript skills. Offered in alternate years. Offered spring semester of even 
years. P— Music 174, 182. 

281. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of 
abiding significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with each 
topic will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal arts 
tradition. The visiting scholars of the Tocqueville Forum will supplement the class 
discussion. Politics and the Arts and Theory and Practice in Public Life are representa- 
tive topics. 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of choral and instrumental conducting techniques, 
including practical experience with ensembles. Offered spring semester of odd years. 
P— Music 174 or permission of instructor. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3 or 4) A survey of repertoire, including an exami- 
nation of teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. Course may 
be repeated. P— Permission of instructor. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental techniques. 
Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, choral and instrumen- 
tal repertoire, marching band, and instrumental problems. Spring. P— Music 101 or 
102 or permission of instructor. 

293. Elementary School Curriculum: Theory and Practice. (3) General principles 
of curriculum construction and teaching methods. Introduction to the use of audio- 
visual materials and equipment. P— Permission of instructor. 

294. Methods and Materials for Teaching Language Arts. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching language arts in the elementary 
grades. P— Permission of instructor. 



106 



295. Methods and Materials for Teaching Social Studies. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching social studies in the elementary 
grades. P— Permission of instructor. 

296. Methods and Materials for Teaching Science and Mathematics. (4) A survey 
of the basic materials, methods, and techniques of teaching science and mathematics 
in the intermediate grades. P— Permission of instructor. 

297. Trends and Issues in American Schools. (2) An exploration of contemporary 
trends and issues as they affect course content and teaching methods in the schools. 
The course is intended to help those not entering professional education evaluate 
their schools as informed citizens and decision-makers. 

301. Microcomputer and Audiovisual Literacy. (4) An introduction to microcom- 
puters for educators and other users, emphasizing familiarity with computers, use 
and evaluation of software, and elementary programming skills. Experience with 
audiovisual materials and techniques is included. 

302. Production of Instructional Methods. (4) Methods of producing instructional 
materials and other technological techniques. P— Education 301. 

303. History of Western Education. (4) Educational theory and practice from ancient 
times through the modern period, including American education. 

304. Theories of Education. (4) Contemporary proposals for educational theory and 
practice studied in the context of social issues. 

305. Sociology of Education. (4) A study of contemporary society and education, 
including goals and values, institutional culture, and the teaching/learning process. 

306. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Education. (4) A study of selected 
historical eras, influential thinkers, or crucial problems in education. Topics 
announced annually. 

311. Educational Psychology. (4) The theories, processes, and conditions of effec- 
tive teaching/learning. P— Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

313. Human Growth and Development. (4) A study of the intellectual, emotional, 
and physical components of growth from birth to adolescence, with special con- 
cern for the educational implications of this process. 

314. The School and Teaching. (4) Organization of the school system; bases of edu- 
cation; the curriculum; major problems of education and teaching; the role of the 
teacher; psychological aspects of teaching. P— Education 201 and permission of 
instructor. 

323. Educational Statistics. (4) Descriptive, inferential, and nonparametric statisti- 
cal procedures involved in educational research. Computer methods for statistical 
analysis. Not open to students who have taken Psychology 211 and 212. P— 
Permission of instructor. 



107 



341. Principles of Counseling and Guidance. (4) Counseling history, philosophy, 
theory, procedure, and process. Therapeutic and developmental counseling 
approaches in guidance and personnel work in education, business, and commu- 
nity service agencies. 

351. Adolescent Psychology. (4) An introduction to theories of adolescent psychology 
as related to teaching and counseling in various settings. The readings emphasize 
researchers' suggestions for parenting, teaching, and counseling adolescents between 
the ages of thirteen and nineteen. 

352. Middle School Methods. (4) Exploration of the content and method pertinent 
to a specific discipline as well as the general methodological and curriculum con- 
cerns of learning at the middle school (6-9) level. 

354. Methods and Materials. (4) Methods, materials, and techniques used in teaching 
the various subjects. P— Education 201 and permission of instructor. 

361. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foun- 
dations of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

362. Field Experience One. (2) Practical experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only. 

363. Field Experience Two. (2) Further experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only. P— Education 
362. 

364. Field Experience Three. Secondary/Middle Student Teaching. (6) Supervised 
teaching experience in grades 6-12. Pass/fail. P— Permission of instructor. 

383. Reading, Writing and Computers in the Content Areas. (3) An introduction to 
using reading, writing and computers to help students learn content-area informa- 
tion at all grade levels. Strategies for adjusting instruction and developing literacy 
for all students will be emphasized. 

384. Creative Research Methodologies. (2) An investigation of source materials, printed 
and manuscript, and research methods which are applied to creative classroom ex- 
periences and the preparation of research papers in literature and social studies. 

385. Publishing in America and Professional Authorship. (2) A survey of the history 
of publishing and literary authorship in the United States emphasizing social con- 
texts and the impact of books on American institutions. 

387. Tutoring Writing. (2) Introduction to composition theory and rhetoric with a 
special emphasis on one-to-one tutoring techniques. Students will analyze their own 
writing process and experiences, study modern composition theory, and practice 
tutoring techniques in keeping with these theories. (Strongly recommended for those 
interested in working in the Writing Center as peer tutors. A student may not receive 
credit for both Education 387 and English 287.) 



108 



390. Methods and Materials for Teaching Foreign Language. (4) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching foreign languages in the elementary 
and middle grades. Emphasis is placed on issues and problems involved in planning 
and implementing effective second language programs in grades K-6. 

391. Teaching the Gifted. (4) An investigation of theory and practice pertinent to 
teachers of the gifted. 

392. The Psychology of the Gifted Child. (4) A discussion of giftedness and creativi- 
ty in children and the relationship of those characteristics to adult superior perfor- 
mance. Topics to be covered include a history of the study of precocity, methods and 
problems of identification, the relationship of giftedness and creativity, personality 
characteristics and social-emotional problems of gifted children, and the social im- 
plications of studying giftedness. 

393. Individual Study. (2,4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available in 
the Department of Education. Permitted upon departmental approval of petition 
presented by a qualified student. 

394. Internship in Education of the Gifted. (4) An intensive period of observation 
and instruction of gifted students. Readings and directed reflection upon the class- 
room experience will be used to develop a richer understanding of such a special 
school setting. 

396. Education in Business and Industry. (4) Educational concepts applied to pro- 
grams in education and training in business/industrial settings. 

English 

Barry G. Maine, Chairman 

Professors John A. Carter Jr., Nancy J. Cotton, Doyle R. Fosso, 

James S. Hans, W. Dillon Johnston, Robert W. Lovett, 

Robert N. Shorter, Edwin Graves Wilson 

Associate Professors Mary K. DeShazer, Andrew V. Ettin, Barry G. Maine, 

Dolly A. McPherson, William M. Moss, Gillian R. Overing 

Assistant Professors Timothy Bent, Beth Giddens, Philip Kuberski, 

Gale Sigal, Claudia N. Thomas 

Visiting Assistant Professors Anne Boyle, William Rowland, 

Michael Selmon, Mark S. Sexton 

Professor of Journalism Bynum G. Shaw 

Lecturers Linda C. Brinson, Patricia A. Johansson 

Poet-in- Residence Robert A. Hedin 

Instructors Ellen Kovner, Mark Lytal, Andrea Rowland, Henry Russell 

The major in English requires a minimum of forty credits, at least thirty-two of 
which must be in advanced language and literature courses numbered 300 to 399. 
These courses must include Shakespeare, two additional courses in British literature 
before 1800, one course in American literature, and, early in the major, one 



109 



seminar. Majors and their advisers plan individual programs to meet these require- 
ments and to include work in the major literary genres. 

A minor in English requires English 160 or 165 and English 170 or 175, plus five 
advanced language and literature courses. Each minor will be assigned an adviser 
in the English department who will plan with the student a program of study. 

The prerequisite for all 300-level courses in English is any one of the courses in 
British and American literature numbered 160, 165, 170, and 175, all of which are offered 
each semester. Additional courses in journalism and writing are offered by the depart- 
ment as related subjects but do not count toward an English major; they may be taken 
as electives regardless of the field of study in which a student majors. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply in the second 
semester of their junior year for admission to the honors program in English. To gradu- 
ate with "Honors in English," students must have a minimum grade-point average 
of 3.5 in the major and 3.0 in all course work and must satisfy the requirements for 
English 388 during their senior year. Interested students may consult departmental 
faculty members for further information. 

Lower Division Courses 

11. Composition Review. (0) A tutorial in the essentials of standard usage and the 
basic principles of composition. 

105. English Fundamentals. (2) Training in the fundamentals of written English. Ad- 
mission by placement only; does not satisfy the basic composition requirement. 

110. English Composition. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent essays 
based upon readings. 

"112. English Composition and Literature. (4) Training in expository writing based 
on the reading of literature. P— Permission of department. 

160. Survey of Major British Writers. (4) Eight to ten writers representing different 
periods and genres. 

165. Studies in Major British Writers. (4) Three to five writers representing different 
periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. P— 
Permission of department. 

170. Survey of Major American Writers. (4) Nine to eleven writers representing differ- 
ent periods and genres. 

175. Studies in Major American Writers. (4) Three to five writers representing different 
periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. 
P— Permission of department. 

180. Traditions of Humanity: The Liberal Arts. (2) A study of major concepts of liberal 
education in the Western world. 



*Either 110 or 112 zs a prerequisite for all other courses in English unless the basic requirement is waived. 
Either course fulfills the basic requirement. 



110 



210. Advanced Composition. (4) Study of prose models of exposition; frequent papers 
and individual conferences. Enrollment limited. P— Satisfaction of basic composition 
requirement. 

225. Reading Short Fiction. (2) Selected readings from the genre of short fiction 
designed to increase students' appreciation and pleasure. 

226. Reading the Novel. (2) Selected readings from the genre of the novel designed 
to increase students' appreciation and pleasure. 

227. Reading Poetry. (2) Selected readings from the genre of poetry designed to in- 
crease students' appreciation and pleasure. 

228. Reading Drama. (2) Selected readings from the genre of drama designed to in- 
crease students' appreciation and pleasure. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 
By prearrangement. 

Journalism Courses 

270. Introduction to Journalism. (4) Survey of the fundamental principles of news- 
gathering and news-writing; study of news and news values, with some attention 
to representative newspapers. 

272. Editing. (4) A laboratory course in copy-editing, headline-writing, typography, 
and make-up; practice on video display terminal. P— English 270. 

276. Advanced Journalism. (4) Intensive practice in writing various types of newspaper 
stories, including the feature article. Limited to students planning careers in journal- 
ism. P— English 270. 

278. History of Journalism. (4) A study of the development of American journalism 
and its English origins; detailed investigations of representative world newspapers. 

284. The Essay. (2) Primarily for those interested in writing for publication, with con- 
centration on writing various types of essays. 

298. Internship. (2) A course designed to assist students in gaining practical experience 
in news-related enterprises, under faculty supervision. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 
By prearrangement. 

Writing Courses 

285. Poetry Workshop. (2) A laboratory course in the writing of verse. Study of poetic 
techniques and forms as well as works of contemporary poets. Frequent individual 
conferences. 



Ill 



286. Short Story Workshop. (2) A study of the fundamental principles of short fiction 
writing; practice in writing; extensive study of short story form. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

287. Tutoring Writing. (2) Introduction to composition theory and rhetoric, with a 
special emphasis on one-to-one tutoring techniques. Students will analyze their own 
writing process and experiences, study modern composition theory, and practice 
tutoring techniques in keeping with these theories. Strongly recommended for those 
interested in working in the Writing Center as peer tutors. A student may not receive 
credit for both Education 387 and English 287. 

383, 384. Theory and Practice of Verse Writing. (4,4) Emphasis on reading and dis- 
cussing student poems in terms of craftsmanship and general principles. 

Advanced Language and Literature Courses 

300. Seminar in the Major. (4) Selected topics in British and American literature. In- 
tensive practice in critical discourse, including discussion, oral reports, and short 
essays. Introduction to literary scholarship and research methodology leading to a 
documented paper. Required for all majors. 

301. Individual Authors. (2) Study of selected work from an important American 
or British author. May be repeated. 

302. Ideas in Literature. (2) Study of a significant literary theme in selected works. 
May be repeated. 

304. History of the English Language. (4) A survey of the development of English 
syntax, morphology, and phonology from Old English to the present, with attention 
to vocabulary growth. 

305. Old English Language and Literature. (4) An introduction to the Old English 
language and a study of the historical and cultural background of Old English litera- 
ture, including Anglo-Saxon and Viking art, runes, and Scandinavian mythology. 
Readings from Beowulf and selected poems and prose. 

311. The Legend of Arthur. (4) The origin and development of the Arthurian legend 
in France and England, with emphasis on the works of Chretien de Troyes and Sir 
Thomas Malory. 

312. Medieval Poetry. (4) The origin and development of poetic genres and lyric forms 
of Middle English. 

315. Chaucer. (4) Emphasis on The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde, with some 
attention to minor poems. Consideration of literary, social, religious, and philosophical 
background. 

320. British Drama to 1642. (4) British drama from its beginning to 1642, exclusive 
of Shakespeare. Representative cycle plays, moralities, Elizabethan and Jacobean trage- 
dies, comedies, and tragicomedies. 



112 



323. Shakespeare. (4) Thirteen representative plays illustrating Shakespeare's develop- 
ment as a poet and dramatist. 

325. Sixteenth Century British Literature. (4) Concentration on the poetry of Spenser, 
Sidney Shakespeare, Wyatt, and Drayton, with particular attention to sonnets and 
The Faerie Queene. 

327. Milton. (4) The poetry and selected prose of John Milton, with emphasis on 
Paradise Lost. 

328. Seventeenth Century British Literature. (4) Poetry of Donne, Herbert, Vaughan, 
Marvel, Crashaw, prose of Bacon, Burton, Browne, Walton. Consideration of reli- 
gious, political, and scientific backgrounds. 

330. British Literature of the Eighteenth Century. (4) Representative poetry and prose, 
exclusive of the novel, 1700-1800, drawn from Addison, Steele, Defoe, Swift, Pope, 
Johnson, and Boswell. Consideration of cultural backgrounds and significant literary 
trends. 

335. Eighteenth Century British Fiction. (4) Primarily the fiction of Defoe, Richardson, 
Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, and Austen. 

336. Restoration and Eighteenth Century British Drama. (4) British drama from 1660 
to 1780, including representative plays by Dryden, Etherege, Wycherley, Congreve, 
Goldsmith, and Sheridan. 

337. Studies in Eighteenth Century British Literature. (4) Selected topics in eighteenth 
century literature. Consideration of texts and their cultural background. 

340. Studies in Women and Literature. (4) A. The woman writer in society. B. 
Feminist critical approaches to literature. 

350. British Romantic Poets. (4) A review of the beginnings of Romanticism in British 
literature, followed by study of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats, and Shelley; 
collateral reading in the prose of the period. 

353. Nineteenth Century British Fiction. (4) Representative major works by Dickens, 
Eliot, Thackeray, Hardy, the Brontes, and others. 

354. Victorian Poetry. (4) A study of Tennyson, Browning, Hopkins, and Arnold or 
another Victorian poet. 

360. Studies in Victorian Literature. (4) Selected topics, such as development of genres, 
major authors and texts, and cultural influences. Readings in poetry, fiction, autobi- 
ography, and other prose. 

362. Blake, Yeats, and Thomas. (4) Reading and critical analysis of the poetry of Blake, 
Yeats, and Dylan Thomas; study of the plays of Yeats and his contemporaries in the 
Irish Renaissance, especially Synge and Lady Gregory. 

364. Studies in Literary Criticism. (4) Consideration of certain figures and schools 
of thought significant in the history of literary criticism. 






113 



365. Twentieth Century British Fiction. (4) A study of Conrad, Lawrence, Joyce, Forster, 
Woolf, and later British writers, with attention to their social and intellectual back- 
grounds. 

367. Twentieth Century Poetry. (4) Readings of major poets from 1900 to 1965 in rela- 
tion to the development of Modernism. 

368. Studies in Irish Literature. (4) Critical readings of the works of major Irish writers 
within the context of the political, social, and literary history of Ireland. 

369. Modern Drama. (4) Main currents in modern drama from nineteenth century 
naturalism and symbolism through expressionism and absurdism, including represen- 
tative plays by Shaw, O'Neill, Williams, and Pinter. 

370. American Literature to 1820. (4) Origins and development of American litera- 
ture and thought in representative writings of the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal 
periods. 

372. American Romanticism. (4) Writers of the mid-nineteenth century, including 
Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, and Melville. 

376. American Poetry from 1855 to 1900. (4) Readings from at least two of the following 
poets: Whitman, Dickinson, Melville. 

377. American Jewish Literature. (4) A survey of writings on Jewish topics or 
experiences by American Jewish writers. The course explores cultural and genera- 
tional conflicts, responses to social change, the impact of the Shoah (Holocaust) on 
American Jews, and the challenges of language and form posed by Jewish and non- 
Jewish artistic traditions. 

378. Literature of the American South. (4) A study of Southern literature from its 
beginnings to the present, with emphasis upon such major writers as Tate, Warren, 
Faulkner, O'Connor, Welty, and Styron. 

380. American Fiction from 1865 to 1915. (4) Such writers as Twain, James, Howells, 
Crane, Dreiser, Wharton, and Cather. 

381. Studies in Black American Literature. (4) Reading and critical analysis of select- 
ed fiction, poetry, drama, and other writing by representative black Americans. 

382. Modern American Fiction, 1915 to 1965. (4) To include such writers as Stein, 
Lewis, Anderson, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Wolfe, Wright, 
Ellison, Agee, Flannery O'Connor, and Pynchon. 

386. Directed Reading. (2-4) A tutorial in an area of study not otherwise provided 
by the department; granted upon departmental approval of petition presented by 
a qualified student. 

388. Honors in English. (4) A conference course centering upon a special reading 
requirement and a thesis requirement. For senior students wishing to graduate with 
"Honors in English." 



114 



389. The Use of the Library in Literary Research. (2) Attention to materials, methods, 
and bibliography for the study of literature. 

390. The Structure of English. (4) An introduction to the principles and techniques 
of modern linguistics applied to contemporary American English. 

395. Contemporary American Literature. (4) A study of post-World War II American 
poetry and fiction by such writers as Bellow, Gass, Barth, Pynchon, Lowell, Ash- 
bery, Ammons, Bishop, and Rich. 



German and Russian 

Larry E. West, Chairman 

Professors Wilmer D. Sanders, Timothy F. Sellner, Larry E. West 

Associate Professor William S. Hamilton 

Assistant Professors Michael Gilbert, Kurt C. Shaw 

Lecturer Christa G. Carollo 

A major in German requires thirty-seven credits beyond German 112 or 113. These 
must include German 217 and should include 281 and 285. A minor in German 
requires five courses beyond German 153, one of which must be German 217. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in German. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
German," they must complete a senior research project and pass a comprehensive 
examination. For additional information, members of the departmental faculty should 
be consulted. 

Students of German are invited to apply for the exchange scholarship at the Free 
University of Berlin and for programs of study at Freiburg and Vienna administered 
by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and minors are strongly encouraged 
to live at least one semester in the German House. 

Ill, 112. Elementary German. (4,4) This course covers the principles of grammar and 
pronunciation and includes the reading of simple texts. Lab— one hour. 

113. Intensive Elementary German. (5) A one-semester course covering the material 
of German 111 and 112. For students whose preparation for German 153 is inade- 
quate or who have demonstrated proficiency in another language. Not open to 
students who have had German 111 or 112. 

153. Intermediate German. (5) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab— one hour. P— German 112 or 113. 

153x. Intermediate German. (4) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab— one hour. P— Three years of high school German. 

160. German Language and Customs. (4) Students spend one month in four differ- 
ent regions of Germany and Austria in a program designed to provide constant 
exposure to the language, customs, geography, and art of these countries. They attend 



115 



daily language classes as well as lectures and cultural events. They are required to 
keep a journal in German. Pass/fail. Offered in summer. P— German 112 or 113. 

215, 216. Introduction to German Literature. (4,4) The object of this course is to acquaint 
the student with masterpieces of German literature. Parallel reading and reports. P— 
German 153 or equivalent. 

217. Composition and Grammar Review. (4) A review of the fundamentals of German 
grammar with intensive practice in translation and composition. Required for majors. 
P— German 153 or equivalent. 

218. Basic Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German stressing corrections of struc- 
ture, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and vocabulary for everyday situations. P— 
German 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German at a more advanced 
level, stressing discussion of various topics of current importance in the German- 
speaking countries. Considerable attention is devoted to achieving fluency. P— German 
218 or permission of instructor. 

220. German Civilization I. (4) Survey of German culture and civilization from pre- 
historic times to 1918. Conducted in German. P— German 153 or equivalent. 

221. German Civilization II. (4) Survey of German culture and civilization from the 
Weimar Republic to the present, with particular emphasis on contemporary Germany. 
Conducted in German. P— 153 or equivalent. 

231. Weimar Germany. (4) Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 1919-33, 
in historical context. Cross-listed as History 318. 

240. Modern Masterworks in Translation. (2) Examination and interpretation of 
selected texts in English translation. Literary periods, genres, and authors will vary 
according to instructor. Does not count toward a major or minor in German. 

249. Old High German and Middle High German Literature. (4) The study of major 
writers and works from these two areas; emphasizes major writings of the chivalric 
period. P— German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

250. Renaissance, Reformation, and Baroque German Literature. (4) A study of major 
writers and works from the post-chivalric period to approximately 1700. P— German 
215, 216, or equivalent. 

253. Eighteenth Century German Literature. (4) A study of major writers and works 
of the Enlightenment and Sturm und Drang. P— German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

263. German Literature of the Nineteenth Century I. (4) Poetry, prose, dramas, and 
critical works from approximately 1795 to 1848. P— German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

264. German Literature of the Nineteenth Century n. (4) Readings from the beginnings 
of Poetic Realism to the advent of Naturalism. P— German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

270. Individual Study. (1-4) Studies in literature not ordinarily read in other courses. 
P— German 215, 216, and permission of instructor. 



116 



281. Seminar: Twentieth Century German Literature. (4) Intensive study of represen- 
tative works of major German writers, including literature of the post-war era. P— 
German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

285. Seminar in Goethe. (4) Faust, Part I and other major dramas by Goethe and 
Schiller. Parallel readings in other works by these authors. P— German 215, 216, or 
equivalent. 




Using the computer index at the Z. Smith Reynolds Library 



117 



287, 288. Honors in German. (3,3) A conference course in German literature. A major 
research paper is required. Designed for candidates for departmental honors. 

Russian 

A major requires thirty-two credits beyond 153 and must include Russian 215, 216, 
221, and either 217 or 218. A minor in Russian requires twenty credits beyond 153, 
four of which must be earned in Russian 221. Majors and minors are strongly 
encouraged to live at least one semester in the Russian House. 

Ill, 112. Elementary Russian. (4,4) The essentials of Russian grammar, conversation 
drill, and reading of elementary texts. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Russian. (5) Training in principles of translation with grammar 
review and conversation practice. Lab required. P— Russian 112 or equivalent. 

153x. Intermediate Russian. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

215. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the nineteenth 
century. P— Russian 153 or equivalent. 

216. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the twen- 
tieth century. P— Russian 153 or equivalent. 

217. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P— Russian 153 or equivalent. 

218. Seminar in Contemporary Russian Literature. (4) Reading of representative works 
in Russian with discussion of political and cultural backgrounds. P— Russian 153 or 
equivalent. 

221. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Study of grammar at the advanced 
level. Intensive practice in composition and conversation based on contemporary 
Soviet materials. 

230. The Structure of Russian. (4) The linguistic tools of phonetics, phonemics, and 
morphophonemics are explained and applied to modern Russian. Emphasis is given 
to the study of roots and word formation. P— Permission of instructor required. 

232. The History of the Russian Language. (4) The evolution of Russian from Common 
Slavic to the modern language; theory of linguistic reconstruction and the Indo- 
European family; readings from selected Old East Slavic texts. P— Russian 221 and 
permission of instructor. 

240. Seminar in Translation. (4) Advanced work in English-to-Russian and Russian- 
to-English translation. P— Russian 221 and permission of instructor. 

242. Research on Language and Culture in the Soviet Union. (2) An investigation 
designed by the student is carried out in the USSR during spring break. An 
evaluative paper follows the class trip. Credit given for the minor when the project 
is done in Russian. P— Russian 111 and permission of instructor. Limited enrollment. 



118 



250. Russian Culture and Civilization. (4) Survey of Russian contributions to art, 
architecture, music, and religious thought from Russia's beginnings to the present. 
Taught in Russian. P— Russian 215 or 216. 

270. Individual Study. (2-4) Study in language or literature beyond the 215-216 level. 
P— Russian 215 or higher. 



Health and Sport Science 

William L. Hottinger, Chairman 

Professors William L. Hottinger, Paul M. Ribisl 

Associate Professors Leo Ellison, Stephen P. Messier, W. Jack Rejeski 

Assistant Professors Michael J. Berry, Barbee C. Myers 

Instructors Donald Bergey, Susan Fisher, 

Bobbie Goodnough, Rebecca Myers 

The purpose of the Department of Health and Sport Science is to organize, 
administer, and supervise (1) a health and sport science curriculum; (2) a required/ 
elective health and sport science program consisting of conditioning activities, dance, and 
lifetime sport activities; and (3) an intramural sports program. 

Health and Sport Science Requirement 

All entering students are required to complete two courses in health and sport 
science: Foundations of Health and Physical Fitness (111), and one additional course select- 
ed from the 100-series of health and sport science courses, or HSS 205, 206, 207. The 
requirement must be completed before elective courses are taken. It is recommend- 
ed that the requirement be completed by the end of the student's first year; it must 
be completed by the end of the second year. 

Courses in Basic Instruction and Elective Health and Sport Science 

All the courses listed below are offered for one credit each. 

111. Foundations of Health and Physical Fitness 

112. Sports Proficiency 

113. Adaptive Physical Activity 

114. Weight Control 

115. Physical Conditioning 

116. Weight Training 

117. Cycling 

119. Aerobic Dancing 

120. Beginning Dance Technique 

121. Intermediate Dance Technique (P— Health and Sport Science 120 or 
permission of instructor) 

122. Advanced Dance Technique (P— Health and Sport Science 121 or 
permission of instructor) 



119 



123. Dance Composition (P— Health and Sport Science 121) 

124. Social Dance 

125. Folk and Social Dance 

126. Jazz Dance 

127. Classical Ballet 

*128. Dance Theatre (P— Permission of instructor) 
130. Beginning Tumbling/Free Exercise 

140. Beginning Swimming 

141. Intermediate/Advanced Swimming 

145. Advanced Lifesaving and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (P— Strong 
swimming ability) 

146. Water Safety Instructor's Course (P— Current advanced lifesaving 
certification) 

150. Beginning Tennis 

151. Intermediate Tennis 

152. Advanced Tennis (P— Health and Sport Science 151 or equivalent) 
154. Beginning/Intermediate Badminton 

156. Beginning Racquetball 

157. Intermediate Racquetball 

160. Beginning Golf 

161. Intermediate Golf 
163. Bowling 

170. Volleyball 

179. Beginning Horseback Riding 

180. Intermediate/Advanced Horseback Riding 

181. Snow Skiing 

182. Beginning Ice Figure Skating 

183. Intermediate/Advanced Ice Figure Skating 

190. Karate 

191. Yoga 



*One course taken two semesters for one credit. May be repeated for a maximum of three credits. 

Courses for the Major and Minor 

The department offers a program leading to the BS degree in health and sport 
science. A major requires forty-four credits and must include Health and Sport Science 
203, 204, 209, 212, 230, 350, 351, 352, 353, 360, and 370. A maximum of five 100-level 
activity courses can be counted toward the major, excluding the University require- 
ment. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 is required for graduation in courses 
that comprise a major in the department. 

A minor in health and sport science requires twenty-four credits. Twelve credits 
must be selected from Health and Sport Science 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 360, and 
370. The remaining twelve credits may be selected from these courses but may also 



120 



include Health and Sport Science 209, 212, 230, 241, and 363. To minor, a student 
must have department approval. 

A dance minor requires twenty-four credits and must include Health and Sport 
Science 120, 121, 122, 123, 126, 127, 128, and 201; Music 101; Speech Communica- 
tion and Theatre Arts 121; and History of Dance 104. The remaining credits may 
be selected from Health and Sport Science 191, 370; Music 161, 165p, 165r, 165v, 
166r, 168v, 190, 261; and Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 122, 221, 317, 
and 319. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program. Upon successfully meeting specifically outlined requirements, 
they are recommended for graduation with "Honors in Health and Sport Science." 
Consult an adviser in the health and sport science department for more information. 

Any student interested in majoring in health and sport science should consult the 
chairman of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

201. Senior Dance Project. (2) A course involving the creative process of developing 
a dance. 

202. History of American Dance. (4) A survey of American dance from the 1600's 
to the present with emphasis on scope, style, and function. 

203. Exercise Prescription/Training I. (2) A lecture/laboratory course which presents 
the basic principles of safe and effective exercise prescription for people of all ages. 
Lectures emphasize the scientific concepts of exercise preparation for aerobic-type 
activities. Laboratory sessions emphasize the application of these concepts. P— Health 
and Sport Science 353. 

204. Exercise Prescription/Training II. (2) A laboratory course which emphasizes 
the principles of exercise prescription and conditioning in aquatics and weight 
training. Emphasis on application of scientific concepts, including measurement and 
evaluation, to these activities. P— Health and Sport Science 353. 

205. Basic Skin and Scuba Diving and Open Water Certification. (2) A course in 
skin and scuba diving that offers international certification by the Professional 
Association of Diving Instructors (PADI). 

206. First Aid, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, and Lifeguard Training. (2) This 
course is designed to provide students with skills in first aid, cardiopulmonary 
resuscitation and lifeguard training that will qualify them to serve as nonsurf 
lifeguards. 

207. Water Safety and Lifeguard Instructor. (2) This course is designed to certify 
students as water safety and lifeguard instructors. P— 206 or permission of instructor. 

208. Current Topics in Sports Psychology. (2) A survey of the field with an empha- 
sis on current topics. Students may not receive credit for both 208 and 212. 

209. Introduction to Health and Sport Science. (2) A course which traces the histo- 
ry of exercise and sport science. Students also examine the relevance of health and 
sport science in modern society. 



121 



212. Exercise and Health Psychology. (4) A survey of the psychological antecedents 
of exercise and selected topics in health psychology with particular attention to well- 
ness, stress, the biobehavioral basis of coronary heart disease, and the psychodynam- 
ics of rehabilitative medicine. P— Psychology 151 or permission of instructor. 

223. Health and Physical Education for the Elementary Grades. (4) The develop- 
ment of physical education skills appropriate for the elementary grade teacher and 
an understanding of the personal and community health needs appropriate for the 
grade level. P— Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

230. First Aid and CPR. (2) A course in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 
Red Cross certification offered in both areas. 

241. Growth, Development, and Physical Activity. (2) An examination of the effect 
of physical activity on physical, intellectual, and social/psychological development. 

310. Applied Field Study. (2) A course involving application of theory and methods 
of solving problems in a specialized area according to the student's immediate career 
goals. P— Permission of instructor. 

350. Human Physiology. (4) A lecture course which presents the basic principles 
and concepts of the function of selected systems of the human body, with emphasis 
on the muscular, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and nervous systems. P— Biology 111 
or permission of instructor. 

351. Nutrition and Weight Control. (4) A lecture /laboratory course which presents 
the principles of proper nutrition including an understanding of the basic foodstuffs 
and nutrients as well as the influence of genetics, eating behavior, and activity 
patterns on energy balance and weight control. Laboratory experiences examine in- 
tervention in obesity and coronary heart disease through diet analysis, methods of 
diet prescription, and behavior modification. P— Health and Sport Science 353 or 
permission of instructor. 

352. Human Gross Anatomy. (4) A lecture /laboratory course in which the structure 
and function of the human body are studied. Laboratories are devoted to the 
dissection and study of the human musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and vascular 
systems. 

353. Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which presents the concepts and 
applications of the physiological response of the human body to physical activity. 
The acute and chronic responses of the muscular and cardiorespiratory systems to 
exercise are examined. Other topics include exercise and coronary disease, nutri- 
tion and performance, strength and endurance training, somatotype and body com- 
position, sex-related differences, and environmental influences. P— Health and Sport 
Science 350 or permission of instructor. 

354. Laboratory Techniques in Exercise Science. (4) A laboratory course which 
demonstrates the concepts of the physiological response to exercise. Weekly experi- 
ments on a variety of topics give students hands-on experience with data collection 



122 



methods. Experimental results are analyzed and presented in written lab reports. 
P— Health and Sport Science 353. 

360. Evaluation and Measurement. (4) A course in applied univariate statistics and 
measurement techniques in exercise and sport science. Students are introduced to 
both the BMDP statistical software package and the use of microcomputers for data 
management. 

365. Development and Management of Health Promotion and Fitness Programs. 

(4) This course surveys the principles involved in the development and manage- 
ment of various health promotion and fitness programs. Special attention is given 
to facility planning, staffing, marketing, budgeting, and client motivation. 

370. Biomechanics of Human Movement. (4) Study of the mechanical principles 
which influence human movement, sport technique, and equipment design. P— 
Health and Sport Science 352 or permission of instructor. 

375. Advanced Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which provides an in- 
depth examination of the physiological mechanisms responsible for both the acute 
and chronic changes which occur with exercise. Included are cellular changes in 
response to exercise, the ventilatory response to exercise and metabolic consequences 
of exercise. P— Health and Sport Science 353 or permission of instructor. 

382. Individual Study. (1-4) Independent study directed by a faculty adviser. The 
student must consult the adviser before registering for this course. 

Sports Medicine 

201. Basic Athletic Training. (3) A study of the basic knowledge and skills in the 
prevention, treatment, and care of common athletic injuries. 

302. Advanced Athletic Training. (4) An in-depth analysis of preventive measures, 
therapeutic modalities, and rehabilitative procedures employed in sports medicine. 
P— Health and Sport Science 352. 



123 



History 

J. Howell Smith, Chairman 

Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies James Ralph Scales 

Professors James P. Bare field, Richard C. Barnett, Paul D. Escort, 

Balkrishna Govind Gokhale, David W. Hadley, J. Edwin Hendricks, 

Thomas E. Mullen, Michael L. Sinclair, David L. Smiley, 

J. Howell Smith, Alan J. Williams, Richard L. Zuber 

Assistant Professors Kevin M. Doak, Michael L. Hughes, 

William K. Meyers, Anthony S. Parent, 

Yuri Slezkine, Sarah L. Watts 

Visiting Assistant Professor Gloria J. Fitzgibbon 

Lecturer Negley Boyd Harte (London) 
Adjunct Professor of History William T. Alderson 

The major in history consists of a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include 
History 310, from seven to eight credits in European history, three or four credits 
in Asian or African history, and from seven to eight credits in American history. 
American history includes Latin-American history. One of the American history 
courses must be 151, 152, or 153. Majors may include up to eight credits of advanced 
placement work and four credits for any combination of independent study and 
directed reading. 

A minor in history requires twenty-four credits. 

Highly qualified majors should apply for admission to the honors program in 
history. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in History," the student 
must complete satisfactorily History 287 and 288 or its equivalent. For additional 
information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

Students contemplating graduate study should acquire a reading knowledge of 
one modern foreign language for the MA degree and two for the PhD degree. 

101. The Rise of the West. (4) A survey of ancient, medieval, and early modern his- 
tory to 1700. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 

102. Europe and the World in the Modern Era. (4) A survey of modern Europe from 
1700 to the present. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 

103. World Civilizations to 1500. (4) A survey of the ancient, classical and medieval 
civilizations of Eurasia with a brief look at American and sub-Saharan societies. (Credit 
cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 

104. World Civilizations Since 1500. (4) A survey of the major civilizations of the 
world in the modern and contemporary periods. (Credit cannot be received for both 
101 and 103, and 102 and 104.) 

131. European Historical Biography. (2) Study of biographies of men and women 
who have influenced the history and civilization of Europe. 



124 



151, 152. The United States. (4,4) Political, social, economic, and intellectual aspects. 
151: before 1865; 152: after 1865. Students who take History 153 may not take either 
of these courses for credit. 

153. The United States. (4) A topical survey combining 151 and 152. Not open to 
students who take either 151 or 152. 

160. Freud. (4) An investigation of Freud's basic ideas in the context of his time. 

162. History of Wake Forest University. (2) A survey of the history of Wake Forest 
from its beginning, including its written and oral traditions. The course may include 
a visit to the town of Wake Forest. 

211. Colloquium. (1-4) 

215, 216. The Ancient World. (4,4) Critical focus on the Greeks in the fall and Romans 
in the spring. 

221. The Middle Ages. (4) A survey of European history, 400-1300, stressing social 
and cultural developments. 

224. The Reformation. (2) Europe in the age of the Reformation. 

2260. History of London. (4) Topographical, social, economic, and political history 
of London from the earliest times. Lectures, student papers and reports, museum 
visits and lectures, and on-site inspections. Offered in London. 

2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (2) Burgundian society, culture, and govern- 
ment in the reigns of Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Philip the Good, and Charles 
the Rash, 1384-1477. Offered in Dijon. 

2263. Venetian Society and Culture. (4) An examination of Venetian society, including 
the role within Venetian life of music, theatre, the church, and civic ritual. Offered 
in Venice. 

232. European Historical Novels. (2) The role of the historical past in selected works 
of fiction. 

2370. Churchill. (4) The life and times of Britain's World War II leader (1874-1965). 

Offered in London. 

265. American Diplomatic History. (4) An introduction to the history of American 
diplomacy since 1776, emphasizing the effects of public opinion on fundamental 
policies. 

287, 288. Honors in History. (4,4) 287: seminar on problems of historical synthesis 
and interpretation; 288: writing of a major paper and examination on a special field. 

301. Seminar. The Beginnings of the Modern World-View. (4) A study of the 
transition from ancient views of the world to the perspective of early modern science 
and philosophy, with focus on the works of Plato, Aristotle, Kepler, and Galileo. 



125 



302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) A study of the controversies, both scien- 
tific and philosophical, arising in the seventeenth century between Cartesians, New- 
tonians, and Leibnizians about the nature and limits of human knowledge. 

303. The Universe of Modern Science. (4) A survey of the contemporary scientific 
picture of the universe and its evolution, and of the major evidence for that picture. 

305. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human 
values: biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search 
for extraterrestrial life. 

310. Seminar. (4) Offered by members of the faculty on topics of their choice. A paper 
is required. 

313, 314. European Economic and Social History, 1300-1973. (4,4) Changes in 
Europe's economic structures and how they affected Europeans' lives. Emphasizes 
how economic forces interacted with social and institutional factors. 313: 1300-1750; 
314: 1750-1973. 

317. The French Revolution and Napoleonic Empire. (4) The revolution and wars 
that constitute one of the pivotal points in modern history. 

318. Weimar Germany. (4) Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 
1919-1933, in historical context. German or History credit determined at registration. 

319: Germany to 1871. (4) Social, economic, and political forces leading to the crea- 
tion of a single German nation-state out of over 1700 sovereign and semi-sovereign 
German states. 

320. Germany, 1871 to Present. (4) The Germans' search for stability and unity in 
a society riven by conflict and on a continent riven by nationalism. 

321. France. (4) A history of France to the Revolution of 1789. 

322. France. (4) A history of France from 1789 to present. 

323. 324. England. (4,4) A political and social survey, with some attention to 
Continental movements. 323: to 1603; 324: 1603 to present. 

325. Tudor and Early Stuart England. (4) A constitutional and social study of England 
from 1485 to 1641. 

331. Russia: Origins to 1917. (4) A political, social, economic, and cultural history 
of Russia. 

332. History of the Soviet Union. (4) A political, social, economic, and cultural history 
of the Soviet Union since 1917. 

333. European Diplomacy, 1848-1914. (4) The diplomacy of the great powers, with 
some attention given to the role of publicity in international affairs. Topics include 
the unification of Italy and of Germany, the Bismarckian system, and the coming 
of World War I. 



126 



335, 336. Italy. (4,4) Cultural, social and political history of Italy. 335: medieval and 
Renaissance Italy; 336: nineteen and twentieth century Italy. 

339. India in the English Mind. (4) An exploration of the changing images of India, 
its people, and culture as reflected in English literature, especially Kipling, Forster, 
Kaye, and Paul Scott. The three major themes will be confrontation, accommoda- 
tion, and nostalgia. 

340. Afro- American History. (4) The role of Afro- Americans in the development of 
the United States, with particular attention to African heritage, forced migration, 
Americanization, and influence. 

342. The Middle East from Suleiman the Magnificent to the Present. (4) Major 
subjects covered are the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Arabs and Persians 
under Ottoman hegemony, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the emergence of the 
modern Arab states and their roles in the post-World War II era. 

343. Imperial China. (4) A study of traditional China to 1850, with emphasis on social, 
cultural, and political institutions. 

344. Modern China. (4) A study of China from 1644 to the present. 

345. 346. History and Civilization of South Asia. (4,4) An introduction to the history 
and civilization of South Asia. Emphasis on historical developments in the social, 
economic, and cultural life of the area. 

347. Japan Since World War II. (4) A survey of Japanese history since the American 
occupation, with emphasis on social and cultural developments. Topics include 
occupation reforms, re-industrialization, the rise of the LDP, "high growth eco- 
nomics," and citizen protest movements. 

348. Modern Japan. (4) Tokugawa era; Meiji Restoration; industrialization and 
urbanization; relations with the West; World War II; occupation; Japan in the con- 
temporary world. 

350. Global Economic History. (4) An overview of the growth and development of 
the world economy from precapitalist organizations to the present system of developed 
and underdeveloped states. 

351, 352. American Society and Thought. (4,4) A non-political topical survey of Ameri- 
can culture and lifestyles. Topics include religion, science, education, architecture, 
and irrtmigration. 

353. Colonial English America, 1582-1774. (4) Determinative episodes, figures, 
allegiances, apperceptions, and results of the period, organically considered. 

354. Revolutionary and Early National America, 1763-1815. (4) The American Revo- 
lution, its causes and effects, the Confederation, the Constitution, and the new nation. 

355. The Westward Movement. (4) The role of the frontier in United States history, 
1763-1890. 



127 



356. Jacksonian America, 1815-1850. (4) The United States in the age of Jackson, 
Clay, Calhoun, and Webster. A biographical approach. 

357. The Civil War and Reconstruction. (4) The political and military events of the 
war and the economic, social, and political readjustments which followed. 

358. The United States from Reconstruction to World War I. (2,4) National progress 
and problems during an era of rapid industrialization. The course may be divided 
into halves for two credits each: (a) the Gilded Age; (b) the Progressive Era. 

359. The United States from Versailles through World War II. (4) The transition 
of America from World War I to 1945, with special emphasis on the significance of 
the New Deal and World War II. 

360. The United States since World War II. (4) Trends and changes in the nation 
from World War II to the present. 

361. Economic History of the United States. (4) The economic development of the 
United States from colonial beginnings to the present. 

362. American Constitutional History. (4) Origins of the Constitution, the controver- 
sies involving the nature of the Union, and constitutional readjustments to meet 
the new American industrialism. 

363. 364. The South. (4,4) Geography, population elements, basic institutions, and 
selected events. 

365. Women in American History. (4) A survey of the roles and activities of women 
in America, with emphasis upon selected individuals. 

366. Studies in Historic Preservation. (4) An analysis of history museums and 
agencies and of the techniques of preserving and interpreting history through 
artifacts, restorations, and reconstructions. P— Permission of instructor. 

367. 368. North Carolina. (4,4) Selected phases of the development of North Caroli- 
na from the colonial period to the present. 367: to 1850; 368: since 1850. 

369. The American Military Experience. (4) A survey of the military ideas and 
activities of the American people and their armed forces, with emphasis on the rela- 
tionship between war and society. 

372. Introduction to African History. (4) An introduction to African history from 
the perspective of the continent as a whole. The historical unity of the African conti- 
nent and its relation to other continents will be stressed. 

373. History of Mexico. (4) An examination of the history of Mexico from the colonial 
period to the present. 

374. Protest and Rebellion in Latin America. (4) A study of the history of protest 
movements and rebellions in Latin America from primitive and agrarian revolts to 
mass working class and socialist organizations. 



128 



375. Modern Latin America. (4) A survey of Latin American history since Indepen- 
dence, with emphasis on the twentieth century. The course will concentrate chiefly 
on economics, politics, and race. 

398. Individual Study. (1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available 
in the department; permitted upon departmental approval of petition presented by 
a qualified student. 

399. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not other- 
wise available. P— Permission of instructor. 



Humanities 

William S. Hamilton, Coordinator 

Reynolds Professor of American Studies Maya Angelou 

Kenan Professor of Humanities Allen Mandelbaum 

Associate Professor Robert L. Utley Jr. 

121. Introduction to Women's Studies. (4) An interdisciplinary course, taught by 
faculty representing at least two fields, that integrates materials from the humani- 
ties and the social sciences. Topics include methods and goals of women's studies, 
feminist critical theory, and the place of women in culture and society. 

Humanities courses 213-222 are designed to introduce students to works of literature 
which would not be included in their normal course of study. Each course includes 
a reading in translation of ten to twelve representative authors as follows: 

213. Studies in European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as 
Dante, Montaigne, Cervantes, Goethe, Dostoevsky, and Camus. Satisfies a Di- 
vision I requirement. 

214. Contemporary Fiction. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Mann, Sartre, 
Unamuno, Fuentes, Moravia, and Voinovich. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

215. Germanic and Slavic Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as 
Hoffmann, Kafka, Dostoevsky, Dinesen, Ibsen, Pushkin, and Chekhov. Satis- 
fies a Division I requirement. 

216. Romance Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Boccaccio, Calde- 
rdn, Flaubert, Machado de Assis, Gide, and Lampedusa. Satisfies a Division I 
requirement. 

217. European Drama. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Moliere, Garcia- 
Lorca, Pirandello, Schiller, Brecht, Ibsen, and Beckett. Satisfies a Division I re- 
quirement. 

218. Eastern European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Tolstoy, 
Solzhenitsyn, Gogol, Andric, Milosz, and Szabo. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 



129 



219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) Major works of poetry, drama and 
fiction from the classical and modern periods. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) Readings and discussions in fiction, 
drama and poetry from the traditional and modern periods. Satisfies a Division 
I requirement. 

222. African and Caribbean Literature. (4) An examination of the negritude move- 
ment and the negro- African novel. Texts studied are by such authors as Aime 
Cesaire, Leopold Senghor, Ousmane Sembene, and Mariama Ba. Satisfies a 
Division I requirement. 

242. Research on Culture in the Soviet Union. (2) An investigation designed by the 
student is carried out in the USSR during spring break. An evaluative term paper 
follows the class trip. Students who have studied any Russian should enroll under 
Russian 242. Limited enrollment. P— Permission of instructor. 

280. Reason and Revelation. (4) An investigation of the intellectual roots of Western 
civilization as they are found in the emergence of philosophical universalism and 
Biblical monotheism. These distinctive approaches will be considered through a 
reading of such authors as Plato, Hesiod, Aristophanes, and St. Thomas Aquinas, 
and of selections from the Bible. 

282. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of 
abiding public significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with 
each topic will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal 
arts tradition. The visiting scholars of the Tocqueville Forum will supplement the 
class discussion. "Politics and the Arts" and "Theory and Practice in Public Life" 
are representative topics. 

283. Nature and History in Modern Moral and Social Life. (4) The subject as viewed 
through such representative writers as Spinoza, Flaubert, Pascal, Eckermann, 
Nietzsche, and Conrad, each of whom in a different way participated in the rejec- 
tion of the teachings of both the Socratic tradition and the Christian church. 

321. Seminar in Women's Studies. (4) Consideration of theoretical and method- 
ological questions and research on current topics in women's studies. 

340. Race in the Southern Experience before Emancipation: Four Voices. (1,2) 
Selected writings of David Walker, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and 
Harriet Beecher Stowe. Pass/fail only. (Credit not given for Humanities 340 if the 
student has completed Humanities 341.) 

341. Race, Politics, and Literature: Aspects of American Life from 1830 to 1930. (4) 

An examination of the evolution of significant ideas in American civilization. A careful 
reading of Frederick Douglass, Harriet Beecher Stowe, W. E. DuBois, Mark Twain, 
and others. Offered in the fall. 



130 



344. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (1) A condensed version of Humanities 

345, offered as a minicourse in the spring. Pass/fail only. (Credit not given for 
Humanities 344 if the student has completed Humanities 345.) 

345. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (4) The influence of African culture 
on American life will be studied in such areas as dance, music, political approaches, 
grammatical patterns, literature, and culinary preferences. The course will include 
an evaluation of American mores. Offered in the fall. 

347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) Critical analysis of classical, modern, 
and contemporary writings by Japanese women, with an explanation of the cultural 
setting in which they occurred. 

348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) The dark side of traditional soci- 
ety that sparked revolution and civil war; forces that led to dissent and student 
movements. 

349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) The literary background of the 
democracy movement and the Tiananmen Square incident. 

352. The Classical and Surreal Tradition. (4) A venture to define and differentiate 
classical and surreal modes of perception throughout history, their paradoxical rela- 
tionship to each other and to complementary styles, considered in philosophy, music, 
literature, and painting. 

355. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals 
of love in selected works of art. 

356. Humanism, "Secular" and Religious. (4) Exploration of the nature of human- 
ism through examination of similarities and differences among various forms. Types 
to be considered are: Classical (Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, and Epicurean); Chris- 
tian; modern naturalistic; and Confucian. 

357. Dante's Divine Comedy. (4) Dante's Divine Comedy as epic, prophesy, autobi- 
ography, and verbal edifice. Texts in English translation. 

360. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 

381. Solzhenitsyn: Witness, Survivor, and Critic. (4) A critical analysis of the politi- 
cal and literary development of Solzhenitsyn as seen in his major novels, poems, 
and plays. 

382. Italian Cinema and Society. (4) A survey of some of Italy's greatest postwar 
films with special attention to issues and problems in Italian society as treated by 
major directors such as Fellini, De Sica, Rossellini, Antonioni, and Olmi. 

383. Italian Fascism in Novels and Films. (4) An exploration of theories of fascism, 
with an emphasis on Italy between 1919 and 1944 as understood through novels 
and films. 



131 



384. Latin American Cinema. (4) Examination of major Latin American films as 
cinematographic art and as expressions of social and political issues. Directors include 
Luis Bufiuel, Tomas Gutierrez Alea, and Ruy Guerra. 

385. Legends of Troy. (4) An interdisciplinary investigation of translations and trans- 
formations of the Trojan legend from the Greeks through the Middle Ages and the 
Renaissance to the present. Texts, studied in English translation, are by such authors 
as Homer, Virgil, Ovid, Chaucer, Racine, and Giraudoux. 

396. Individual Study. (2-4) Individual projects in the humanities which continue 
study begun in regular courses. By prearrangement. 



Interdisciplinary Honors 

James P. Barefield, Coordinator 

A series of seminar courses of an interdisciplinary nature is open to qualified un- 
dergraduates. Students interested in admission to any one of these seminars, su- 
pervised by the Committee on Honors, should consult the coordinator or a member 
of the committee. 

Students who choose to participate in as many as four interdisciplinary seminars 
and who have a superior record may elect Honors 281, directed study culminating 
in an honors paper and an oral examination. Those whose work has been superior 
in this course and who have achieved an overall grade-point average of at least 3.0 
in all college work may be graduated with the distinction "Honors in the Arts and 
Sciences." Students who choose to be candidates for departmental honors may not 
also be candidates for "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." 

Able students are normally encouraged to choose a departmental honors program 
rather than "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." As a result, most students elect to 
participate in only one or two interdisciplinary seminars in which they are particu- 
larly interested. The faculty participants for these seminars represent diverse academic 
disciplines. 

131, 132. Approaches to Human Experience I. (4,4) An inquiry into the nature and 
interrelationships of several approaches to man's experience, represented by the work 
of three such minds as Leonardo da Vinci, Dante, Klee, Lorenz, Confucius, 
Dostoevsky, Descartes, Goya, Mozart, Jefferson, and Bohr. Seminar discussion based 
on primary and secondary sources, including musical works and paintings. Written 
reports and a term paper required. Offered in alternate years. 

133, 134. Approaches to Human Experience II. (4,4) A parallel course to Honors 
131, 132, concentrating on the work of a different set of figures such as Einstein, 
Galileo, Keynes, Pascal, Camus, Picasso, Ibsen, Stravinsky, Sophocles, and Bach. 
Offered in alternate years. 



132 



*233. Darwinism and the Modern World. (4) A study of the Darwinian theory of 
evolution and the impact of evolution and evolutionary thought on fields such as 
economics, politics, psychology, literature and the other arts, and philosophy. 

*235. The Ideal Society. (4) Man's effort to establish or imagine the ideal community, 
state, or society; principles of political and social organization; changing goals and 
values. 

*236. The Force of Impresssionism. (4) Impressionism and its impact on modern 
painting and literature, with attention to origins and theories of style. Painters to 
include Manet, Monet, Renoir, Degas, and Cezanne. Writers to include Baudelaire, 
Flaubert, Mallarme, James, Pound, Joyce, and Woolf. 

*237. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of 
the scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and 
social sciencies and the humanities. 

*238. Romanticism. (4) Romanticism as a recurrent characteristic of mind and art and 
as a specific historical movement in Europe and America in the late eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. Emphasis on primary materials in philosophy, literature, music, 
and painting. 

*239. Man and the Irrational. (4) The phenomenon of the irrational, with emphasis 
on its twentieth century manifestations but with attention also to its presence in other 
centuries and cultures. Philosophy, religion, literature, psychology, politics, and the 
arts are explored. 

*240. Adventures in Self-Understanding. (4) Examination and discussion of signifi- 
cant accounts of the quest for understanding of the self, in differing historical periods, 
cultural contexts, and genres. Among figures who may be discussed are Augustine, 
Dante, Gandhi, Montaigne, Descartes, Pascal, and selected modern writers. 

*241. The Tragic View. (4) The theory of tragedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the tragic in literature, art, music, theatre, and film. 

*242. The Comic View. (4) The theory of comedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the comic in literature, art, music, theatre, and film. 

*244. Man and the Structure of the Universe. (4) An investigation of various con- 
ceptions of the universe and their implications for man. Study not necessarily limited 
to the cosmologies of Ptolemy, Copernicus, and their modern successors, but may 
also include theories such as the Babylonian, Mayan, and Taoist. 

*246. Man and the Environment. (4) An interdisciplinary examination of man and 
society in relation to the environment. 

*247. The Mythic View. (4) The nature of myth through creation and hero myths; 
the uses to which myths have been put in different historical periods; various modern 



*One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors. 



133 



explanations of myth (literary, religious, anthropological, psychoanalytic, social, and 
historical). 

*248. The Ironic View. (4) An investigation of the ironic view of life in literature, 
art, history, theatre, and film. 

*249. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals 
of love in selected works of art. 

*250. Ethical Dilemmas in the Arts and Sciences. (4) An exploration of contemporary 
issues and controversies in the sciences and art, particularly those involved with 
ethical questions resulting from new concepts and discoveries. 

*252. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) A study of the controversies, both scien- 
tific and philosophical, arising in the seventeenth century between Cartesians, 
Newtonians, and Leibnizians about the nature and limits of human knowledge. 

*253. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically 
new ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time 
in relativity theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, 
and continental drift. P— At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science 
or permission of instructor. 

*254. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 

*256. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human 
values: biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search 
for extraterrestrial life. 

281. Directed Study. (4) Readings on an interdisciplinary topic approved by the 
Committee on Honors; presentation of a major research or interpretive paper based 
on these readings, under the direction of a faculty member; an oral examination on 
the topic, administered by the faculty supervisor and the Committee on Honors. 
Eligible students who wish to take this course must submit a written request to the 
Committee on Honors by the end of the junior year. Not open to candidates for 
departmental honors. 



*One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors. 



134 



Mathematics and Computer Science 

Richard D. Carmichael, Chairman 

Professors John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, Elmer K. Hayashi, 

Frederic T. Howard, Ellen E. Kirkman, James Kuzmanovich, 

J. Gaylord May, W. Graham May, Marcellus E. Waddill 

Associate Professors David J. John, Stan J. Thomas 

Assistant Professors Daniel Cartas, Charles R. Grissom Jr., 

Betty M. Tang, Todd C. Torgersen 

Lecturer Gene T. Lucas 

Instructors Salman Azhar, Jule M. Connolly, Eric E. Fink, 

Graham S. Gersdorff, James L. Norris III, 

Dale T. Smith, David C. Wilson 

A major in mathematics requires a minimum of forty credits. A student must include 
courses 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, one of the courses 311, 317, 357, and at least two 
additional 300-level courses. Lower division students are urged to consult a member 
of the departmental faculty before enrolling in courses other than those satisfying 
Division II requirements. 

A major in computer science requires thirty-six credits in computer science and 
three courses in mathematics. The courses in computer science must include 173, 
271, 275, 277, and 279. The required courses in mathematics are 117 plus two 
additional courses numbered 108 or higher. Students considering graduate work 
in computer science should consult a major adviser in the department for assistance 
in planning an appropriate course of study. 

A minor in computer science requires four courses (sixteen credits) in computer 
science numbered higher than 171, Mathematics 117, and an additional four credits 
in mathematics other than Mathematics 105. 

A minor in mathematics requires Mathematics 111, 112, either 113 or 121, and three 
other courses numbered higher than Mathematics 108, two of which must be 
numbered above 200. No one of Mathematics 301, 302, 303, 304 can count as a course 
for this minor, but any pair may be so counted. Credit is not allowed for both 
Mathematics 121 and Mathematics 302 or for both Mathematics 303 and Mathematics 
317. 

A minimum GPA of 2.0 in courses which comprise a major or minor in the depart- 
ment is required for graduation with any major or minor which the department offers. 

A regularly scheduled activity in mathematics is an informal seminar of students 
and faculty on topics not discussed in regular courses (for example, finite differences, 
game theory, Monte Carlo method, divergent series). 

The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and the Department of 
Economics offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six credits, 
offers the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the develop- 
ment of economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major has the 
following course requirements: Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 251; Economics 150, 
205, 207, 208, 215, 218; and three additional courses chosen with the approval of 
the program advisers. Recommended courses are Mathematics 253, 311, 312, 348, 



135 



353, 357, 358 and Economics 206, 212, 223, 231, 232, 235, 251, 252. Students selecting 
the joint major must receive permission from both the Department of Mathematics 
and Computer Science and the Department of Economics. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in mathematics, computer science, or in the joint major. To be 
graduated with the designation "Honors in Mathematics," "Honors in Computer 
Science," or "Honors in Mathematical Economics," they must complete satisfac- 
torily a senior research paper. To graduate with "Honors in Mathematics" or "Honors 
in Computer Science," majors must have a minimum grade-point average of 3.5 
in the major and 3.0 in all college course work. For additional information, members 
of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

Students who are enrolled at Wake Forest may not take courses in mathematics 
and/or computer science at other institutions to satisfy divisional requirements. 

Computer Science* 

171. Introduction to Computer Programming. (2) Lecture and laboratory. A first 
course in computer programming. Does not count toward computer science major 
or minor. Not available on pass/fail basis. 

173. Fundamentals of Computer Science. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A course in 
structured programming, problem solving, and coding in a high level prograrnming 
language. P— Computer Science 171 or equivalent. 

175. File Processing Techniques with COBOL. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study 
of file access and organization techniques for processing direct and sequential files 
using the COBOL language. P— Computer Science 171 or Computer Science 173. 

271. Computer Software Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the 
ways information is stored and handled in a computer; an introduction to machine 
and assembly language. P— Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

272. Computer Hardware Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Basic computer 
architecture. Study and design of combinational logic circuits, arithmetic units, and 
memory devices. P— Computer Science 271. 

275. Data Structures. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Data representation and manipu- 
lation. Includes the data types of list, string, tree, set, and graph. P— Computer 
Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

277. Programming Languages. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the properties 
of prograrnming languages including syntax, semantics, control structures, and run- 
time representations. P— Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 



*Other courses in which computing is used or taught extensively are Mathematics 355, Physics 130, 
and Physics 330. 



136 



279. Algorithm Design. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Techniques for designing and 
analyzing algorithms. Topics include sorting and searching, graph algorithms, geo- 
metric algorithms, pattern matching, and data compression techniques. P— Computer 
Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

361. Selected Topics. (2,3, or 4) Topics in computer science which are not studied 
in regular courses or which further examine topics begun in regular courses. P— 
Permission of instructor. 

372. Compilers. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of techniques for compiling 
computer languages including scanning, parsing, translating, and generating code. 
P— Computer Science 271 and Computer Science 275. 

374. Database Management Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. An introduction 
to large-scale database management systems. Topics include data independence, data- 
base models, query languages, security, integrity, and concurrency. P— Computer 
Science 275. 

375. Operating Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. The study of algorithms for 
sequencing, controlling, scheduling, and allocating computer resources. P— Computer 
Science 271 and Computer Science 275. 

377. Theory of Computation. (4) Basic theoretical principles of computer science. 
Topics include the relationship between automats and grammars, Church's thesis, 
unsolvability, and computational complexity. P— Computer Science 279. 

379. Artificial Intelligence. (4) An introduction to problems in artificial intelligence. 
Techniques of representation and heuristic search in areas such as problem solving, 
pattern recognition, theorem proving, and information processing. P— Computer 
Science 279. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. Not to be counted toward the minor in computer science. 

391, 392. Senior Research. (2,2) A two-semester directed course of study. By prear- 
rangement. 

Mathematics 

105. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry. (2,3, or 4) A review of the essen- 
tials of algebra and trigonometry. Admission by permission only (generally, a student 
must have taken fewer than three years of high school mathematics to be eligible 
for admission). Not to be counted toward the major or minor in mathematics. 

108. Essential Calculus. (5 or 4) A one-semester course in differential and integral 
calculus with application to business and the social sciences. No student allowed 
credit for both 108 and 111. A student who might take additional calculus should 
not take Mathematics 108. Lab— two hours. 

109. Elementary Probability and Statistics. (5 or 4) Probability and distribution 
functions, means and variances, and sampling distributions. Lab— two hours. 



137 



111, 112. Calculus with Analytic Geometry I, II. (5 or 4; 5 or 4) Calculus of functions 
of one variable; infinite series. Computer lab using BASIC. No student allowed credit 
for both 108 and 111. 

113. Multivariable Calculus. (4) Vector and space curves. Differentiable functions; 
surfaces and max-min problems. Multiple integrals and Green's theorem. P— 
Mathematics 112. 

117. Discrete Mathematics. (4) An introduction to various topics in discrete 
mathematics applicable to computer science including sets, relations, Boolean al- 
gebra, propositional logic, functions, computability, proof techniques, graph the- 
ory, and elementary combinatorics. 

121. Linear Algebra. (4) Vectors and vector spaces, linear transformations and ma- 
trices, linear groups, and determinants. Credit not allowed for both 121 and 302. 

221. Modern Algebra I. (4) An introduction to modern abstract algebra through the 
study of groups, rings, integral domains, and fields. P— Mathematics 121. 

251. Ordinary Differential Equations. (4) Linear equations with constant coefficients, 
linear equations with variable coefficients, and existence and uniqueness theorems 
for first order equations. P— Mathematics 112. 

253. Operations Research. (4) Mathematical models and optimization techniques. 
Studies in allocation, simulation, queuing, scheduling, and network analysis. P— 
Mathematics 111. 

301. Vector Analysis. (2) Vector functions, partial derivatives, line and multiple 
integrals, Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem, divergence theorem. Not to be counted 
toward any major offered by the department. P— Mathematics 112. 

302. Matrix Algebra. (2) Matrices, determinants, solutions of linear equations, spe- 
cial matrices, eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices. Not to be counted toward 
any major offered by the department. Credit not allowed for both 121 and 302. 

303. Complex Variables. (2) Topics in analytic function theory, Cauchy's theorem, 
Taylor and Laurent series, residues. Not to be counted toward any major offered 
by the department. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 317. P— Mathematics 112. 

304. Partial Differential Equations. (2) The separation of variables technique for the 
solution of the wave, heat, Laplace, and other partial differential equations with the 
related study of special functions and Fourier series. Not to be counted toward any 
major offered by the department. P— Mathematics 251. 

311, 312. Advanced Calculus I, II. (4,4) Limits and continuity in metric spaces, 
differentiation and Riemann-Stieltjes integration, sequences and series, uniform 
convergence, power series and Fourier series, partial differentiation and functions 
of n real variables, implicit and inverse function theorems. P— Mathematics 113. 



138 



317. Complex Analysis I. (4) Analytic functions, Cauchy's theorem and its conse- 
quences, power series, and residue calculus. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 317. 
P— Mathematics 113. 

322. Modern Algebra II. (4) A continuation of modern abstract algebra through the 
study of additional properties of groups and fields and a thorough treatment of vector 
spaces. P— Mathematics 221. 

323, 324. Matrix Theory I, II. (4,4) Basic concepts and theorems concerning matrices 
and real number functions defined on preferred sets of matrices. P— Mathematics 121. 

331. Geometry. (4) An introduction to axiomatic geometry including a comparison 
of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. 

345, 346. Elementary Theory of Numbers I, II. (4,4) Properties of integers, congruences, 
arithmetic functions, primitive roots, sums of squares, magic squares, applications 
to elementary mathematics, quadratic residues, arithmetic theory of continued 
fractions. 

348. Combinatorial Analysis. (4) Enumeration techniques, including generating func- 
tions, recurrence formulas, the principle of inclusion and exclusion, and Polya's 
theorem. 

353. Mathematical Models. (4) Development and application of probabilistic and de- 
terministic models. Emphasis given to constructing models which represent systems 
in the social, behavioral, and management sciences. P— Mathematics 253. 

355. Numerical Analysis. (4) A computer-oriented study of analytical methods in 
mathematics. Lecture and laboratory. P— Mathematics 112 and Computer Science 171. 

357, 358. Mathematical Statistics I, II. (4,4) Probability distributions, mathematical 
expectation, sampling distributions, estimation and testing of hypotheses, regression, 
correlation, and analysis of variance. C— Mathematics 113, or P— Permission of 
instructor. 

361. Selected Topics. (2,3, or 4) Topics in mathematics which are not considered in 
regular courses or which continue study begun in regular courses. Content varies. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. 



139 



Military Science 

Lieutenant Colonel John P. Modica, Professor 

Assistant Professors: Major Stanley R. Lawson, Captain Charles Hands, 

Captain Scott A. Marquardt, Captain Frank M. Williamson 

Instructors: Captain Stephen J. Huebner, Sergeant Major Lincoln C. Mitchell Jr. 

Sergeant First Class James R. Degenkolb 

Completion of Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) requirements and 
recommendation for appointment by the professor of military science may result in 
commissioning as a second lieutenant in either the active or reserve forces compo- 
nents of the Army of the United States, as determined by the Secretary of the Army. 
The AROTC program is composed of the Basic Course and the Advanced Course. 
The Basic Course is composed of four core courses (121, 122, 123 and 124), some- 
times with either 117 or 118 taken each semester as a co-requisite. No military obli- 
gation is incurred by enrollment in the Basic Course, except by Army ROTC 
Scholarship cadets, and then only when beginning their sophomore year. The Basic 
Course may be completed, partially or fully, by various alternative methods (i.e., 
through credit for specific types of Junior ROTC or other military training, as deter- 
mined by the professor of military science, or through completion of a six-week sum- 
mer Basic Camp at Fort Knox, Kentucky). The Advanced Course is also composed 
of four core courses (225, 226, 227 and 228), with either 117 or 118 taken each semester 
as a co-requisite, and a six-week Advanced Camp at Fort Bragg, North Carolina usually 
attended during the summer between the junior and senior years. Army ROTC two 
and three-year scholarships are available to qualified applicants (both those already 
enrolled in the AROTC program and those not yet enrolled) through annual compe- 
tition. 

112. Operations in Special Environments. (2) Planning and preparation for military 
operations in mountain, desert, jungle, and arctic environments; fundamentals of 
survival; mountaineering techniques. 

116. Orienteering. (2) A study of navigational aids, linear time-distance relationships, 
and mapping techniques. Includes navigating in unfamiliar terrain. 

117, 118. Leadership Laboratory. (0,0) Basic military skills instruction designed to tech- 
nically and tactically qualify the student for assumption of an officer leadership 
position at the small-unit level. Either 117 (Fall) or 118 (Spring) is required each 
semester for contracted AROTC cadets (including those conditionally contracted), ad- 
vance designee scholarship winners and non-contracted AROTC cadets taking their 
third and fourth military science courses. Pass/fail only. C— Any other military science 
course. P— Permission of the professor of military science, except when required as 
explained above. 

121. Introduction to Army ROTC and the US Army. (1) An introduction to the Army 
Reserve Officers' Training Corps and to the United States Army exploring roles, 
organization, customs and traditions. C— Military Science 117 or 118, as appropriate. 



140 



122. War and the Military Profession. (2) An examination of the arguments for and 
against a moral basis for war, and a critical discussion of the military as a profession, 
its ethical requirements and dilemmas. Concludes with an examination of the 
fundamentals contributing to the development of a personal leadership style. P— 
Military Science 121 or permission of the professor of military science. C— Military 
Science 117 or 118, as appropriate. 

123. Land Navigation and Terrain Analysis. (2) A study of the methods of land navi- 
gation and terrain analysis for military operations. P— Military Science 121 and 122 
or permission of the professor of military science. C— Military Science 117 or 118, 
as appropriate. 

124. Introduction to Tactics. (2) An introduction to planning, organizing and con- 
ducting military ground operations. Consideration of the principles of war and a com- 
parative study of Soviet military power. P— Military Science 121, 122 and 123 or 
permission of the professor of military science. C— Military Science 117 or 118, as 
appropriate. 

225. Military Operations. (2) An in-depth study of the principles of combined arms 
operations. P— Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit as determined 
by the professor of military science). C— Military Science 117. 

226. Advanced Military Operations. (2) A continuation of Military Science 225 with 
an emphasis on the leadership aspect of combined arms operations. Specific prepa- 
ration for the AROTC Advanced Camp. P— Military Science 121 through 124 (or equiva- 
lent credit as determined by the professor of military science) and Military Science 
225. C— Military Science 118. 

227. Leadership and Management in the US Army (I). (2) The theory and practice 
of military leadership. Emphasis on the Uniform Code of Military Justice, the Manu- 
al for Courts-Martial, the Law of Land Warfare and the Army's personnel, training 
and logistical management systems. P— Military Science 121 through 124 (or equiva- 
lent credit as determined by the professor of military science) and Military Science 
225 and 226. C— Military Science 117. 

228. Leadership and Management in the US Army (II). (2) A continuation of Mili- 
tary Science 227 with emphasis on the transition from cadet to officer. P— Military 
Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit as determined by the professor of mili- 
tary science) and Military Science 225 through 227. C— Military Science 118. 

229. American Military History. (4) The American military experience with empha- 
sis on the ideas and activities contributing to the development of the United States' 
unique military establishment. Particular emphasis on civilian control of the mili- 
tary. P— Permission of the professor of military science. Credit not allowed for this 
course if credit has been earned for History 369. 



141 



Music 

Susan Harden Berwick, Chairwoman 

Professor Susan Harden Borwick 

Associate Professors Stewart Carter, Louis Goldstein, 

David B. Levy, Dan Locklair 

Assistant Professors Peter Kairoff, Teresa Radomski 

Visiting Assistant Professor Pamela Howland 

Director of Instrumental Ensembles George Trautwein 

Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles Martin Province 

Director of Choral Ensembles Brian Gorelick 

Instructors Patricia Dixon, Lucille S. Harris, Kathryn Levy 

A major in music requires forty-eight credits. This includes a basic curriculum of 
thirty-six credits (Music Theory 171, 172, 173, and 174, sixteen credits; Music History 
181, 182, six credits; ten credits of applied music; and four credits of ensemble, taken 
in four semesters) plus six semesters of Music Recitals 100 and twelve credits of elective 
courses in music, excluding ensembles. In addition to the course work, music majors 
are required to present a senior recital, lecture-recital, or project. 

Students anticipating a major in music are urged to begin their studies during the 
freshman year and are required to audition during the second semester of their sopho- 
more year before officially being admitted to the program. 

Highly qualified majors may be invited by the music faculty to apply for admission 
to the honors program in music. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Music," a candidate must have a 3.0 overall GPA and a 3.5 GPA in courses in the 
major. In addition, the candidate must be nominated for this honor by a music faculty 
member and must complete one of the following requirements: (1) an honors-level 
research paper, (2) an analysis project, (3) an original composition, (4) a lecture-recital, 
(5) a solo recital, (6) a chamber-music recital, (7) a solo concert with ensemble, or 
(8) a conducting project. More complete information is available from the Depart- 
ment of Music. 

A minor in music requires twenty-four credits: Music 171, 172; 181, 182; two credits 
of ensemble, taken in two semesters; two semesters of applied music (performance 
level in applied music must be equal to the level expected of majors at the time of 
the sophomore audition); six credits of music electives (excluding ensemble); and 
four semesters of Music Recitals 100. Each minor will be assigned an adviser in the 
music department and is encouraged to begin private lessons, Music 171, and Music 
100 as early as possible. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in music should consult the chair 
of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

General Music 

100. Recitals. (0) Recitals, concerts, and guest lectures sponsored by the Department 
of Music and the Secrest Artists Series. (Specific attendance requirements will be 
established at the beginning of each semester.) Six semesters are required of music 
majors; four semesters are required of music minors. 



142 



101. Introduction to the Language of Music. (3,4) Basic theoretical concepts and mu- 
sical terminology. Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected works from the 
Middle Ages through the twentieth century. Satisfies the Division I requirement. For 
students not majoring in music. 

102. Language of Music I. (3,4) Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected 
works from the Middle Ages through the twentieth century. For students who can 
read music. Not open to music majors. Satisfies the Division I requirement. P— 
Permission of instructor. 

202. Language of Music II. (2) An in-depth study of selected major works. Not open 
to music majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

Music Theory 

104. Basic Music Reading and Skills. (2) A study of the fundamentals of music theory 
including key signatures, scales, intervals, chords, and basic sight-singing and ear- 
training skills. Designed for students wishing to participate in University ensembles 
and those wishing to pursue vocal, instrumental, and compositional instruction. 

105. Music Theory for Non-Majors. (4) A study and application of music fundamen- 
tals and music theory for the non-music major; analytical and compositional tech- 
niques. P— Music 104 or permission of instructor. 

171. Music Theory I. (4) Music fundamentals: key signatures, scales, modes, inter- 
vals, triads, elements of music. Ear training, sight-singing, and rhythm skills. Fall. 

172. Music Theory II. (4) Seventh chords, beginning part- writing, basic counterpoint, 
ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. Spring. P— Music 171. 

173. Music Theory III. (4) Altered chords, continuation of part- writing, eighteenth 
and nineteenth century forms, ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard 
harmony. Fall. P— Music 172. 

174. Music Theory IV. (4) Expanded harmonic system of Impressionism and the twen- 
tieth century. New concepts of style and form. Ear training, sight-singing, rhythm 
skills, keyboard harmony. Spring. P— Music 173. 

270. Sixteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of sixteenth century contrapuntal 
music, in particular that of Palestrina. Examination of Renaissance writings on coun- 
terpoint. Composition of canon and motet. P— Music 174. 

271. Eighteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of eighteenth century contrapuntal 
styles, with concentration on the Well-Tempered Clavier and Art of the Fugue of 
J. S. Bach. Composition of invention, canon, and fugue. P— Music 174. 

272. Analysis Seminar. (2) A study of analytical writings of theorists and composers 
and the development of practical skills as they can be used in research and perform- 
ance preparation. P— Music 174. 



143 



273. Composition. (1 or 2) Individual instruction in the craft of musical composition. 
May be repeated for credit. P— Permission of instructor. 

276. Current Practices. (2) A survey of twentieth century compositional techniques, 
notation, and performance problems involving the study of music and theoretical 
writings associated with major trends from 1900 to the present. P— Music 174. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestral and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical 
scoring and manuscript skills. Offered spring semester of even years. Also offered by the 
Department of Education as Education 280. P— Music 174, 182. 

Music History 

181. Music History I. (3) History of music from the Greeks to 1750. Satisfies the Divi- 
sion I requirement. P— Permission of instructor. 

182. Music History II. (3) History of music from 1750 to the present. Satisfies the 
Division I requirement. P— Permission of instructor. 

203. History of Jazz. (4) A survey of American jazz from its origin to the present. 
Open to majors and non-majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

204. Survey of Choral Music. (4) A historical overview of important genera (i.e., an- 
them, cantata, motet, mass, oratorio) with an emphasis on church music and liturgi- 
cal function. Open to majors and non-majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission 
of instructor. 

205. Survey of Orchestral Music. (4) A historical overview of important orchestral 
repertoire (i.e., symphony, concerto, overture, symphonic poem). Open to majors 
and non-majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

206. Survey of Opera. (4) A study of the development of opera from 1600 to the 
present. Selected operas by European and American composers will be examined 
in class via record, score, and film. Class will attend opera performances when 
possible. Open to majors and non-majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of 
instructor. 

207. Music in America. (4) A study of the music and musical trends in America from 
1650 to the present. The course will survey sacred and secular music from the Pilgrims 
to the current trends of American composers. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of 
instructor. 

208. Women and Music. (4) A historical overview of women musicians in society. 
P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

212. Music in the Church. (4) Function of church musicians and the relationship of 
their work to the church program. Offered fall semester of odd years. P— Permission of 
instructor. 



144 



215. Philosophy of Music. (2) A survey of philosophical writings about music. Musi- 
cal aesthetics; social, religious, and political concerns. P— Music 174, 182. 

220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3,4) A study of music before 1600, 
its theory, notation, and performance practices. P— Music 174, 182, or permission of 
instructor. 

221. Seminar in Baroque Music. (3,4) Musical activity from about 1600 to Bach and 
Handel. Special emphasis on the development of national styles and their resolu- 
tions toward the end of the era. P— Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

222. Seminar in Eighteenth Century Music. (3,4) Musical developments from the sons 
of Bach through the Viennese Classicism of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. P— 
Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

223. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Music. (3,4) Music from the latter part of 
Beethoven's career through Wagner and Brahms. Special emphasis on the post- 
Beethoven schism and its ramifications. P— Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

224. Seminar in Twentieth Century Music. (3,4) A study of the major musical styles, 
techniques, and media of contemporary music from Debussy to the present. P— 
Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) A survey of repertoire, including an examina- 
tion of teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. Also offered by 
the Department of Education as Education 284. Course may be repeated. P— 
Permission of instructor. 

Music Education 

Music 280, 282, 284, 289, and 291 also appear as Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 
291. These courses may be taken as Music or Education but not both. 

186. String Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all instruments 

of the string family. Offered spring semester of odd years. 

187. Woodwind Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all principal 
instruments of the woodwind family. Offered fall semester of even years. 

188. Brass and Percussion Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching 

brass and percussion. Offered spring semester of even years. 

280. Orchestration. (4) See page 143 for a course description. 

282. Conducting. (4) See page 147 for a course description. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) See this page for a course description. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental training 
techniques. Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, and 
choral and instrumental problems. Also offered by the Department of Education 
as Education 289. Spring. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 



145 



291. Teaching of Music. (4) The teaching and supervision of choral and instrumental 
music in the public schools, all grades. Also offered by the Department of Education 
as Education 291. Spring. P— Music 174, 182. 

Honors and Individual Study 

297. Senior Project. (1,2,3, or 4) A major project varying in format according to the 
student's area of concentration. By pre-arrangement. 

298. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A project in an area of study not otherwise availa- 
ble in the department. By pre-arrangement. 

299. Honors in Music. (4) Individual study for honors candidates who have fulfilled 
the specific requirements. 

Ensemble 

Departmental ensembles are open to all students. Credit is earned on the basis 
of one credit per semester of participation in each ensemble. 

111. Opera Workshop. Study, staging, and performance of standard and contemporary 
operatic works. P— Permission of instructor. 

112. Collegium Musicum. An ensemble stressing the performance practices and the 
performance of music of the medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque eras. 

113. Orchestra. Study and performance of orchestral works from the classical and 
contemporary repertoire. P— Audition. 

114. Madrigal Singers. A vocal chamber ensemble which specializes in the 
performance of secular repertoire. P— Audition. 

115. Concert Choir. A select touring choir of forty-five voices which performs a 
variety of choral literature from all periods. Regular performances on and off campus, 
including an annual tour. P— Audition. 

116. Choral Union. A large oratorio chorus which concentrates on the performance 
of major choral works. P— Audition. 

117. Marching Deacons Band. Performs for most football games. Meets twice week- 
ly. Regular performances on and off campus. Fall. P— Permission of instructor. 

119. Symphonic Band. Study and performance of music for symphonic band. Regular 
performances on and off campus. Spring. P— Permission of instructor. 

120. Chamber Ensemble. Study and performance of music composed specifically for 
small ensemble. Performers are strongly urged to participate in a larger ensemble 
as well. P— Permission of instructor. 

a. percussion c. string 

b. wind/brass d. mixed 



146 



121. Jazz Ensemble. Study and performance of written and improvised jazz for a 
twenty-member ensemble. P— Audition. 

Applied Music 

Applied music courses are open to all students with the permission of the instruc- 
tor. Credit is earned on the basis of lesson duration and weekly preparation. One 
credit per semester implies a half-hour of instruction weekly and a minimum of one 
hour of daily practice. Two credits per semester imply an hour of instruction weekly 
and a minimum of two hours daily practice. With the permission of the music faculty 
and with a proportional increase in practice, a student may earn three or four credits 
per semester. Students in applied music who do not have basic knowledge of nota- 
tion and rhythm are advised to enroll in Music 101 or 104 either prior to or in 
conjunction with applied study. An applied music fee is charged for all individual 
instruction. (See page 38 of this bulletin for specific information regarding the fee.) 

161, 261. Individual Instruction. (1,2,3, or 4) May be repeated for credit. Technical 
studies and repertoire of progressive difficulty selected to meet the needs and abili- 
ties of the student. 



a. violin 


g. clarinet 


m. 


baritone 


v. voice 


b. viola 


h. bassoon 


n. 


tuba 


w. recorder 


c. cello 

d. bass 

e. flute 

f. oboe 


i. saxophone 
j. trumpet 
k. French horn 
I. trombone 


0. 

V- 

q- 

r. 


organ 
piano 
percussion 
guitar 


x. viola da gamba 
y. harpsichord 



165p. Class Piano. (1) Scales, chords, inversions, and appropriate repertoire, with 
emphasis on sight-reading, harmonization, and simple transposition. Designed for 
the beginning piano student. 

165r. Class Guitar I. (1) Introduction to guitar techniques: strumming, plucking, ar- 
peggios, and damping. Reading and playing from musical notation and guitar tabla- 
ture. For beginning students. 

166r. Class Guitar II. (1) Continuation of guitar techniques. Emphasis on chordal 
progressions, scales, accompanying patterns, and sight-reading. P— Music 165r. 

165v. Class Voice I. (1) Introduction to the fundamental principles of singing, concepts 
of breath control, tone, and resonance. 

166v. Class Voice II. (1) Continuation of fundamental vocal techniques. P— Music 
165v or permission of instructor. 

165w. Class Recorder. (1) Introduction to recorder techniques: breath control, 
articulation, F and C fingering systems. Emphasis on ensemble playing. Designed 
for beginning and intermediate recorder players. This course is intended to prepare 
students for Music 112, but is not a prerequisite. 



147 



167v. Theatrical Singing I: Class Voice. (1) Basic techniques of singing, breath control, 
phonation, and resonance, with emphasis on theatrical projection. Study and per- 
formance of musical theatre repertoire. (One hour per week.) 

168v. Theatrical Singing II: Class Voice. (1) Continuation of theatrical singing tech- 
niques with increased study and performance of musical theatre repertoire. P— Music 
167v or permission of instructor. (One hour per week.) 

175 v. Advanced Voice Class I. (1) Development of advanced vocal technique and reper- 
toire. Limited to 8 students. (Two hours per week.) P— Music 166v or permission of 
instructor. 

176v. Advanced Voice Class II. (1) Further development of advanced vocal tech- 
nique and repertoire. Limited to 8 students. (Two hours per week; may be repeated.) 
P— Music 175v or permission of instructor. 

177v. Advanced Theatrical Singing I. (1) Development of advanced theatrical sin- 
ging technique and performance of musical theatre repertoire. Limited to 8 students. 
(Two hours per week.) P— Music 168 v or permission of instructor. 

178v. Advanced Theatrical Singing II. (1) Further development of advanced theatri- 
cal singing technique and performance of musical theatre repertoire. Limited to 8 
students. (Two hours per week; may be repeated.) P— Music 177v or permission of 
instructor. 

190. Diction for Singers. (2) Study of articulation in singing, with emphasis on modifi- 
cation of English; pronunciation of Italian, German, and French. Development of 
articulatory and aural skills with use of the international phonetic alphabet. Individual 
performance and coaching in class. (Two hours per week.) 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of conducting techniques; practical experience with 
ensembles. Offered spring semester of odd years. Also offered by the Department of Edu- 
cation as Education 282. P— Music 174 or permission of instructor. 



148 



Natural Sciences 

Dudley Shapere, Reynolds Professor of Philosophy 
and History of Science 

301. Seminar: The Beginnings of the Modern World-View. (4) A study of the transi- 
tion from ancient views of the world to the perspective of early modern science and 
philosophy, with focus on the works of Plato, Aristotle, Kepler, and Galileo. 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) A study of the controversies, both scientific 
and philosophical, arising in the seventeenth century between Cartesians, Newto- 
nians, and Leibnizians about the nature and limits of human knowledge. 

303. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically 
new ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time 
in relativity theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, 
and continental drift. P— At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science 
or permission of instructor. 

320. The Universe of Modern Science. (4) A survey of the contemporary scientific 
picture of the universe and its evolution, and of the major evidence for that picture. 

351. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of 
the scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and 
social sciences and the humanities. 

352. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human 
values: biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search for 
extraterrestrial life. 

396. Individual Study. (1-4) Individual projects in the philosophy and history of 
science. By invitation only. 



Philosophy 

Gregory D. Pritchard, Chairman 

Worrell Professor Robert M. Helm 

Professors Thomas K. Hearn Jr., Marcus B. Hester, 

Charles M. Lewis, Gregory D. Pritchard 

Associate Professor Ralph C. Kennedy III 

Assistant Professor Win-chiat Lee 

Instructor Charles J. Kinlaw 

Lecturer Hanna M. Hardgrave 

A major in philosophy requires thirty-six credits. The courses must include 261 
and either 161 or 271, two courses from the history sequence (201, 211, 222), and 
one course from each of the following: 230, 231, 241, 242, 243, 256 or 258; and 262, 
275, 279, 282, 285 or 287. In addition to these courses, a major in philosophy requires 



149 



a "major paper," consisting of approximately twenty typewritten pages to be submit- 
ted for a course, chosen by the student from among courses in philosophy taken 
during his or her last three semesters. This paper may also satisfy the term paper 
requirement for the course. 

A minor in philosophy requires five courses, one of which will be either Philosophy 
111, 171, or 172. These courses are to be chosen in accordance with one of the following 
plans. Although plans A, B, and C are designed to complement majors in the speci- 
fied areas, any one of the plans may be chosen by someone who wants to pursue 
other interests. 

(A) Art, Literature, and Religion (B) Natural Science and Mathematics 

Philosophy of Art and/or Philoso- Philosophy of Science; Logic and/ 

phy of Religion; one or more con- or Symbolic Logic; one or more of 

centration courses (230, 231, 241, the following: 201, 211, 222, 225, 

242, 258); one or more of the 230, 231, 241, 258, 275, 279, 280. 
following: 201, 211, 222, 225, 261, 275. 

(C) Social Science, Politics, and Law (D) Open Plan 

Ethics and/or Philosophy of Law; With departmental approval, a 

Logic and/or Symbolic Logic; one fourth option will be available to 

or more of the following: 201, 211, students for whom none of the 

225, 230, 231, 241, 242, 258, 262, specified plans would be appropri- 

275, 279, 287. ate. 

The Spilman Philosophy Seminar, open to advanced students in philosophy, was 
established in 1934 through an endowment provided by Bernard W. Spilman. The 
income from the endowment is used for the seminar library, which contains about 
4,000 volumes. Additional support for the library and other departmental activities 
is provided by the A. C. Reid Philosophy Fund, which was established in 1960 by 
friends of the department. The furniture in the library and seminar room was donated 
in honor of Claude V. Roebuck and Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Hough by their families. 

Two distinguished alumni of the College have made possible the establishment 
of a lectureship and a seminar. Guy T. Carswell endowed the Guy T. and Clara 
Carswell Philosophy Lectureship, and a gift from James Montgomery Hester 
established the Hester Philosophy Seminar. In addition, a lectureship bearing his 
name has been instituted in honor of Claude V. Roebuck. 

Superior majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the honors 
program in philosophy. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Philoso- 
phy," a qualified student must submit an acceptable prospectus for an honors thesis 
by November for graduation in the spring semester or by May for graduation in the 
fall semester, present a satisfactory paper based on the prospectus (as judged by the 
student's honors adviser and at least one other member of the department), and show 
an acceptable level of performance in a discussion of the paper with the honors adviser 
and at least one other member of the department. In lieu of a prospectus, the student's 
"major paper" may be submitted, provided that this occurs in the semester before 



150 



the semester in which he or she is to graduate and provided that the paper is rewritten 
in view of criticism and additional research materials as appropriate for an honors 
paper. 

111. Basic Problems of Philosophy. (4) An examination of the basic concepts of several 
representative philosophers, including their accounts of the nature of knowledge, 
man, God, mind, and matter. 

161. Logic. (4) An elementary study of the laws of valid inference, recognition of fal- 
lacies, and logical analysis. 

171, 172. Meaning and Value in Western Thought. (4,4) A critical survey of religious 
and philosophical ideas in the Western world from antiquity to modern times. Either 
Philosophy 171 or 172 satisfies the philosophy or religion requirement; both 171 and 
172 satisfy both the philosophy and religion requirements; choice made at registration. 

175. Space and Time in Fact and Fiction. (4) Are space and time fundamentally 
different? Are they properties of the physical world or of minds only? Are they finite 
or infinite in extension and duration? Other questions cover problems and paradoxes 
in the concept of space and in the concept of time travel. P— Philosophy 111, 171, 
or 172. 

182. Medical Ethics. (4) A study of moral problems in medicine including informed- 
consent, experimentation on human subjects, truthtelling, confidentiality, abortion, 
and the allocation of scarce medical resources. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

184. Applied Ethics. (4) A critical analysis of contemporary moral issues, including 
capital punishment, minority rights and their protection, civil disobedience, eutha- 
nasia, family relationships, and sexual conduct. 

201. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. (4) A study of philosophical problems such 
as the nature of faith, reason, universals, and God in the thought of Plato, Aristotle, 
Augustine, Abelard, Anselm, Aquinas, and Ockham. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

211. Modern Philosophy. (4) A survey of major philosophers from Descartes to 
Nietzsche. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

222. Contemporary Philosophy. (4) A survey of major twentieth-century philosophers, 
including Russell and Sartre. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

225. American Philosophy. (4) A study exploring the philosophies of Jonathan 
Edwards, Ralph Waldo Emerson, C. S. Peirce, William James, John Dewey, and others, 
examining their views on logic, experience, science, reality, nature, art, education, 
and God. P-Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

230. Plato. (4) A detailed analysis of selected dialogues, covering Plato's most important 
contributions to moral and political philosophy, theory of knowledge, metaphysics, 
and theology. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

231. Aristotle. (4) A study of the major texts, with emphasis on metaphysics, ethics, 
and theory of knowledge. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 



151 



241. Kant. (4) A detailed study of selected works covering Kant's most important con- 
tributions to theory of knowledge, metaphysics, ethics, religion, and aesthetics. P— 
Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

242. Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. (4) An examination of selected sources 
embodying the basic concepts of Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, especially as 
they relate to each other in terms of influence, development, and opposition. P— 
Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

243. Early German Idealism. (4) An examination of the development of post-Kantian 
idealism through the works of Fichte, Schelling, and Schleiermacher, with particu- 
lar emphasis on their efforts to address the challenge of critical philosophy. 

256. Heidegger. (4) An examination of the structure and development of Heidegger's 
philosophy from the ontological analysis in Being and Time to his later work in the 
philosophy of language and poetry. 

258. Wittgenstein. (4) The work of Ludwig Wittgenstein on several central philo- 
sophical problems studied and compared with that of Frege, James, and Russell. Topics 
include the picture theory of meaning, truth, scepticism, private languages, thinking, 
feeling, the mystical, and the ethical. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

261. Ethics. (4) A critical study of selected problems and representative works in ethical 
theory. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

262. Social and Political Philosophy. (4) A systematic examination of selected social 
and political philosophers of different traditions, with concentration on Plato, Marx, 
Rawls, and Nozick. Topics include rights, justice, equality, private property, the state, 
the common good, and the relation of individuals to society. P— Philosophy 111, 171, 
or 172. 

271. Symbolic Logic. (4) Basic concepts and techniques of modern deductive logic, 
beginning with the logic of truth-functions and quantifiers, and including some dis- 
cussion of topics such as Church's thesis and theorem, the completeness of first-order 
logic, and Godel's incompleteness theorems. 

275. Philosophy of Mind. (4) A selection from the following topics: the mind-body 
problem; personal identity; the unity of consciousness; minds and machines; the 
nature of experience; action, intention, and the will. Readings from classical and con- 
temporary sources. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

279. Philosophy of Science. (4) A systematic exploration of the conceptual founda- 
tions of scientific thought and procedure. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

282. Philosophy of Law. (4) A philosophical inquiry into the nature of law and its 
relation to morality. Classroom discussions of readings from the works of classical 
and modern authors focus on issues of contemporary concern involving questions 
of legal principle, personal liberty, human rights, responsibility, justice, and punish- 
ment. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 



152 



285. Philosophy of Art. (4) A critical examination of several philosophies of art, with 
emphasis upon the application of these theories to particular works of art. P— 
Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

287. Philosophy of Religion. (4) An analysis of the logic of religious language and 
belief, including an examination of religious experience, mysticism, revelation, and 
arguments for the nature and existence of God. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

294. Seminar in Epistemological Problems. (4) P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

295. Seminar in Metaphysical Problems. (4) P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

296. Independent Study. (2-4) 

Physics 

George P. Williams Jr., Chairman 

Reynolds Professor Richard T. Williams 

Professors Robert W. Brehme, William C. Kerr, 

Howard W. Shields, George P. Williams Jr. 

Associate Professors George M. Holzwarth, George Eric Matthews 

Assistant Professor Natalie A. W. Holzwarth 

The program for each student majoring in physics is developed through consulta- 
tion with the student's major adviser and may lead to either a bachelor of arts or 
a bachelor of science degree. The BA degree requires a minimum of basic physics 
courses and allows a wide selection of electives related to the student's interests in 
other disciplines. The BS degree is designed to prepare students for careers in physics, 
perhaps beginning with graduate study. 

The bachelor of arts degree in physics requires thirty-seven credits in physics and 
must include courses 141, 161, 164, 341, 343, and 345, and two from 230, 342, 351, 
352, and 354. The bachelor of science degree in physics requires forty-six credits in 
physics and must include courses 311, 341, 343, 344, 345, and 346. In special cases, 
the department may allow substitutions. For either degree, two courses in chemistry 
or the equivalent and Mathematics 251 are required; Mathematics 301, 302, 303, and 
304 are recommended. 

A typical schedule for the first two years: 

Freshman Sophomore 

Basic and divisional requirements Basic and divisional requirements 

Physics 113, 114 Physics 141, 161, 164 

Mathematics 111, 112 Mathematics 251, 301, 302 
Foreign Language 

If this sequence is followed, the physics major may be completed with considera- 
ble flexibility in exercising various options, such as the five year BA/MS program. 
This saves time, and the outstanding student may qualify for a tuition scholarship 
in the senior year of the five-year program. A candidate for the 3-2 engineering 



153 



program would also complete three years of the physics major BS program prior to 
transfer. (Consult the chairman for additional information on these five-year 
programs.) 

A minor in physics requires twenty-four credits including Physics 113, 114, 161, 
164, 341, and 230. Students interested in the minor should so advise the instructor 
of the second-year course. 

If physics is not taken in the freshman year, the degree requirements in physics 
may still be completed by the end of the senior year if a beginning course is taken 
in the sophomore year. No student may be a candidate for a degree with a major 
in physics with a grade less than C in general physics without special permission 
of the department. 

Physics courses satisfying Division II requirements must be taken at Wake Forest. 

Satisfactory completion of the laboratory work is required for a passing grade in 
all courses with a laboratory. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in physics through the major adviser. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Physics," students must complete satisfactorily Physics 381 
and pass a comprehensive written examination. 

101. Conceptual Physics. (5) A non-mathematical introduction to the essential prin- 
ciples of classical and modern physics based on a conceptual treatment of the more 
exciting contemporary aspects of the subject. Credit not allowed for both 101 and 
111. Lab— two hours. 

104. Introductory Physics for Teachers. (3 or 4) No lab. Does not satisfy Division II 
requirements. 

105. Descriptive Astronomy. (4) An introductory study of the universe, from the so- 
lar system to the galaxies. No lab. Does not satisfy Division II requirements. 

109. Astronomy. (5) An introductory study of the universe consisting of descriptive 
astronomy the historical development of astronomical theories, and astrophysics. 
Laboratory consists of computer simulation of typical measurements basic to astrono- 
my. P— basic algebra and trigonometry. Lab— two hours. Satisfies one semester of 
Division II requirements. 

106. Physics and the Sounds of Music. (3 or 4) A study of the production, propaga- 
tion, and perception of musical sounds. Satisfies no divisional requirements. No 
prerequisites; no lab. 

110. Introductory Physics. (5) Essentials of mechanics, wave motion, heat, sound, 
electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Not recommended for pre-medical, 
mathematics, and science students. Lab— two hours. 

113, 114. General Physics. (5,5) Same topics as 110 treated with some use of calculus. 
Recommended for pre-medical, mathematics, and science students. One section of 
this course is reserved for freshmen who are prospective majors in a physical science. 
Lab— two hours. C— Mathematics 111 or equivalent. P— 113 is prerequisite for 114. 



154 



130. Introduction to Microcomputers. (4) Microcomputer architecture and interfacing 
with an introduction to programming in BASIC, assembler, and machine language. 

141. Elementary Modern Physics. (4) The development of twentieth century physics 
and an introduction to quantum ideas. P— Physics 113 and Mathematics 111. 

161. Applied Mechanics. (5) The fundamental principles of mechanics. Lab— three 
hours. P— Physics 113 and Mathematics 111 or equivalent. 

164. Introductory Electricity. (1) Introduction to electronics instrumentation, DC and 
AC circuits, operational amplifiers, and transistors. A two-hour laboratory. 

230. Electronics. (4) Introduction to the theory and application of transistors and elec- 
tronic circuits. Lab— three hours. P— Physics 164 or equivalent. 

301, 302. Physics Seminar. (0,0) Discussion of contemporary research, usually with 
visiting scientists. Attendance required of junior and senior physics majors. 

311. Mechanics. (4) A junior/senior level treatment of analytic classical mechanics. 
P— Physics 161 and Mathematics 251. 

320. The Physics of Macromolecules. (4) The physics of polymers, especially pro- 
teins and nucleic acids, including the molecular basis for their secondary and tertiary 
structure. P— Physics 351 or Chemistry 341 or Biology 371. 

330. Data Acquisition and Analysis. (4) Advanced treatment of computer interfacing, 
signal processing methods, non-ideal integrated circuit behavior, and data reduction 
and fitting procedures. P— Physics 130, 230. 

341, 342. Electricity and Magnetism. (4,4) First semester: electrostatics, magnetostat- 
ics, dielectric and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations. Second semester: appli- 
cations of Maxwell's equations to radiation, reflection, refraction, dispersion, 
polarization, transmission lines, plasmas, relativistic 4- vector formalism. P— Physics 
114, Mathematics 251; 341 is prerequisite to 342. 

343, 344. Quantum Physics. (4,4) Application of the elementary principles of quan- 
tum mechanics to atomic, molecular, solid state, and nuclear physics. P— Physics 141 
and Mathematics 251. 

345, 346. Advanced Physics Laboratory. (1,1) The laboratory associated with Physics 
343, 344. Lab— three hours. 

351. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. (4) Introduction to classical and 
statistical thermodynamics and distribution functions. 

352. Physical Optics and Optical Design. (5) Interaction of light with materials; diffrac- 
tion and coherent optics; ray trace methods of optical design. Lab— three hours. 

354. Introduction to Solid State Physics. (4) A survey of the structure, composition, 
physical properties, and technological applications of condensed matter. P— Physics 
343. 

381, 382. Research. (2-4, 2-4) Library, conference, computation, and laboratory work 
performed on an individual basis. 



155 



Politics 

Jack D. Fleer, Chairman 

Professors David B. Broyles, Jack D. Fleer, Carl C. Moses, 

Donald O. Schoonmaker, Richard D. Sears 

Professor of History and Asian Studies Balkrishna Govind Gokhale 

Associate Professors Charles H. Kennedy, Kathleen B. Smith 

Assistant Professors Katy J. Harriger, Wei-chin Lee 

Visiting Assistant Professors Yomi Durotoye, Martha Swann, David P. Weinstein 

Visiting Professor Jerry Pubantz 

In its broadest conception, the aim of the study of politics is to understand the 
way in which policy for a society is formulated and executed and to understand the 
moral standards by which policy is or ought to be set. This center of interest is often 
described alternatively as the study of power, of government, of the state, or of hu- 
man relations in their political context. For teaching purposes, the study of politics 
has been divided by the department into the following fields: (1) American politics, 
(2) comparative politics, (3) political philosophy, and (4) international politics. Introduc- 
tory courses in these fields provide broad and flexible approaches to studying politi- 
cal life. 

The major in politics consists of thirty-six credits, at least half of which must be 
completed at Wake Forest University. The courses must include the following: (a) 
a first course selected from Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116; (b) any non-seminar course 
in each of the four fields of the discipline except Politics 284, 285, 287, 288, 289; (c) 
one seminar in politics (usually a student takes no more than one seminar in each 
field and no more than three seminars overall). No more than four credits for any 
one or any combination of the following courses may be counted toward the thirty- 
six credits required for the major: Politics 287, 288, and 289. A minimum grade aver- 
age of C on all courses attempted in politics is required for graduation. Majors should 
consult with their advisers concerning additional regulations. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in politics. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Politics," one must successfully complete Politics 284 and 285. Politics 284 and 285 
must be taken as additional courses beyond the thirty-six credits ordinarily required. 
For additional information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

The minor in politics consists of twenty credits, including Politics 113 but excluding 
individual study and seminar courses. No more than eight credits may be from among 
the following courses: Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116. Sixteen of the credits must be 
taken at Wake Forest and any transfer courses must be approved by the chairman. 
None of the courses may be taken pass/fail. 

A student who selects politics to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take one 
of the following courses: Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116. Students who are not majors 
in Politics may take upper level courses as electives without having had lower-level 
courses, unless a prerequisite is specified. 



156 



American Politics 

113. American Government and Politics. (4) A survey of the nature of politics, politi- 
cal principles, and political institutions, with emphasis on their application to the 
United States. 

210. Major Topics in Public Policy. (2,3, or 4) A study of major policies on the current 
public agenda in the United States, including consideration of alternative policy 
responses and the politics which surround them. Possible topics include the politics 
of poverty and welfare, medical care, education, crime, and energy. Credit varies with 
the number of topics studied. 

211. Political Parties and Voting Behavior. (4) An examination of party competition, 
party organizations, the electorate and electoral activities of parties, and the respon- 
sibilities of parties for governing. 

213. Public Administration. (4) Introduction to the study of public administration 
emphasizing policymaking in government agencies. 

215. Democracy and Public Policymaking. (4) An examination of the role and 
responsibilities of citizens in democratic policymaking. Includes discussion of 
democratic theory, emphasis on a policy issue of national importance (i.e. poverty, 
crime, environment), and involvement of students in projects that examine the dimen- 
sion of the issue in their community. 

217. Politics and the Mass Media. (4) Exploration of the relationship between the 
political system and the mass media. Two broad concerns will be the regulation of 
the mass media and the impact of media on political processes and events. 

218. Congress and Policymaking. (4) An examination of the composition, authority 
structures, external influences, and procedures of Congress with emphasis on their 
implications for policymaking in the United States. 

219. Fundamentals of Public Policy Analysis. (4) Fundamentals of public policy 
analysis with emphasis on techniques of decision-making such as cost benefit analysis 
and utility analysis. Each student will participate in a major collective research project 
centered on a local issue. 

220. The American Presidency. (4) Emphasis on the office and the role; contribu- 
tions by contemporary presidents considered in perspective. 

222. Urban Problems and Politics. (4) Political structures and processes in American 
cities and suburbs as they relate to the social, economic, and political problems of 
the metropolis. 

223. Blacks in American Politics (4). A survey of selected topics, including black po- 
litical participation, political organizations, political leadership, and political issues. 
It will also show the relationship of these phenomena to American political institu- 
tions and processes as a whole. 



157 



225. American Constitutional Law: Separation of Powers and the Federal System. 

(4) An analysis of Supreme Court decisions affecting the three branches of the national 
government and federal/state relations. 

226. American Constitutional Law: Civil Liberties. (4) Judicial interpretations of First 
Amendment freedoms, racial equality and the rights of the criminally accused. 

227. Politics, Law, and Courts. (4) Analysis of the nature and role of law in American 
society and the structure and procedure of American courts. Questions of judicial 
organization, personnel, and decision-making, as well as the impact of law and court 
decisions on the social order, are explored at local, state, and national levels. 

229. Women and Politics. (4) The course will examine classical and contemporary 
arguments regarding the participation of women in politics as well as current policy 
issues and changes in women's political participation. 

Comparative Politics 

114. Comparative Government and Politics. (4) A survey of political processes and 
principles as applied to traditional, developing, and mature states. 

231. Western European Politics. (4) Analysis of the political systems of Great Britain, 
France, and Italy, focusing primarily on the problems of stable democracy. 

232. Government and Politics in the Soviet Union. (4) Analysis of the institutions 
and processes of politics in the USSR and examination of political developments in 
other states of Eastern Europe. 

233. The Politics of West and East Germany. (4) A study of the political behavior 
and governmental institutions of the capitalist democratic regime of West Germany 
and the authoritarian socialist regime of East Germany. 

235. The Politics of Revolution. (4) A study of revolution as an alternative means 
of socio-political change. Analysis of the nature and types of revolution as well as 
causes, processes, and consequences. Attention is given to some historical cases and 
to some current revolutionary situations and movements. 

236. Government and Politics in Latin America. (4) Comparative analysis of the 
institutions and processes of politics in the Latin American region. 

237. Comparative Public Policy in Selected Industrialized Democracies. (4) An 

investigation of the public policy choices involving such matters as health, educa- 
tion, and income maintenance plans in selected Western European countries. The 
origins, development, trends of the "welfare state" will be examined in Great Britain, 
West Germany, and Sweden. 

242. Problems in Comparative Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems in contemporary comparative politics. 

244. Politics and Literature. (2,3, or 4) An examination of how literature can extend 
our knowledge of politics and political systems. The course considers the insights 



158 



of selected novelists, such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Heinrich Boll, Robert Penn 
Warren, George Orwell, and Gabriel Garcia Marquez. 

245. Government and Politics of South Asia. (4) A study of the governments of India, 
Pakistan, Nepal, and Ceylon. Emphasis on political organizations, party structures, 
and subnational governmental systems. 

246. Politics and Policies in South Asia. (4) A survey of major issues relevant to po- 
litics and policy in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. 

247. Islam and Politics. (4) The course explores the interrelationship of Islam and 
politics in the contemporary world. The course has two main foci. The first deals 
with Islam as a political ideology which shapes the structure of political institutions 
and behavior. The second looks at Islam in practice by examining the interaction 
between Islam and the political systems of Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and others. 

248. Government and Politics of China. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in China (People's Republic of China and Republic of China). Emphasis 
on group conflict, elites, ideology, as well as current policy changes in the process 
of modernization. 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in Japan. Attention is also given to the relationship between politics and 
economics. 

International Politics 

116. International Politics. (4) A survey of the forces which shape relations among 
states and some of the major problems of contemporary international politics. 

250. Global Crises. (4) An introductory survey of the major current issues in inter- 
national affairs. Students learn how to effectively read and criticize materials and 
present critiques in oral and written fashion. 

252. Problems in International Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems of contemporary international politics. 

253. The Politics of International Economic Relations. (4) A study of the emergence 
of international economic transactions, including trade, monetary affairs, investment, 
and multinational corporations, as a central aspect of world politics. 

254. American Foreign Policy: Contemporary Problems. (4) A critical examination 
of different methods of studying American foreign policy and of selected policies 
followed by the United States since the early 1960s. 

256. Nuclear Weapons and National Security. (2 or 4) An analysis of the strategic, 
political, and moral implications of nuclear weapons as instruments of national poli- 
cy. Both American and Soviet perspectives will be considered and special attention 
will be given to contemporary debates over the possession and control of nuclear 
weapons. 



159 



257. United States-Latin American Political and Economic Relations. (4) A descrip- 
tive and analytical study of the bilateral and multilateral political relations of the La- 
tin American states and the United States, with particular reference to the economic 
interactions which influence them. 

258. U.S. National Security Policymaking. (4) A critical analysis of how U.S. national 
security policy is made with particular emphasis on the period 1960 to present. 

259. The Arab-Israeli Confrontation. (4) An analysis of factors influencing the rela- 
tionship between Israel and its neighbors relative to fundamental aspects of United 
States, Israeli, Palestinian, and Arab states' policies. 

260. East Asian International Relations. (4) An analytical survey of the bilateral and 
multilateral political relations of the East Asian states, with particular emphasis on 
the security relations and economic interactions. 

267. America in Vietnam: Myth and Reality. (4) An analysis of American policy 
towards Vietnam with special emphasis on the period of 1954-1975. The focus will 
be on the relationship between American policies and the problems posed by Viet- 
namese and American cultures. 

Political Philosophy 

115. Political Philosophy. (4) A survey of major systematic statements of the rules 
and principles of political life. Representative writers are Tocqueville, Dahl, and 
Aristotle. 

270. Topics in Political Theory. (4) An intensive study of one or more major topics 
in political theory. 

271. Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy. (4) An examination of the 
nature and goals of the classical position, with attention to its origins in ancient Athens 
and its diffusion through Rome. Representative writers are Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. 

273. Radical Critiques of Political Society. (4) Anarchist, socialist, and communist 
criticisms of and alternatives to existing political societies, with special attention to 
such problems as utopianism and alienation. Representative writers are Marx and 
Nietzsche. 

274. Noble Greeks and Romans. (4) The good man and the good citizen as compre- 
hended in classical political philosophy. Representative writers are Aristotle, Plutarch, 
Aquinas, Shakespeare. 

275. American Political Philosophy. (4) Critical examination of the nature of the Ameri- 
can polity as expressed by its founders and leading statesmen. Representative writers 
are the Federalists, Lincoln, modern political scientists, and radical critics. 

278. Modern Political Philosophy. (4) Political thought in the period from Machiavelli 
to the present, including such topics as democracy, equality, liberty, radical theories, 
and/or the rise of "scientific" political theory. Representative writers include Hobbes, 
Locke, Rousseau, Kant, Marx and Heidegger. 



160 



279. Contemporary Political Theory. (4) An examination of representative twentieth 
century political thinkers such as Arendt, Dewey, Foucault, Rawls, and Weber. 

Honors and Individual Study 

284. Honors Study. (3) Directed study and research in preparation for a major paper 
on a subject of special interest to the student. Taken in the fall semester of the senior 
year by all candidates for departmental honors. 

285. Honors Study. (2) Directed study toward completion of the project begun in 
Politics 284 and to the writing and defense of an honors paper. Taken in the spring 
semester of the senior year by all candidates for departmental honors. P— Politics 284. 

287. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) Intensive research leading to the completion of an 
analytical paper conducted under the direction of a faculty member. Permission of 
instructor required. 

288. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. Permission of instructor required. 

289. Internship in Politics. (2,3, or 4) Field work in a public or private setting with 
related readings and an analytical paper under the direction of a faculty member. 
Permission of instructor required. 

Seminars 

291. Seminar in American Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P— Permission of instructor. 

292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P— Permission of instructor. 

293. Seminar in International Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P— Permission of instructor. 

294. Seminar in Political Philosophy. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P— Permission of instructor. 



161 



Psychology 

John E. Williams, Chairman 

Professors Robert C. Beck, Deborah L. Best, Robert H. Dufort, 

Charles L. Richman, John E. Williams 

Associate Professors David W. Catron, Maxine L. Clark, 

Philippe R. Falkenberg, David Allen Hills, 

Mark R. Leary, Cecilia H. Solano 

Assistant Professor Terry D. Blumenthal 

Visiting Assistant Professors Sarah S. Catron, Kelly B. Kyes, 

Catherine E. Seta, Susan B. Wallace 

Adjunct Associate Professors C. Drew Edwards, Jay R. Kaplan, Frank B. Wood 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Marianne A. Schubert, Carol A. Shivery 

Instructor Robin M. Kowalski 

Psychology 151 is prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. Courses num- 
bered below 151 do not count toward Division IV requirements or toward the major 
in psychology. Psychology 211, or special permission of the instructor, is prerequi- 
site for all 300-level courses except 313, 335, 344, 357, 358, and 367. 

It is recommended that students who are considering psychology as a major take 
Psychology 151 in their freshman year and Psychology 211 no later than the fall of 
their junior year. An average of C or higher in psychology courses is required at the 
time the major is elected. The major in psychology requires the completion of a mini- 
mum of forty credits in psychology, including 151, 211, 212, and 313. In addition, 
the major student must complete at least one course from each of the following groups: 
320, 326, 329, 331, and 333; 341, 351, 355, and 362. No more than 48 psychology credits 
may be counted toward the graduation requirements of 144 credits. 

The minor in psychology requires twenty credits in psychology, distributed as 
follows: 151 (4 credits); 211 (5 credits); at least one of the following courses: 320, 326, 
329, 331, 333 (4 credits each); and seven additional credits in courses numbered 200 
or above. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to participate in the honors 
program in psychology. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Psychology," 
the student must complete satisfactorily a special sequence of courses (381, 383) and 
pass an oral or written examination. In addition, the honors student normally has 
a non-credit research apprenticeship with a faculty member. For more detailed 
information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

100. Learning to Learn. (2,3, or 4) A workshop to help people improve their learning 
skills through the application of basic principles of learning, remembering, and so 
forth. Students at all levels welcomed. No prerequisite. Pass/fail only. 

102. Exploration of Career Planning. (2,3, or 4) Examination of educational/ vocational 
planning as a personal process, based on knowledge of self and the work world. 
No prerequisite. 

151. Introductory Psychology. (4) A systematic survey of psychology as the scientific 
study of behavior. Prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. 



162 



211, 212. Research Methods in Psychology. (5, 5) Introduction to the design and statisti- 
cal analysis of psychological research. Lab— twice weekly. P— Psychology 151 and per- 
mission of instructor. 

239. Altered States of Consciousness. (4) Examination of altered states of conscious- 
ness with special reference to sleep and dreams, meditation, hypnosis, and drugs. 
P— Psychology 151. 

241. Developmental Psychology. (4) Survey of physical, emotional, cognitive, and 
social development in humans from conception to death. P— Psychology 151. 

245. Survey of Abnormal Behavior. (4) Study of problem behaviors such as depression, 
alcoholism, antisocial personality, the schizophrenias, and pathogenic personality 
patterns, with emphasis on causes, prevention, and the relationships of these dis- 
orders to normal lifestyles. P— Psychology 151. 

250. Psychology Abroad. (4) The study of psychology in foreign countries. Content 
and travel plans vary from year to year depending upon interests of faculty and stu- 
dents. Usually offered in summer. P— Psychology 151. 

255. Personality. (4) Survey of theory and research on the structure and function of 
human personality, with attention to the relationship to cognition, emotion, motiva- 
tion, and behavior. P— Psychology 151. 

260. Social Psychology. (4) A survey of the field, including theories of social behavior, 
interpersonal attraction, attitudes and attitude change, and group behavior. P— 
Psychology 151. 




163 



265. Human Sexuality. (4) An exploration of the psychological and physiological 
aspects of human sexuality with attention to sexual mores, sexual deviances, sexual 
dysfunction, and sex-related roles. P— Psychology 151. 

268. Psychology of Business and Industry. (4) Psychological principles and methods 
applied to problems commonly encountered in business and industry. P— Psychology 
151. 

270. Topics in Psychology. (1,2, or 3) The student selects from among a group of short 
one-credit courses dealing with topics of special interest. The courses meet sequen- 
tially, not concurrently, and options are offered in each portion of the semester. P— 
Psychology 151. 

270 A Aggression 270P Animal Flying Behavior 

270D Brain/Behavior Relations 270Q Psychopharmacology 

270E Emotion 270R The Human Factor: Designing 

270H Intelligence Your Oum World 

2701 Race and Young Children 270S Primate Cognition 

270] Memory 270T Psychological Impact of Racism 

270K Psychology and Politics 270X1 The Self and Social Behavior 

270L Sex Stereotypes and Roles 270V Prejudice and Stereotyping 

270M The Gifted and Creative Person 270W Problem Solving and Decision Making 

270N Liking and Loving Relationships 270X Psychobiology 

280. Directed Study. (1-4) Student research performed under faculty supervision. 
P— Psychology 151 and approval of faculty member prior to registration. 

313. History and Systems of Psychology. (4) The development of psychological 
thought and research from ancient Greece to present trends, with emphasis on 
intensive examination of original sources. P— Two psychology courses beyond 151 
or permission of instructor. 

320. Physiological Psychology. (4) Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical expla- 
nations of behavior. P— Psychology 211 or permission of instructor. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal 
behavior. This course may count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to 
be made at registration. P— Psychology or biology major or permission of instructor. 

326. Learning Theory and Research. (4) Survey of concepts and research in learn- 
ing, with particular emphasis on recent developments. P— Psychology 211. 

329. Perception. (4) Survey of theory and research findings on various sensory sys- 
tems (vision, hearing, touch, taste). P— Psychology 211. 

331. Cognition. (4) Current theory and research in cognitive processes. Emphasis 
on memory, attention, visual and auditory information processing, concept iden- 
tification/formation, and language. P— Psychology 211. 

333. Motivation of Behavior. (4) Survey of basic motivational concepts and related 
evidence. P— Psychology 211. 



164 



335. Fundamentals of Human Motivation. (4) Description and analysis of some 
fundamental motivational phenomena, with special reference to human problems; 
includes reward and punishment, conflict anxiety, affection, needs for achievement 
and power, aggression, creativity, and curiosity. P— Psychology 151. 

341. Research in Child Development. (4) Methodological issues and selected research 
in child development. Research projects required. P— Psychology 211. 

342. Current Issues in Developmental Psychology. (4) Intensive examination of select- 
ed theoretical or research issues in this area. P— Psychology 211 and 341. 

344. Abnormal Psychology. (4) Descriptive analysis of the major types of abnormal 
behavior with attention to organic, psychological, and cultural causes and major 
modes of therapy. Offered in the summer. P— Psychology 151. 

346. Psychological Disorders of Childhood. (4) Survey of problems including conduct 
disorders, attention deficits disorders, depression, and autism. Emphasis on causes, 
prevention, treatment, and the relationships of disorders to normal child develop- 
ment and family life. P— Psychology 245 or 344 or permission of instructor. 

351. Personality Research. (4) The application of a variety of research procedures 
to the study of human personality. Research projects required. P— Psychology 211. 

355. Research in Social Psychology. (4) Methodological issues and selected research 
in the study of the human as a social animal. Research projects required. P— 
Psychology 211. 

357. Cross-Cultural Psychology. (4) An examination of differences in psychological 
processes (e.g., attitudes, perception, mental health, organizational behavior) as- 
sociated with cultural variation. P— Psychology 151. 

358. Psychology of Woman. (4) Intensive study of the behavior of women and its 
personal application, including consideration of biological, social, and motivational 
factors. P— Psychology 151. 

361. Operant Conditioning and Behavior Modification. (4) Principles, theory, and 
experimental research in operant learning, with applications to the modification of 
behavior in various populations and situations. P— Psychology 211. 

362. Psychological Tests and Measurements. (4) Theory and application of psycho- 
logical assessment procedures in the areas of intelligence, aptitude, vocational in- 
terest, and personality. P— Psychology 211. 

363. Survey of Clinical Psychology. (4) An overview of the field of clinical psychol- 
ogy. P— Psychology 245 and senior standing or permission of instructor. 

367. Effectiveness in Parent/Child Relations. (4) A survey of popular approaches 
to child-rearing, with examination of the research literature on parent/child inter- 
action and actual training in parental skills. P— Psychology 151. 

369. Contemporary Applications of Psychology. (4) Supervised field experience in 
applied psychology. P— Psychology 151 and permission of instructor. 



165 



378. Instrumentation for Psychological Research. (2-4) Lecture/demonstration 
presentation of electrical and mechanical equipment, followed by practical applica- 
tion in small group project work. Assumes no prior knowledge of electricity or 
construction. P— Permission of instructor. 

381. Honors Seminar. (3) Seminar on selected problems in psychology. Intended 
primarily for students in the departmental honors program. P— Psychology 211 and 
permission of instructor. 

383. Honors Research. (3) Seminar in selected issues in research design, followed 
by independent empirical research under the supervision of a member of the depart- 
mental faculty. P— Psychology 211 and permission of instructor. 

392. Contemporary Problems in Psychology. (4) Seminar treatment of current the- 
ory and research in several "frontier" areas of psychology. Principally for senior 
majors planning to attend graduate school. P— Psychology 211 and senior standing. 



Religion 

Carlton T. Mitchell, Chairman 

Easley Professor John William Angell 

University Professor James A. Martin 

Wake Forest Professor Charles H. Talbert 

Professors John E. Collins, Fred L. Horton Jr., 

Carlton T. Mitchell, Ralph C. Wood Jr. 

Adjunct Associate Professor Thomas. E. Dougherty Jr. 

Assistant Professors Stephen B. Boyd, Judith W. Kay, Alton B. Pollard III 

Instructor Carol Zinn 
Visiting Lecturer Thomas P. Liebschutz 

The department offers courses designed to give every student an opportunity to 
acquire at least an introduction to the life, literature, and most important movements 
in the field of religion. It also seeks to provide the foundational courses needed for 
professional religious service in ministry, counseling, chaplaincy, and the like. 

A course in religion is required for all degrees. Any 100-level course offered by 
the department is accepted to meet the Division III requirement. 

A major in religion requires a rninimum of thirty-two credits, at least half of which 
must be in courses above the 100 level. 

A minor in religion requires twenty credits, eight of which must be above the 100 
level. The required courses may include one pass/fail course if the course is offered 
on the pass/fail basis only. The department will provide advisers for students electing 
the minor in religion. 

Pre-ministerial students are advised to include in their program of study, in addition 
to courses in religion, courses in psychology, history, public speaking, and two lan- 
guages (Greek or Latin and German or French). 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in religion. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 



166 



Religion," they must apply to the chairman of the department for admission to the 
honors program, normally by February of the junior year. Upon completion of all 
the requirements, the candidate is graduated with "Honors in Religion." For addi- 
tional information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

111. Introduction to the Old Testament. (4) A survey of the Old Testament designed 
to introduce the student to the history, literature, and religion of the ancient Hebrews. 

112. Introduction to the New Testament. (4) A survey of the literature of the New 
Testament in the context of early Christian history. 

120. Introduction to the Bible. (4) A consideration of prominent themes found in 
the Old and New Testaments. 

131. Basic Christian Ethics. (4) A study of prominent themes, figures, and issues 
in Christian ethics, with attention to selected contemporary problems. 

151. Religion and Society. (4) A study of religion as a social phenomenon and its 
relationship to the structures of society— political, economic, and others, with spe- 
cial focus on the contemporary United States. (Same as Sociology 301.) 

161. World Religions. (4) The place of religion in life and the origin, nature, and 
accomplishments of the living religions of the world, studied from the historical point 
of view. 

164. The Formation of the Christian Tradition. (4) A survey of the history of the 
Christian church from its origins to the Reformation. 

165. History of Christianity in Modern Times. (4) A survey of the history of the 
Christian church from the Reformation to the present. 

166. American Religious Life. (4) A study of the history, organization, worship and 
beliefs of American religious bodies, with particular attention to cultural factors. 

171, 172. Meaning and Value in Western Thought. (4,4) A critical survey of religion 
and philosophy in the Western world from antiquity to modern times. Either Religion 
171 or 172 satisfies the philosophy or religion requirement; both 171 and 172 satisfy 
both the philosophy and religion requirements; choice made at registration. 

173. Basic Christian Beliefs. (4) An introduction to the language of Christian faith: 
its central images and doctrines, its root narrative and practices, its essential terms 
and truths. 

177. Faith and Imagination. (4) A study of modern writers, including C. S. Lewis 
and J. R. R. Tolkien, who seek to retell the Christian story in imaginative terms. 

209. The Pre-exilic Prophets. (2) A study of the background, personal characteris- 
tics, function, message, and permanent contribution of the prophets from Samuel 
through Jeremiah. 



167 



210. The Post-exilic Prophets. (2) A study of the background, personal characteris- 
tics, function, message, and permanent contribution of the prophets from Ezekiel 
to the end of the Old Testament era. 

212. The Wisdom Literature. (2) An introduction to the Wisdom Literature of the 
Old Testament, with special attention to Proverbs. 

213. Introduction to Palestinian Archeology. (2) A survey of twentieth century 
archeology in Palestine with attention to its importance for Biblical studies. 

215. Visions of the End: Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic. (2,4) Reading and study 
of Biblical and non-Biblical apocalyptic texts. This course may be divided into halves 
for two credits each. 

215. (a) Daniel and Jewish Apocalyptic 

215. (b) Revelation and Christian Apocalyptic 

217. Old Testament Apocrypha. (2) Reading of the books of the Apocrypha, with 
special attention to their origin and significance, and with a consideration of the 
ambivalence of Judaism and Christianity toward this literature. 

218. Seminar in the Mediterranean World. (4) Travel and study in such countries 
as Greece, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. 

235. Passion, Mind, and Power. (4) An examination of the relation between emotion, 
reason, and will in Christian ethical theory, ancient to modern, including feminist. 

237. Black Religion and Black Churches in America. (4) Survey of literature on these 
themes with an examination of the historical background and special attention to 
the contemporary era. 

261. Judaism in the First Three Centuries of the Common Era. (4) A study of the 
development of Rabbinic Judaism out of the sects and movements of first century 
Judaism. 

262. Contemporary Judaism. (2) A survey of Judaism today, including a study of some 
major religious, political, and literary figures. 

263. Contemporary Catholicism. (2) An introduction to recent thought and practice 
in the Roman Catholic Church. 

266. Religious Sects and Cults. (4) An examination of certain religious sects in America, 
including such groups as Jehovah's Witnesses, communal groups, and contemporary 
movements. 

267. The Baptists. (2) A survey of Baptist history, thought, and polity, including an 
examination of various Baptist groups and a study of important controversies. 

270. Theology and Modern Literature. (4) An introduction to such modern theologians 
as Karl Barth and Reinhold Niebuhr, and to literary figures who share their concerns, 
including Flannery O'Connor and Walker Percy. 



168 



273. Studies in Ecumenical Theology. (4) A study of various images and models of 
the church, their interrelationships and implication for ecumenism. 

276. The Problem of Evil from Job to Shakespeare. (4) A comparative analysis of 
the source and remedy of evil in Job, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Plato, Dante, and 
Shakespeare. 

277. Christian Literary Classics. (4) A study of Christian texts which are masterpieces 
of literature as well as faith, including works by Augustine, Dante, Pascal, Bunyan, 
Milton, and Newman. 

282. Honors in Religion. (4) A conference course including directed reading and the 
writing of a research project. 

286, 287. Directed Reading. (1-4, 1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise 
available in the department. P— Permission of instructor. 

292. Teaching Religion. (4) A study of the teaching of religion in church, school, 
and community. 

300. Meaning of Religion. (4) A phenomenological study of different ways of defining 
religion, including the views of representative philosophers, psychologists, sociolo- 
gists, anthropologists, theologians, and historians of religion. 

301. Myth. (4) A study of the approaches to the interpretation of myth, with a focus 
on the meaning and values implicit in the myths of contemporary culture. 

302. Studies in Mysticism. (2,4) A student may choose to study mysticism as an 
independent phenomenon or to study mysticism in dialogue with the theories of 
contemporary science. 

302 (a) Phenomenology of Mysticism 
302 (b) Mysticism and Psychology 

303. Religion and Science. (4) An examination of the ways in which religion and 
science have conflicted with, criticized, and complemented one another in the histo- 
ry of Western thought from Galileo to the present. 

311. Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible. (2,4) A study of Hebrew poetry in English 
translation with special attention to its types, its literary and rhetorical characteris- 
tics, and its importance for our understanding of the religion and culture of ancient 
Israel. (The first half of the course may be taken for two credits and is a prerequisite 
for the second half.) 

314. Ancient Israel and Her Neighbors. (2) A study of ancient Near Eastern archeology 
with special emphasis on Israel's relationships with surrounding peoples. 

315, 316. Field Research in Biblical Archeology. (4,4) A study of the religion and culture 
of the ancient Near East through the excavation and interpretation of an ancient site. 

320. Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels. (4) A study of Jesus' proclamation and activity 
in light of modern critical research on the Gospels. 



169 



321. The Quest for the Historical Jesus. (4) An investigation of the possibility and 
relevance of historical knowledge about Jesus through a consideration of the semi- 
nal "Lives of Jesus" since the eighteenth century. 

322. The General Epistles. (4) An exegetical study of two or more of the general Epis- 
tles, with emphasis on the setting of the Epistles in the life of the Early Church. 

326. Early Christian Theologians: Paul. (4) An introduction to the Pauline interpre- 
tation of Christianity and its place in the life of the Early Church. 

327. Early Christian Theologians: The Fourth Evangelist. (4) An examination of the 
Johannine interpretation of Jesus and the Christian faith. 

328. The New Testament and Ethics. (4) A study of selected ethical issues in the New 
Testament within the context of Mediterranean culture. 

334. Christian Approaches to Bio-Medical Ethics. (4) An examination of Catholic and 
Protestant understandings of life and death, with analysis of ethical issues in the con- 
text of the U.S. health-care system. 

336. Roman Catholic and Protestant Ethics. (4) A study and comparison of Catholic 
natural law ethics and Protestant responsibility ethics. 

338. Ethics in Feminist Perspective. (4) A study of the implications of feminist theol- 
ogies, social theories, and views of human nature for ethical theory and practice. 

342. Religion, Culture, and Modernity. (4) An inquiry into the origins and develop- 
ment of modernity as idea and ideology, with special emphasis on its significance 
for non-Western social and religious movements. 

343. The City as Symbol. (4) A study of the city, past and present, as a unique reposi- 
tory and symbol of human values and aspirations. 

346. Theological Foundations of Religious Education. (4) A study of theological 
methodology, theories of learning, and philosophies of education in terms of their 
implications for religious education. 

350. Psychology of Religion. (4) An examination of the psychological elements in 
the origin, development, and expression of religious experience. 

354. Religious Development of the Individual. (4) A study of growth and develop- 
ment through childhood and adolescence to adulthood, with emphasis on the role 
of the home and the church in religious education. 

355. Theology of Pastoral Care and Counseling. (4) A study of the relationship be- 
tween theology and the purpose, theories, and methods of pastoral care. 

360. Hinduism. (4) A study of the fundamental features of the Hindu tradition. 

361. Buddhism. (4) A study of the Buddhist tradition, its fundamental features, and 
its impact on the culture of Asia. 

362. Zen Buddhism. (4) The history and teaching of Zen. 



170 



363. Hellenistic Religions. (4) Consideration of available source materials, questions 
of method, and bibliography related to such Hellenistic religions as the mysteries, 
Hellenistic Judaism, and Gnosticism. 

364. Islam. (4) A study of the fundamental concepts of Islamic thought and the histor- 
ical context of its development. Both ancient and contemporary impact of the teachings 
of Islam considered. 

365. History of Religions in America. (4) A study of American religions from co- 
lonial times until the present. 

366. Gender and Religion. (4) An examination of the historical and contemporary 
interaction between religion and sex roles, sexism, and sexuality. 

367. The Mystics of the Church. (4) A historical study of the lives and thought of 
selected Christian mystics with special attention to their religious experience. 

368. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations. (4) A study of the origin and de- 
velopment of Reformation theology and ecclesiology. 

369. Radical Christian Movements. (4) A study of selected radical movements in the 
Christian tradition and their relation to contemporary issues. 

372. History of Christian Thought. (2,4) A study of the history of Christian thought, 
beginning with its Hebraic and Greek backgrounds and tracing its rise and develop- 
ment to modern times. The course may be divided into halves for two credits each. 

372 (a) Patristic Thought 

372 (b) Medieval and Reformation Thought 

374. Contemporary Christian Thought. (4) An examination of the major issues and 
personalities in modern theology. 

375. Major Themes in Catholic Theology. (4) A detailed examination of the central 
themes of Christian theology through the study of major Roman Catholic theologians. 

376. The Origins of Existentialism. (4) A study of the principal nineteenth century 
figures who form the background for twentieth century existentialism: Goethe, Kier- 
kegaard, Nietzsche, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy. 

378. Aesthetics and Religion. (4) An examination of aesthetic and religious theories 
of selected thinkers, noting what the arts and religion have in common as modes 
of perception and expression. 

Hebrew 

111, 112. Elementary Hebrew. (4,4) A course for beginners in the classical Hebrew 
of the Bible, with emphasis on the principles of Hebrew grammar and the reading 
of Biblical texts. Both semesters must be completed. 



171 



153. Intermediate Hebrew. (4) Intensive work in Hebrew grammar and syntax based 
upon the readings of selected texts. Readings emphasize post-Biblical Hebrew. 
P— Hebrew 111, 112, or the equivalent. 

211. Hebrew Literature. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical Hebrew 
texts. P— Hebrew 153. 

212. Hebrew Literature II. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical and 
post-Biblical texts. Offered on demand. P— Hebrew 153. 

301. Introduction to Semitic Languages. (4) A study of the history and structure of 
four languages from the Hamito-Semitic family. 



Romance Languages 

Byron R. Wells, Chairman 

Professors Kathleen M. Glenn, Milorad Margitic 

Associate Professors Mary L. Friedman, Candelas M. Newton, Byron R. Wells 

Assistant Professors Jane W. Albrecht, Sarah E. Barbour, Jan Bardsley, 

Debra Boyd-Buggs, Victoria Bridges, Ramiro Fernandez, 

Judy K. Kem, Linda Maier, Pat Moran, Stephen Murphy, 

Juan Orbe, Antonio Vitti, Kari Weil 

Lecturers Kikuko T. Imamura, Eva Marie Rodtwitt 

Instructors Guy Arcuri, Cheryl Block, David Glass, Anna Krauth, 

Kathleen O'Quinn, Jennifer Sault, Walter W. Shaw, 

Alison Smith, Anna-Vera Sullam (Venjce), Florence Toy 

The major in French literature requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above French 
213. French 216, 217, 219, 221 or their equivalents are required, as are four addition- 
al literature courses. The major in French language and culture requires a minimum 
of thirty-six credits above French 213. French 216, 217, 219, 221, 223, 224, 228 or their 
equivalents are required. History 321 and 322 are recommended. An average of at 
least C must be earned in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in French language and culture requires twenty credits in French above 
French 213. It includes French 219, 221, 224, or their equivalents. The minor in French 
literature requires twenty credits in French literature above French 213. 

The major in Spanish requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above Spanish 214. 
Spanish 217, 218, 219, 221, 223, 224, 230, and 232, or their equivalents, are required. 
Spanish 181, 1829, and 187 may not count toward the major. An average of at least 
C must be earned in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in Spanish language and culture requires twenty credits in Spanish 
above Spanish 214. It includes 217 or 218, plus 219, 221, 223, and 224. The minor 
in Hispanic literature requires twenty credits in Spanish above Spanish 214. It in- 
cludes 217 and 218, plus 230, 232, and one additional advanced course in literature. 
For both Spanish minors, with departmental approval, equivalent courses may be 
selected from the programs in Salamanca or Bogota, and certain other substitutions 
may be made. 



172 



The minor in Italian language and culture requires twenty credits in Italian above 
Italian 153. It includes Italian 215, 216, 219, 221, and 224 or their equivalents. An average 
of at least C must be earned in all courses taken in the minor. 

All majors are strongly urged to take advantage of the department's study abroad 
programs and to live for at least a semester at the French House or the Spanish House, 
foreign language residence centers for students of French and Spanish. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in French or Spanish. To be graduated with the designation 
"Honors in Romance Languages," a candidate must complete French or Spanish 280 
and 281 and pass a comprehensive written and oral examination. The oral examina- 
tion may be conducted, at least in part, in the major language. For additional infor- 
mation, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

French 

111, 112. Elementary French. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering the principles 
of French grammar and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elemen- 
tary texts. Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary French. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements 
of grammar and skills presented in French 111, 112. Intended for students whose 
preparation for French 153 is inadequate. Not open to students who have received 
credit for French 112. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate French. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice 
in conversation. Reading of selected texts. Lab required. P— French 112, 113, or two 
years of high school French and placement. 

153x. Intermediate French. (4) Open to students by placement or permission. Lab 
required. 

164. A Classic in Comedy. (2 or 4) Participants plan and present a production of a 
French comedy. The play is rehearsed and performed in French; students are involved 
in all aspects of production. For four credits, students also read and discuss other 
dramatic works. Course may be repeated for credit, but only four credits may be count- 
ed toward the major. P— Permission of instructor. 

181. Swiss French Civilization. (4) The course is designed to acquaint the student 
with the Swiss people and their civilization by living for a few weeks with families. 
Visits are made to points of cultural, historical, literary, and artistic interest. A journal 
and a paper describing in detail some aspect of Swiss French civilization, both in 
French, are required. Usually offered in the summer. 

185. Paris, Cultural Center of France. (4) A study of Paris monuments on location 
to explore the development of the city as capital and cultural center of France. No 
prerequisites. Usually offered in the summer. 

199. French Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of the department. 



173 



213. Masterpieces of French Literature I. (4) Reading of selected texts in French. 
Particular periods, genres, and authors may vary from section to section. Parallel 
reading and reports. Does not count toward the major or the minor. P— French 153 
or equivalent. 

216. Survey of French Literature from the Middle Ages through the Eighteenth 
Century. (4) Study of selected texts, parallel reading, and study of trends and move- 
ments. P— French 153 or permission of instructor. 

217. Survey of French Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. (4) Study 
of selected texts, parallel reading, and study of trends and movements. P— French 
153 or permission of instructor. 

219. Composition and Review of Grammar. (4) A systematic review of the fundamental 
principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing idiomatic French. 
Required for major. P— French 153 or equivalent. 

221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing French, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary for everyday situations. Required for major. Lab required. P— French 153 
or equivalent. 

222. History and Structure of the Language. (4) Study of the historical development 
of French in a cultural and linguistic context from its earliest stages to the present 
and analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax of modern French. P— French 
219 and 221. 

223. French Phonetics. (2) A study of the principles of standard French pronuncia- 
tion, with emphasis on their practical application as well as on their theoretical basis. 

224. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical de- 
velopment. Emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life of 
France. P— French 221 or permission of instructor. 

228. Contemporary France. (4) A study of present-day France, including aspects of 
geography and consideration of social, political, and educational factors in French 
life today. P— French 221 or permission of instructor. 

229. Business French. (4) A study of French used in business procedures, emphasizing 
specialized vocabulary pertaining to business correspondence, corporate organiza- 
tion, banking, and governmental relations, with practice in translation and interpre- 
tations, oral and written. P— French 219 and 221 or permission of instructor. 

231. Medieval French Literature. (2-4) A survey of French literature of the Middle 
Ages with cultural and political backgrounds. Selected masterpieces in original form 
and modern transcription. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

233. Sixteenth Century French Literature. (4) The literature and thought of the Renais- 
sance in France, with particular emphasis on the works of Rabelais, Montaigne, and 
the major poets of the age. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 



174 



241. Seventeenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of the outstanding writers 
of the Classical Age. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

242. Seminar in Seventeenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics may vary from year to year. P— French 216 or 217 or permission 
of instructor. 

251. Eighteenth Century French Literature. (2-4) A survey of French literature of the 
eighteenth century with cultural and political backgrounds. P— French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

252. Seminar in Eighteenth Century French Literature. (2-4) Study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics vary from year to year. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

261. Nineteenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of French literature of the 
nineteenth century with cultural and political backgrounds. P— French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

262. Seminar in Nineteenth Century French Literature. (4) Study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics vary from year to year. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

263. Trends in French Poetry. (4) A study of the development of the poetic genre with 
analysis and interpretation of works from each period. P— French 216 or 217 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

264. French Novel. (4) A broad survey of French prose fiction, with critical study of 
several masterpieces in the field. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

265. French Drama. (4) A study of the chief trends in French dramatic art, with reading 
and discussion of representative plays. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

271. Twentieth Century French Literature. (4) A study of general trends and represen- 
tative works of the foremost prose writers, dramatists, and poets. P— French 216 or 
217 or permission of instructor. 

272. Seminar in Twentieth Century French Literature. (4) Study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics vary from year to year. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

274. African and Caribbean Literatures in French. (4) An introduction to the litera- 
ture and culture of the French-speaking countries of Africa and the Caribbean. 
Emphasis will be placed upon the contemporary negro-African novel along with high- 
lights of culture and civilization. 

275. Special Topics in French Literature. (2,4) Selected themes or approaches to French 
literature that transcend boundaries of time and genre. P— French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in French. 



175 



281. Directed Study. (3,4) Extensive reading and/or research to meet individual needs. 
Required for departmental honors. P— Permission of the department. 

Semester in France 

The department sponsors a semester in France in Dijon, the site of a well-established 
French university. Students go as a group in the fall semester, accompanied by a 
departmental faculty member. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, a student (1) should be of 
junior standing and (2) should have taken as prerequisite French 221 or its equiva- 
lent or at least one French course beyond the intermediate level. At least one semester's 
residence in the French House is strongly recommended. 

Students are placed in language courses according to their level of ability in French, 
as ascertained by a test given at Dijon. Courses are taught by native French profes- 
sors. The resident director supervises academic, residential, and extracurricular affairs 
and has general oversight of independent study projects. 

2232. Advanced Oral and Written French. (4) Study of grammar, composition, pronun- 
ciation, and phonetics, with extensive practice in oral and written French. 

2282. Contemporary France. (4) A study of present-day France, including aspects of 
geography and consideration of social, political, and educational factors in French 
life today. 

2292. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development. Field trips to museums and to points of historical and cultural sig- 
nificance in Paris and the French provinces. 

2402. Independent Study. (2-4) One of several fields; scholar's journal and research 
paper. Supervision by the director of the semester in France. Work may be 
supplemented by lectures on the subject given at the Universite de Bourgogne Faculte 
des Lettres et Sciences Humaines. 

2742. Special Topics in French Literature. (2) Selected topics in French literature; topics 
vary from year to year. 

2752. French Literature. (2) Topics in the novel, theatre, and poetry of France, largely 
of the period since 1850. 

2762. Literary Pilgrimage. (2-4) Reading of selected French texts, with visits to sites 
having literary associations. A study of the relationship between milieux and works. 

Art 2712. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculp- 
ture, and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 

History 2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (2) Burgundian society, culture, and 
government in the reigns of Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Philip the Good, and 
Charles the Rash, 1384-1477. 



176 



Spanish 

111, 112. Elementary Spanish. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar 
essentials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. 
Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Spanish. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements 
of grammar and skills presented in Spanish 111, 112. Intended for students whose 
preparation for Spanish 153 is inadequate or who have demonstrated proficiency in 
another language. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 112. 
Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Spanish. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice 
in conversation. Reading of selected texts. P— Spanish 112 or 113 or two years of high 
school Spanish and placement. Lab required. 

153x. Intermediate Spanish. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

162. A Panorama of Drama. (2-4) A brief sampling of Spanish drama from its early 
period to the contemporary theatre, studying in Spanish representative works from 
each major period. Approximately six plays. The class selects one play to present 
in Spanish, with students having directing and acting responsibilities. 

187. Culture and Language. (4) A study of Spanish culture and language, tailored 
to various levels of student ability. Taught only in the Spanish-speaking world. Does 
not count toward the major. Usually offered in the summer. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of the department. 

214 Introduction to Hispanic Literature. (4) Selected readings in Spanish and Spanish 
American literature. Does not count toward the major or the minor. P— Spanish 153 
or equivalent. 

217. Masterpieces of Spanish Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, and move- 
ments. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the basic 
requirement. P— Spanish 153 or permission of instructor. 

218. Masterpieces of Spanish American Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, 
and movements. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the 
basic requirement. P— Spanish 153 or permission of instructor. 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A systematic review of the fundamental 
principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing idiomatic Span- 
ish. Lab required. P— Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing Spanish, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary of everyday situations. Lab required. P— Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

222. Spanish Phonology. (4) An introduction to Spanish linguistics through a 
systematic analysis of the phonemes and allophones of spoken Spanish. Standard 



177 



pronunciation as well as dialectal variations will be stressed. P— Spanish 219 and 221 
or permission of instructor. 

223. Latin American Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; em- 
phasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P— Spanish 217 or 
218. 

224. Spanish Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; emphasis 
on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P— Spanish 217 or 218. 

229. Commercial, Official, and Social Correspondence. (4) Instruction in the spe- 
cial vocabularies, formats, and styles required in written and telegraphic communi- 
cations. Students write in Spanish communications appropriate to each type of corre- 
spondence. P— Spanish 219 and 221 or permission of instructor. 

230. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from 
the colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

231. Medieval and Pre-Renaissance Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major literary 
works of the Middle Ages and pre-Renaissance. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

232. Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major 
literary works of the Golden Age. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

233. Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study 
of the major literary works of the last three centuries. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

234. Spanish Prose Fiction before Cervantes. (4) A study of several types of prose 
fiction, such as the sentimental, chivalric, pastoral, Moorish, and picaresque novels, 
prior to 1605. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

241. Golden Age Drama. (4) A study of the major dramatic works of Lope de Vega, 
Calderon de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Ruiz de Alarcon, and others. P— Spanish 217 
or 218 or permission of instructor. 

243. Cervantes. (4) Intensive study of the life and works of Cervantes, with special 
attention on the Quixote and the novelas ejemplares. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

244. Seminar in Cervantes. (2-4) A study of special aspects of Cervantes' works, such 
as the novelas ejemplares and his dramatic works. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

252. Seminar in Hispanic Poetry. (2-4) A study of selected topics, such as gongoris- 
mo, the Romancero, and the Generation of 1927. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission 
of instructor. 



178 



261. Nineteenth Century Spanish Novel. (4) A study of the novels of Valera, Pereda, 
Galdos, Pardo Bazan, Blasco Ibaiiez, and their contemporaries. P— Spanish 217 or 
218 or permission of instructor. 

263. Contemporary Spanish-American Theatre. (4) A study of the Spanish-American 
dramatic production from the end of the 19th century to the present. The course 
focuses on the development of some of the main dramatic movements of the 20th 
century: realism, absurdism, avant-garde, and collective theatre. P— Spanish 217 or 
218 or permission of instructor. 

264. Spanish-American Short Story. (4) Intensive study of the twentieth century 
Spanish-American short story with emphasis on major trends and representative 
authors, such as Quiroga, Rulfo, Borges, Cortazar, Donoso, Garcia Marque'z. P— 
Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

265. Spanish-American Novel. (4) A study of the novel in Spanish America from 
its beginning through the contemporary period. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission 
of instructor. 

266. Seminar in Spanish-American Novel. (2-4) A study of one or more categories 
of Spanish-American novels, such as romantic, indianista, realistic, gauchesca, and social 
protest. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

269. Nineteenth Century Spanish Drama. (4) A study of the principal dramatic works 
from neoclassicism to the end of the century. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission 
of instructor. 

271. Modern Spanish Drama. (4) A study of the principal dramatic works from the 
end of the nineteenth century through the contemporary period. P— Spanish 217 or 
218 or permission of instructor. 

273. Modern Spanish Novel. (4) A study of representative Spanish novels from the 
Generation of 1898 through the contemporary period. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

274. Seminar in Modern Spanish Literature. (2 or 4) An analysis of selected contem- 
porary works representative of the novel, poetry, theatre, and essay. P— Spanish 217 
or 218 or permission of instructor. 

275. Special Topics. (2-4) Selected special topics in Spanish or Spanish-American 
literature, such as the Spanish Romancero or the contemporary Spanish-American nov- 
el. Offered at irregular intervals. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in Spanish. 

281. Directed Study. (3-4) Extensive reading and/or research, to meet individual needs. 
Required for departmental honors. P— Permission of the department. 



179 



Semester in Spain 

The department offers a semester in Spain at Salamanca, the site of a well- 
established Spanish university. Students go as a group in the spring semester, 
accompanied by a professor from the College. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, students (1) should be of 
junior standing, (2) should have completed Spanish 221, and (3) should be approved 
by both their major department and the Department of Romance Languages. At least 
one semester's residence in the Spanish House is strongly recommended. 

1829. Introduction to Spain. (2-4) Familiarization with the Spanish people, Spanish 
culture, and daily life in Spain. Classes in conversational and idiomatic Spanish, ex- 
cursions to points of historical and artistic interest, and lectures on selected topics. 

2019. Intensive Spanish. (2) Intensive study and practice of the oral and written lan- 
guage. P— Permission of instructor. 

2029. Advanced Spanish. (2) Study of grammar, composition, and pronunciation, 
with extensive practice of the written and oral language. P— Permission of instructor. 

2049. Spanish Phonetics and Phonology. (4) Theory and practical application of the 
elements involved in speaking correct Spanish. 

2059. History of the Spanish Language. (4) Evolution and historical development 
of the Spanish language, including regional dialects and present-day variations in 
the spoken and written form. 

2259. Survey of Spanish Literature from the Middle Ages through the Seventeenth 
Century. (4) Extensive reading and study of trends and influences. 

2279. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from 
the colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries. 

2419. Spanish Literature of the Golden Age. (4) A survey of the most important authors 
and genres of the Golden Age, with particular emphasis on the novel and the drama. 

2759. Contemporary Spanish Literature. (4) A study of general trends and represen- 
tative works of selected prose writers, dramatists, and poets from the modern period. 

Sociology 2029. Social-Political Structures of Present-Day Spain. (4) A study of the 
various social and political elements which affect the modern Spanish state. 

History 2019. General History of Spain. (4) History of Spain from the pre-Roman 
period to the present day. 

Art 2029. Spanish Art and Architecture. (4) A study of the development and 
uniqueness of Spanish art and architecture within the framework of Mediterranean 
and Western art in general. 



180 



Chinese* 

111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) Study in grammar, conversation, reading, and 
elementary composition. Lab required. 

151, 152. Intermediate Chinese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, conversa- 
tion and composition. Lab required. P— Chinese 111, 112 or equivalent. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of the department. 

211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Modern Chinese Literature. (4) Readings in modern 
prose and poetry, primarily from May 4th era to the present. Comparison of modern 
written Chinese with classical literary and documentary styles. P— Chinese 152 or 
permission of the instructor. 



*These courses are attached to the Department of Romance Languages for administrative purposes only. 

Italian 

111, 112. Elementary Italian. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar essen- 
tials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab 
required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Italian. (5) Intensive course for beginners, emphasizing 
the structure of the language and oral practice. Recommended for students in the 
Venice program and for language majors. Lab required. Lecture— five hours. Offered 
every semester. 

153. Intermediate Italian. (5) Continuation of 113, with emphasis on reading and 
speaking. Lab required. Lecture— five hours. P— Italian 113 or two years of high school 
Italian. Also offered in Venice. 

153x. Intermediate Italian. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of instructor. 

215. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) Reading of selected texts in Italian. Satis- 
fies basic requirement in foreign language. Offered in the spring. P— Italian 153 or equiva- 
lent. Also offered in Venice. 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) May alternate with 215. Satisfies basic 
requirement in foreign language. P— Italian 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A study of advanced grammar and 
composition. Translation of Italian texts into English and free composition in Italian. 
P— Italian 221. 

221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing Italian, stres- 
sing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and vo- 
cabulary for everyday situations. P— Italian 153 or equivalent. 



181 



224. Italian Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; emphasis 
on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P— Italian 215 or 216. 

Semester in Venice 
153. Intermediate Italian. (5) 

215. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) 

See the course listings under Italian for descriptions and prerequisites. 

Japanese* 

111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of listening and 
speaking skills. Brief introduction to the writing systems. Basic sentence patterns co- 
vered. Lab required. 

151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, conversa- 
tion and composition. Lab required. P— Japanese 112 or equivalent. 

211. Introduction to Modern Japanese Literature. (4) Readings in modern prose and 
poetry, primarily from the Meiji era (1868) to the present. P— Japanese 152 or per- 
mission of the instructor. 

Portuguese* 

111, 112. Elementary Portuguese. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar es- 
sentials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab 
required. 

Other Languages 

101. Self-Instructional Language. (4) A self -instructional language course covering 
the principles of grammar and pronunciation in one of the less commonly taught 
languages, such as Swedish, Arabic, or Thai. Individual self -instruction in the lan- 
guage of the student's choice through the use of recorded material and textbooks. 
Admission by petition to the Foreign Language Placement Review Committee. Elec- 
tive credit only; does not satisfy basic or divisional course requirements. 



*These courses are attached to the Department of Romance Languages for administrative purposes only. 



182 



Sociology 

Philip J. Perricone, Chairman 

Professors John R. Earle, Catherine T. Harris, 

Willie Pearson Jr., Philip J. Perricone 

Associate Professor Beverly Wright 

Assistant Professors H. Kenneth Bechtel, Ian M. Taplin 

Visiting Assistant Professor Cynthia Gentry 

A major in sociology requires thirty-seven credits and must include Sociology 371 
and 372. A minimum average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the 
major is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all sociology courses 
is required for graduation. 

A minor in sociology requires twenty credits and must include Sociology 371. A 
minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the 
minor is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is re- 
quired for certification as a minor. Students who intend to pursue a sociology minor 
are encouraged to notify the department early in their junior year, and they are invited 
to participate in all departmental functions. 

The program in sociology provides majors with several options. In addition to 
pursuing a regular major in sociology, students may choose to specialize in any of 
four concentrations: 1) family studies, 2) crime, law, and social control, 3) health and 
society, and 4) business and society. These concentrations are described in detail in 
the Handbook for Sociology Students, a copy of which may be obtained from the sociol- 
ogy office or any member of the departmental faculty. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Sociology," highly qualified majors 
are invited to apply to the department for admission to the honors program. They 
must complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfactorily 
defend their work in an oral examination. For additional information, members of 
the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

A student who selects sociology to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take 
one of the following courses: Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154. No introductory-level 
course is required for students taking a sociology course as an elective unless such 
a prerequisite is specified in the course description. 

151. Principles of Sociology. (4) General introduction to the field; social organiza- 
tion and disorganization, socialization, culture, social change, and other aspects. 

152. Social Problems. (4) Survey of contemporary American social problems. 

153. Marriage and the Family. (4) The social basis of the family, emphasizing the 
problems growing out of modern conditions and social change. 

154. The Sociology of Deviant Behavior. (4) A sociological analysis of the nature and 
causes of and societal reaction to deviant behavior patterns such as mental illness, 
suicide, drug and alcohol addiction, sexual deviation, and criminal behavior. 



183 



205. Photography in the Social Sciences. (4) Explores the use of photography as a 
research technique for the social sciences; camera and darkroom instruction included. 
Not open to students who have had Art 119. P— Permission of instructor. 

301. Religion and Society. (4) A study of religion as a social phenomenon and its 
relationship to the other structures of society— political, economic and others, with 
special focus on the contemporary United States. (Also offered as Religion 151.) 

302. Bureaucracy and Society. (4) The sociological analysis of complex organizations 
focusing on bureaucracy, power, authority, decision making, and change. Attention 
will be given to business as well as government and other non-profit organizations. 

303. Business and Society. (4) Historical development, organization, and current 
problems of business enterprises in American society. 

305. Male and Female Roles in Society. (4) Changing male and female roles in the 
context of societal institutions and sociological theories that explain such changes. 
Consideration of feminism as a social movement and of consequences of changing 
roles for human interaction. 

308. Sociology of Art. (2) Art as an institution, its functions, organization, relation- 
ship to social change and to the communication of meanings. 

309. Sex and Human Relationships. (4) Study of the societal forces that impinge on 
human sexual behavior, emphasizing the effects of social change, the implications 
of changing gender roles, cross-cultural and subcultural variations, and the influence 
of the mass media. 

310. Death and Dying. (2) Study of some of the basic issues and problems of modern 
man in accepting and facing death. 

311. Women in Professions. (4) Emphasis on the status of women in professional 
occupations (e.g., law, medicine, science, business, etc.) in socio-historical perspective. 

321. Criminal Justice— The Police. (2,4) Introduction to the structure, organization, 
and operation of the American police system. 

322. Criminal Justice— The Courts. (2) The operation and social organization of Ameri- 
can criminal courts. Issues of plea bargaining, court overload, and the court's role 
in crime prevention will be discussed. 

323. Criminal Justice — Punishment and Corrections. (2) The purpose, structure, and 
practice of correctional institutions. Includes a review of the philosophical principles 
of punishment and deterrence, the historical development of prisons, and an evalu- 
ation of current alternatives to incarceration. 

325. Self and Society: An Interactionist Perspective. (4) An analysis of the effects 
of social relationships upon self-development, self-preservation, and the learning of 
social roles and norms, with special emphasis on language and symbolic interaction. 



184 



333. The Urban Community. (4) A survey of materials relating to the community as 
a unit of sociological investigation, with emphasis on the urban setting. Of particu- 
lar value for social work or community planning. 

334. Society and Higher Education. (4) An analysis of the social forces that shape 
educational policies in the US. Assessment of significant contemporary writings on 
the manifest and latent functions of education. 

335. Sociology of Health and Illness. (4) Analysis of the social variables associated 
with health and illness. 

336. Sociology of Health Care. (4) An analysis of health care systems, including the 
social organization of medical practice, health care payment, the education of medi- 
cal practitioners, and the division of the labor in health care. 

337. Aging in Modern Society. (4) Basic social problems and processes of aging. So- 
cial and psychological issues discussed. Course requirements will include field place- 
ment in a nursing home or similar institution. P— Permission of instructor. 

339. Sociology of Violence. (4) A survey of the societal factors associated with 
individual and collective violence. Discussion will focus on the contemporary and 
historical conditions which have contributed to various patterns of violence in Ameri- 
can society. 

340. Sociological Issues in Human Development. (4) Socialization through the life 
span in the light of contemporary behavioral science, emphasizing the significance 
of changes in contemporary society. 

341. Criminology. (4) Crime, its nature, causes, consequences, methods of treatment, 
and prevention. 

342. Juvenile Delinquency. (4) The nature and extent of juvenile delinquency; an 
examination of prevention, control, and treatment problems. 

343. Sociology of Law. (4) Consideration will be given to a variety of special issues: 
conditions under which laws develop and change, relationships between the legal 
and political system, the impact of social class and stratification upon the legal order. 

344. Women and Crime. (4) Course will focus on four major areas related to women 
and crime: women as offenders, the processing of women by the criminal justice 
system, women as victims, and women as criminal justice professionals. P— 341 and 
permission of instructor. 

345. Advanced Topics in Criminology and Criminal Justice. (4) Emphasis on current 
topics in the field of criminology, and criminal justice such as measurement issues, 
ethical issues, history, crime and mass media, and theoretical debates. P— 341 and 
permission of instructor. 

346. Seminar on Social Utopias. (4) Survey of major Utopian literature; emphasis 
is placed upon both the social organization in Utopian proposals and their implicit 
critique of current society and social ideologies. 






185 



347. Society, Culture, and Sport. (4) An examination of the interrelationship of sport 
and other social institutions. Emphasis on the study of both the structure of sport 
and the functions of sport for society. 

348. Sociology of the Family. (4) The family as a field of sociological study. Assess- 
ment of significant historical and contemporary writings. An analysis of the struc- 
ture, organization, and function of the family in America. 

349. Sociology of Science. (4) Emphasis on the origins and growth of science in socio- 
historical perspective, reciprocal relations between science and society in the twen- 
tieth century, science as a social system. 

350. Mass Communications and Public Opinion. (4) The study of the increasing im- 
portance of collective behavior, emphasizing the relationship between the media and 
a changing society. 

358. Population and Society. (4) Techniques used in the study of population data. 
Reciprocal relationship of social and demographic variables. 

359. Race and Ethnic Relations. (4) Racial and ethnic group prejudice and discrimi- 
nation and their effect on social relationships. Emphasis on psychological and socio- 
logical theories of prejudice. 

360. Social Stratification. (4) The study of structured social inequality with particu- 
lar emphasis on economic class, social status, and political power. 

361. Sociology of the Black Experience. (4) A survey and an analysis of contemporary 
writings on the status of black Americans in various American social institutions (e.g., 
education, sports, entertainment, science, politics, etc.). 

362. Sociology of Work. (4) Changing trends in the U.S. labor force. The individual's 
view of work and the effect of large organizations on white and blue collar workers. 
Use of some cross-cultural data. 

363. Markets and Industry. (4) An analysis of industrial organization, including dis- 
cussion of market relations and the behavior of firms, the structure of industrial de- 
velopment, and labor relations and the growth of trade unions. 

364. Political Sociology. (4) Examination of the structure and organization of power 
in society with emphasis on political socialization, political ideology, and the growth 
of the welfare state. 

365. Dependency Needs and Social Services. (4) Examination of various forms of 
dependency, such as social, economic, emotional, and physical, and community so- 
cial agencies designed to meet these needs. Use of relevant literature, field experience, 
and resource persons. 

371, 372. The Sociological Perspective. (4,5) A two-semester course dealing with the 
development and application of major theories and research methods in sociology. 
A continuing effort is made to enable the student to deal with current theoretically 



186 



oriented research. Regularly scheduled computer labs will be arranged during the 
Sociology 372 portion of the course. P— Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154. 

380. Social Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in survey research. 
(A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive credit for Biology 
380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Anthropology 380. A sociology major may 
take Anthropology 380 in lieu of Sociology 380 to meet major requirements.) 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline which concentrates on problems of contemporary 
interest. P— Permission of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1-4, 1-4) Reading, research, or internship courses 
designed to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out un- 
der the supervision of a departmental faculty member. 



Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 

Donald H. Wolfe, Chairman 

Professors Julian C. Burroughs Jr., Harold C. Tedford, Donald H. Wolfe 

Adjunct Professors Jo Whitten May, Darwin R. Payne 

Associate Professor Michael David Hazen, Jill Jordan McMillan 

Assistant Professors Susan Schultz Huxman 

Visiting Assistant Professor Hyun Lee 

Instructors Mary M. Dal ton, Allan D. Louden 

Lecturers Jonathan H. Christman, Caroline S. Fullerton, Mary R. Wayne 

Adjunct Instructors Mary Lucy Bivins, Paige Pettyjohn Edley, 

Karen L. Oxendine, Taishen Siao 

Visiting Lecturer James H. Dodding 

Debate Coach Ross K. Smith 

For convenience in advising majors, the department divides the study of speech 
communication and theatre arts into the following fields: (1) communication/rhetoric, 
(2) radio/television/film, (3) theatre arts, and (4) speech pathology /correction. It is 
possible for a student either to concentrate in one of the first three fields or to take 
courses across the breadth of the discipline. Specific courses of study for both majors 
and minors are worked out in consultation with departmental faculty members. 

A major in speech communication and theatre arts consists of a minimum of forty 
credits, at least eight of which must be at the 300 level. In order for a course to count 
toward a student's major, the student must earn a grade of C or higher in the course. 

A minor in the first three fields listed in the first paragraph above requires six courses 
for a minimum of twenty-four credits, at least eight of which must be at the 300 level. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in speech communication and theatre arts. To be graduated with 
the designation "Honors in Speech Communication and Theatre Arts," they must 
successfully complete 281. For additional information, members of the departmental 
faculty should be consulted. 



187 



280. Special Seminar. (2-4) The intensive study of selected topics in communication. 
Topics may be drawn from any theory or concept area of communication, such as 
persuasion, organizational communication, film, or theatre. 

281. Honors in Speech Communication and Theatre Arts. (4) A conference course 
involving intensive work in the area of special interest for selected seniors who wish 
to graduate with departmental honors. P— Permission of instructor. 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) Special research and readings in a choice of interest to 
be approved and supervised by a faculty adviser. P— Permission of instructor. 

283. 284. Debate, Radio/Television/Film, Communication, or Theatre Arts Practi- 
cum. (2,2) Individual projects in the student's choice of debate, radio/television/film, 
communication, or theatre arts; includes organizational meetings, faculty supervi- 
sion, and faculty evaluation. No student may register for more than two credits of 
practicum in any semester. No student is allowed to take more than a total of eight 
credit units in practicum, only four credits of which may be counted toward a major 
in speech communication and theatre arts. Pass/fail only. P— Permission of instructor. 

380. Special Seminar. (1-4) The intensive study of selected topics in communication. 
Topics will be drawn from theory or concept areas of communication, such as 
persuasion, organizational communication, film or theatre. 

Communication/ Rhetoric 

151. Public Speaking I. (4) A study of the nature and fundamentals of speech 
communication. Practice in the preparation and delivery of short speeches. 

152. Public Speaking II. (4) The preparation and presentation of short speeches to 
inform, convince, actuate, and entertain. P— Speech Communication 151. 

153. Interpersonal Communication. (4) The course is divided into three parts: 
communication theory, person-to-person communication, and small group interaction. 

155. Group Communication. (4) An introduction to the principles of discussion and 
deliberation in small groups, with practice in group problem-solving and discussion 
leadership. 

156. Oral Interpretation of Literature. (4) Fundamentals of reading aloud, with 
emphasis on selection, analysis, and performance. 

158. Debate and Advocacy. (4) The use of argumentative techniques in oral advoca- 
cy: research, speeches, and debate. 

161. Voice Production and Development. (4) A study of the principles of voice 
production with emphasis on breath control, tone production, vocal variety, and ar- 
ticulation. 

250. Introduction to Communication and Rhetoric. (4) An introduction to the theories, 
research, and analysis of verbal and nonverbal processes by which human beings 
share meanings and influence one another. 



188 



251. Persuasion. (4) A study of the variables and contexts of persuasion in contem- 
porary society. 

255. Introduction to Rhetorical Criticism. (4) An introduction to the theory and prac- 
tice of rhetorical criticism with emphasis on contemporary rhetorical acts. 

261. Clinical Management of Speech and Language Disorders. (4) Methods used 
to correct speech disorders of voice, rhythm, language, and articulation; observation 
of methods used with selected cases in clinical or public school settings. Offered in 
alternate fall semesters. 

262. Communication Disorders of the Hearing-Impaired. (4) The etiology and effect 
of hearing impairment on communication. The fundamentals of auditory training, 
speech reading, and other resources for the rehabilitation of the hearing-impaired 
individual. 

263. Speech and Language Disorders I. (4) Study of the disorders of language, 
articulation, and rhythm, with special emphasis on functional disorders; focus is on 
the role the therapist plays in assisting the speech-handicapped child. Offered in al- 
ternate fall semesters. 

264. Speech and Language Disorders II. (4) Consideration of etiology and symptoms 
of speech and language problems due to organic disorders of voice, articulation, lan- 
guage, and hearing. Offered in alternate spring semesters. 

280. Special Seminar. (2-4) (See previous description.) 

281. Honors Course. (4) (See previous description.) 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

283. 284. Debate Practicum. (2,2) (See previous description.) 

353. British Public Address. (4) A historical and critical survey of leading British speak- 
ers and their speeches from the sixteenth century to the present. 

354. American Rhetorical Movements. (4) Critical analysis of major rhetorical move- 
ments in American history; examines the relationship between rhetoric, ideology, 
and the development of American culture. 

S355. Directing the Forensic Program. (2,4) A pragmatic study of the methods of direct- 
ing high school and college forensics with work in the High School Debate Work- 
shop. Offered in the summer. 

356. The Rhetoric of Race Relations. (4) A study of race relations in America as reflect- 
ed in the rhetoric of selected black and white speakers. Students apply the histori- 
cal/critical method in exploring the effects of discourse on attempts at interracial 
communication. 

357. The Rhetoric of the Women's Rights Movement. (4) A rhetorical study of the 
documents, speeches, and protests of American feminists. The course traces the 



189 



evolution of women's rights movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and 
draws contrasts and parallels between them. 

358. Argumentation Theory. (4) An examination of argumentation theory and criti- 
cism; examines both theoretical issues and social practices. 

371. Research in Communication. (4) An introduction to design and statistical proce- 
dures for research in communication. 

372. A Survey of Organizational Communication. (4) An introduction to the role 
of communication in organizations, with emphasis on field applications. 

373. Intercultural Communication. (4) An introduction to the study of communica- 
tion phenomena between individuals and groups with different cultural backgrounds. 

374. Mass Communication Theory. (4) Theoretical approaches to the role of commu- 
nication in reaching mass audiences and its relationship to other levels of communi- 
cation. Offered in alternate years. 

375. Communication and Conflict. (4) A study of communication in conflict situa- 
tions on the interpersonal and societal levels. Offered in alternate years. P— Speech Com- 
munication 153 or permission of instructor. 

377. Political Communication. (4) Study of electoral communication, including can- 
didate and media influences on campaign speeches, debates, and advertising. Offered 
in alternate years. 

378. Semantics and Language Behavior. (4) A study of the syntactic and semantic 
aspects of communicative messages. 

380. Special Seminar. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

Radio/Television/Film 

141. Radio-TV Speech. (4) An introduction to announcing and performing on radio 
and television. 

142. Writing for Radio-TV-Film. (4) An introduction to writing for radio, television, 
and film. Emphasis will be on informational and persuasive writing (news, features, 
public service announcements, commercials, political announcements, news analyses, 
commentaries, and editorials). 

241. Introduction to Broadcasting. (4) A study of the historical, legal, economic, and 
social aspects of broadcasting. 

242. Radio Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of radio production. 

243. TV Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of television production. 

245. Introduction to Film. (4) An introduction to the aesthetics of motion pictures 
through a study of the basic elements of film such as cinematography, editing, sound, 
lighting, color, etc. 



190 



246. Film Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of motion picture production. 

280. Special Seminar. (2-4) (See previous description.) 

281. Honors Course. (4) (See previous description.) 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

283. 284. Radio/Television/Film Practicum. (2,2) (See previous description.) 

342. Seminar in Radio/Television. (4) Extensive readings in and discussion of fun- 
damental theory and current issues in radio and television. P— Speech Communica- 
tion 241 or permission of instructor. 

344. Advanced Radio Production. (4) Study of advanced radio forms: documentary 
and drama. P— Speech Communication 242 or permission of instructor. 

345. Advanced TV Production. (4) Individual production of complex forms of televi- 
sion such as documentary and drama. P— Speech Communication 243 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

346. Film Criticism. (3 or 4) A study of film aesthetics through an analysis of the 
work of selected filmmakers and film critics. P— Speech Communication 245 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

347. Film History to 1945. (4) A survey of the developments of motion pictures to 
1945. Includes lectures, readings, reports, and screenings. 

348. Advanced Film Production. (4) Individual production of complex films such as 
drama, animation, and documentary. P— Speech Communication 246 or permission 
of instructor. 

349. Film History Since 1945. (4) A survey of the development of motion pictures 
from 1946 to the present day. Includes lectures, readings, reports, and screenings. 

380. Special Seminar. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

Theatre Arts 

121. Introduction to the Theatre. (4) A survey of all areas of theatre art. Experience 
in laboratory and University Theatre productions. May be used to satisfy a require- 
ment in Division I. Lab— three hours. 

122. Introduction to Theatre Technology I. (4) An introductory course in theatre tech- 
nology focusing on the basic techniques of stagecraft, lighting, drafting, and 
sound. This course is of special interest to potential majors. Lab— three hours. Offered 
in the fall. P— Theatre Arts 121. 

123. Introduction to Theatre Technology II. (4) An introductory course in theatre tech- 
nology focusing on the basic techniques of costume construction, makeup, scene 
painting, and stage management. This course is of special interest to potential majors. 
Lab— three hours. Offered in the spring. P— Theatre Arts 121. 



191 



218. Technical Graphics and Lighting. (4) The theory and practice of stage lighting 
including the techniques and terminology used in making both working and con- 
struction drawings for theatrical use. P— Theatre Arts 122. 

219. Advanced Stage Makeup. (4) The theories, materials, and techniques of theatri- 
cal makeup. P— Theatre Arts 123. 

220. Advanced Costume Construction. (4) Pattern drafting, cutting, and construc- 
tion techniques of period theatrical costumes. P— Theatre Arts 123. 

221. Mime. (4) An introductory study of basic mime forms. The student will gain 
skills and understanding of this theatrical form through practical exercises, readings, 
rehearsals, and performances. 

223. Stagecraft. (4) A study of the basic elements of theatre technology. Practical ex- 
perience gained in laboratory and University Theatre productions. Open to fresh- 
men and sophomores by permission of instructor. Lab— five hours. 

226. Theories of Acting. (4) A study of acting theories and fundamental acting tech- 
niques. Open to freshmen and sophomores by permission of instructor. Lab— two 
hours. 

227. Theatre Speech. (4) An intensive course in the analysis and correlation of the 
physiological, physical, and interpretative aspects of voice and diction on the stage. 

228. The Contemporary English Theatre. (2,3, or 4) An examination of the English 
theatre through reading, lectures, seminars, and attendance at numerous live theatre 
performances. The participants are expected to submit written reactions to the plays 
which are seen. Ample time to allow visits to museums, libraries, and historic places. 
Taught in London. P— Permission of instructor. 

280. Special Seminar. (4) (See previous description.) 

281. Honors Course. (4) (See previous description.) 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

283. 284. Theatre Arts Practicum. (2,2) (See previous description.) 

3110. The English Theatre, 1660-1940. (4) A study of the major developments in the 
English theatre from the Restoration to World War II, including the plays, playwrights, 
actors, audiences, theatre architecture, theatre management, costumes, and sets. Field 
trips include visits to theatres, museums, and performances. Offered in London. 

316. Acting Shakespeare. (4) A practical study of varying styles in interpreting and 
acting Shakespeare's plays from the time of the Elizabethans to the present day. 
P— Theatre Arts 226. 

317. Theatrical Lighting Design. (4) The intensive study of the tools and aesthetics 
of the designer's craft with practical experience in designing for proscenium, thrust, 
and arena staging. P— Theatre Arts 122. 



192 



318. Theatrical Special Effects. (4) A survey of the various special scenographic and 
lighting effects used in modern theatre. Special emphasis will be placed on effects 
used in productions done during the term. P— Theatre Arts 122 and 223. 

319. Costume: History and Design. (4) A study of the evolution of costume through 
the ages and the design of historic costume for the stage. P— Theatre Arts 121. 

320. Theatrical Scene Design. (4) A study of the theories and styles of stage design 
and their application to the complete play. P— Theatre Arts 121 and 223 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

321. Play Directing. (4) An introduction to the theory and practice of play directing. 
A grade is not granted for this course until the student has completed Theatre Arts 

322. Lab— two hours. P— Theatre Arts 121 and 226 or permission of instructor. 

322. Play Production Laboratory. (2) A laboratory in the organization, the techniques, 
and the problems encountered in a dramatic production. The production of a play 
for public performance is required. P— Theatre Arts 321. 

323. Period and Style in Acting. (4) A study of social customs, movement, dances, 
and theatrical styles relating to the performance of drama in historical settings as 
well as in period plays. The course includes performances in class. P— Theatre Arts 226. 

324. Advanced Mime. (4) This course enlarges upon skills and techniques acquired 
in Theatre Arts 221 {Mime), with the addition of other mime forms. The course includes 
exercises, rehearsals, and performances. P— Theatre Arts 221. 

325. Advanced Acting. (4) A concentrated study of the actor's art through theory and 
practice. P— Theatre Arts 226 or permission of instructor. 

326. Performance Techniques. (4) A course in advanced acting techniques, focusing 
on acting styles appropriate to various modes of theatrical production. Specialized 
techniques such as dance, singing, stage combat, etc., may also be included. P— 
Theatre Arts 226. 

327. Theatre History I. (4) A survey of the development of the theatre from its ori- 
gins to 1870; includes lectures, readings, and reports. 

328. Theatre History II. (4) A survey of the development of the modern theatre from 
1870 to the present day; includes lectures, readings, and reports. 

329. Advanced Theatre Speech. (4) Specific study in the theory and personal de- 
velopment of vocal melody, rhythm, color, and harmony according to the form, style, 
and mood of a theatrical production. P— Theatre Arts 227 or permission of instructor. 

380. Special Seminar. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

3300. Modern English and Continental Drama and the London Stage. (4) Studies 
in the works of major playwrights of England and Europe from 1875 to the present. 
Particular emphasis will be placed on plays which are currently being presented 
in London theatres. Lectures, readings, reports and attendance at theatre perfor- 
mances. Taught in London. 



193 



3310. A Survey of English Theatre History. (4) Beginning with the Elizabethan period 
and continuing into the twentieth century, this course will focus on the major periods 
of the English theatre. Students will study playwrights, actors, theatre architecture, 
production styles and audiences of each period. Lectures, student papers and reports. 
Field trips to theatres, museums, and performances. Taught in London. 




Guest artist Marcel Marceau conducting a master class in mime. He appeared on campus 
as part of the Secrest Artists Series. 



194 

School of Business and Accountancy 

Thomas C. Taylor, Dean 

Professors Eddie V. Easley, Delmer P. Hylton, 

Jeanne Owen, Thomas C. Taylor 

Associate Professors Umit Akinc, Leon P. Cook Jr., A. Sayeste Daser, 

Arun P. Dewasthali, John S. Dunkelberg, Stephen Ewing, 

Thomas S. Goho, Dale R. Martin, Ralph B. Tower, Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. 

Assistant Professors S. Douglas Beets, P. Candace Deans 

Lecturers Horace O. Kelly Jr., DeLeon E. Stokes, Olive S. Thomas 

Adjunct Instructor Helen Akinc 

Mission 

The mission of the School of Business and Accountancy is to provide students with 
an excellent business and professional accounting education within the framework 
of the liberal arts tradition of Wake Forest University. Our distinctiveness in the pursuit 
of this mission derives from the size, reputation, and location of the University; the 
primary emphasis upon undergraduate education within a separate undergraduate 
business school; and a business and accounting curriculum which stresses knowledge 
and skills in several fields blending with the extensive liberal arts curriculum of the 
University. 

In implementing this commitment to quality education, highly effective teaching 
is of paramount importance. Teaching is complemented by research which provides 
new perspectives to be shared by students and colleagues. 

The ultimate goal of the School is to graduate young men and women who are 
technically competent and who have the ability to assume managerial and leader- 
ship positions in business, government, and other organizations. 

Objectives 

The School of Business and Accountancy has four specific objectives: 

1. to offer sound academic programs in business and accountancy leading to 
the bachelor of science degree; 

2. to undertake on a continuous basis the professional development of its faculty; 

3. to serve the university community; and 

4. to maintain a productive association with the public, especially the business 
community. 

Two programs of study leading to the bachelor of science degree are offered. Stu- 
dents may choose a major in either business or accountancy. 

The primary goal of the business program is to provide a general study of busi- 
ness which will enable graduates to enter the business world with a breadth of un- 
derstanding of relevant business problems and concepts. The general, as opposed to 
specialized, orientation of the major in business is appropriate for Wake Forest Univer- 
sity in light of both its strong liberal arts tradition and its small size. 



195 



The major goal of the accountancy program is to give students a thorough under- 
standing of accounting theory and methodology. Study of the basic functions in bus- 
iness operations is included in the curriculum. The role of the accountant in analyzing 
and controlling operations is considered. Contemporary issues in accounting prac- 
tice are discussed. 

Both the business and accountancy programs are accredited by the American As- 
sembly of Collegiate Schools of Business. 

Admission 

Admission to the School is by formal application, and applicants will be screened 
by the Committee on Admission and Continuation of the School of Business and 
Accountancy. Before being considered for admission to the School, the applicant 
first must have been admitted to Wake Forest College. Minimum requirements for 
admission to the School of Business and Accountancy are completion of sixty-five 
credits, a grade-point average of 2.2 on all courses attempted, and a minimum of 
a C grade in Accounting 111 and Accounting 112. 

Students are encouraged to have completed Economics 150 and Mathematics 108 
or 111 before admission to the School. 

The number of students who can be accommodated is limited. Therefore, the School 
reserves the right to grant or to deny admission or readmission to any student who 
meets the minimum requirements. Readmission to the School of Business and 
Accountancy first requires readmission to Wake Forest College, requirements for 
which are discussed on page 45. 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 

It is expected that most work toward degrees offered by the School of Business 
and Accountancy will be taken in the School. For students wishing to transfer credit 
from other schools, the following general guidelines apply: 

(a) Courses at another school passed with the rninimum passing grade at that 
school may not be transferred. 

(b) Courses transferred in business and accountancy may be subject to validating 
examinations. 

(c) No work in courses numbered 200 and above will be accepted from two-year 
schools. 

(d) Courses taken elsewhere in subjects not offered at the School of Business 
and Accountancy may not be counted toward the credits required in the School 
of Business and Accountancy. 

For the BS in business, a minimum of forty credits must be earned in the School 
of Business and Accountancy at Wake Forest University; for the BS in accountancy, 
the minimum credits earned in this school must total fifty-two. 



196 



Requirements for Continuation 

In addition to the requirements stated on pages 44-45, a student must be academi- 
cally responsible and must show satisfactory progress towards completing the re- 
quirements for the degree. The administration of the School of Business and 
Accountancy will notify the student if satisfactory progress is not being made and, 
after consultation with the Committee on Admission and Continuation, will decide 
if the student may continue as a major in this school. 

Requirements for Graduation 

The School of Business and Accountancy confers the bachelor of science degree 
with majors in accountancy and business. For the major in business, a student must 
complete the following course work: Accounting 111 and 112; Business 201, 203, 
211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; Speech 
151 or 153 or 155; and a minimum of three courses from Business 212, 213, 214, 215, 
222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 232, 233, 234, 237, 290, 291, 292 or Accounting courses 
numbered 200 or above. One elective may be taken from economics courses numbered 
200 or above. 

For the major in accountancy, the following course work must be completed: 
Accounting 111, 112, 211, 212, 252, 253, 254, 261, 271, 272, and 273; Business 201, 
211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; and 
Speech 151 or 153 or 155. Requirements for the degree can be met in the normal 
four years with proper planning. Since this will require a heavy course load in the 
junior and senior years, students may find it advisable to attend a summer session 
to meet these requirements. 

In addition to the courses stipulated above, the student in business and accoun- 
tancy must also meet the following requirements for graduation: 

(a) a minimum of 144 credits, including the basic and divisional requirements 
established by Wake Forest College; 

(b) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at Wake Forest; 

(c) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at other institu- 
tions; and 

(d) an overall 2.0 grade-point average on all business and accountancy courses, 
exclusive of courses repeated with a C grade or better. 

Senior Honors Program 

Students with a grade-point average of at least 3.0 on all college work and 3.3 on 
all work in business and accountancy are invited to apply for admission to the honors 
program in business and accountancy. A project, paper, or readings, and an oral 
examination are required. Those who successfully complete the requirements speci- 
fied by the School are graduated with the designation "Honors in Business" or 
"Honors in Accountancy." For additional information, interested students should 
consult a member of the faculty of the School of Business and Accountancy. 



197 



Courses of Instruction 

Business 

201. Business Statistics. (4) Techniques of analysis of numerical data, including 
descriptive statistics, probability theory, sampling theory, statistical inference, chi- 
square analysis, analysis of variance, and regression and correlation analysis. 

203. Quantitative Analysis. (4) Development and understanding of quantitative de- 
cision tools and models to be applied to the managerial decision process. Models 
include linear programming (graphic, algebraic, and simplex algorithm; sensitivity 
analysis; duality; transportation and assignment algorithm); decision theory; Markov 
analysis; and queuing. P— Business 201. 

211. Organizational Theory and Behavior. (4) The study of macro and micro organiza- 
tional design— structure, processes, development, climate, behavior, and performance 
evaluations. 

212. Human Resource Management. (4) The application of concepts from Business 
211 to human resource problems faced by general managers and their organizations. 
Activities include class discussions, case analyses, and projects. P— Business 211. 

213. Entrepreneurship. (4) The course is designed to acquaint the student with the 
scope, current trends and elements of entrepreneurship. Students will study new 
business opportunities and will design a business plan for a new business start-up 
concept. Topics covered will include the entrepreneurship environment including 
entrepreneurial personalities, assessing new ventures including financial planning, 
sources of capital, managing entrepreneurial growth, marketing and marketing 
research, and legal issues of entrepreneurship. P— Business 211, 221, and 231. 

214. Labor Policy. (4) A study of selected topics in labor-management relations in 
both the business and the public sector from the view of labor, management, and 
the public. P— Business 211. 

215. International Comparative Management. (4) A seminar course which will 
broaden the student's knowledge of different management styles used in various 
countries such as Japan, China, the United States, the United Kingdom, and West 
Germany. The course will focus on (1) the complexities involved in operating in differ- 
ent cultures and (2) the implications which these cultural differences have on 
managing organizations and their employees' behavior in an international context. 
P-Bus. 211. 

221. Principles of Marketing. (4) A study of the role of marketing in business and 
the economy. Emphasis is on the examination of marketing concepts, functions, 
institutions, and methods. P— Economics 150. 

222. Marketing Strategy. (4) Managerial techniques in planning and executing mar- 
keting programs in business and nonbusiness organizations. Emphasis is on the group 
experience in decision-making related to market segmentation, product innovation 



198 



and positioning, channels of distribution, pricing, and promotion. Extensive use of 
cases, readings, and team presentations. P— Business 201 and 221. 

223. International Marketing. (4) Study of problems and opportunities in marketing 
overseas, analysis of cultural, economic, and political environment of foreign mar- 
keting operations, organization, and control of the multinational company. P— 
Business 221 and senior standing. 

224. Marketing Research. (4) Introduction to fundamentals of research methodolo- 
gy and use of research information in marketing decision-making. Topics include 
research design, data collection methods, scaling, sampling, and alternate methods 
of statistical data analysis. Students design and execute their own research projects. 
P— Business 201 and 221. 

225. Buyer Behavior. (4) Study of basic behavioral science applications in buyer moti- 
vation and behavior and in buying decisions. Emphasis on current research and the- 
ory relating to consumer behavior. P— Business 221. 

226. Retail Management. (4) This course is designed to acquaint the student with 
the scope, current trends and elements of retail management. Topics covered will 
include market structure of retailing, consumer behavior and retail strategy, changing 
retail institution types, merchandising strategies, basic financial tools essential to 
retail profitability and current research in retailing. P— Business 221. 

231. Principles of Finance. (4) An introduction to the field of finance including finan- 
cial management, investment analysis, and financial institutions and markets. 
Emphasis is placed on financial management at the level of the business entity or 
non-profit organization. P— Accounting 112 and Economics 150. 

232. Advanced Financial Management. (4) Management decision-making applied 
to the financial function, including investment, financing, dividend, and working 
capital decisions and their impact on the value of the firm. P— Business 231. 

233. Investment Analysis. (4) Study of investment alternatives, expected returns, 
and corresponding risks; valuation of stocks and bonds applying both fundamental 
and technical analysis; survey of past and current methods of stock selection tech- 
niques, including portfolio considerations. P— Business 231. 

234. Multinational Financial Management. (4) Analysis of the international aspects 
of managerial finance. Emphasis upon institutional and environmental factors 
influencing capital acquisition and allocation. P— Business 231. 

237. Taxes and Their Role in Business and Personal Decisions. (4) A review of the 
basic principles of income, property, sales, and payroll-related taxes and an exami- 
nation of their impact on business and personal decisions. Introduction to tax return 
preparation and tax planning techniques. Not open to accounting majors; credit not 
granted for both Business 237 and Accounting 271. P— Accounting 112. 

241. Production and Operations Management. (4) A study of the problems of the 
operations function in organizations, their interfaces with other functional areas, 



199 



and the methods of their solutions. Topics include process selection, forecasting, 
aggregate planning, job shop scheduling, project management, MRP inventory 
management, facilities location and design, quality planning and control. P— Business 
201. 

251. Management Information Systems. (4) Study of the development, design, and 
implementation of management information systems with introduction to the ter- 
minology, concepts, and trends in computer hardware and software. 

261. Legal Environment of Business. (4) A study of the legal environment in which 
business decisions are made in profit and nonprofit organizations. Emphasis is put 
upon how the law develops and how economic, political, social, and ethical con- 
siderations influence this development. 

270. Business Law. (4) A study of the law applicable to business transactions with 
accounting and auditing implications. Open only to senior accounting majors. 
P— Business 261. 

271. Business Policy. (4) A study of strategic planning and implementation in busi- 
ness policy formulation. Emphasis is placed on case study analysis of domestic and 
international business situations. Methods of solution include basic principles of stra- 
tegic planning and the use of computer simulations. P— Business 211, 221, 231, and 
241. 

281. Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas of busi- 
ness. P— Permission of instructor. 

290. International Management Study Tour. (4) An experiential learning course which 
provides students an opportunity to learn about management decisions and prac- 
tices in selected Pacific Rim countries. A guided tour of manufacturing plants and 
home offices of foreign companies and American companies with branches located 
in the Far East. Background readings and assignments are required prior to the trip, 
and a subsequent paper (including library research) analyzing a topic from the tour 
also is expected. P— Business 211 and permission of instructor. Offered in the summer. 

291. International Marketing Field Study. (4) An experiential learning journey to 
a foreign setting to conduct an in-depth study of marketing functions and practices. 
A guided tour of plants and offices of local and multinational companies will be 
provided in the selected foreign countries. Background readings and research are 
required prior to the class trip. An investigation designed by the student is carried 
out during the trip and an evaluative paper follows. P— Business 221 and permis- 
sion of instructor. Offered in the summer. 

292. International Finance Study Tour. (4) An experiential learning course which 
provides students with an opportunity to learn about international financial institu- 
tions, policies, and practices in overseas financial centers. The students will visit 
international banks, as well as the multinational manufacturing firms with global 
financial operations. Background readings and assignments are required prior to the 
trip, and a subsequent paper (including library research) analyzing a topic from the 
tour will also be required. P— Business 231 and permission of the instructor. Offered 
in the summer. 



200 



Accountancy 

110. Introduction to Financial and Managerial Accounting. (4) Basic accounting 
concepts and procedures used in the preparation of financial reports issued to stock- 
holders, creditors, and managers of business enterprises. Open only to juniors and 
seniors not majoring in business or accountancy. Cannot be substituted for 
Accounting 111. 

111. Accounting Principles I. (4) The basic accounting process and underlying prin- 
ciples pertaining to the preparation and interpretation of published financial state- 
ments. Sophomore standing. 

112. Accounting Principles II. (4) A continuation of Accounting 111 and an introduc- 
tion to management accounting. P— Accounting 111. 

211. Intermediate Accounting I. (4) A detailed analysis of theory and related problems 
for typical accounts in published financial statements. P— Minimum of C in Accoun- 
ting 111 and Accounting 112. 

212. Intermediate Accounting II. (4) A continuation of Accounting 211. P— Minimum 
of C in Accounting 211. 

252. Cost Accounting. (4) Advanced study of management accounting, including 
budgeting, product-costing, cost allocation, standard costs, transfer-pricing, differen- 
tial analysis, and cost-behavior analysis. P— Accounting 112. 

253. Accounting Information Systems. (2) A study of the design and operation of 
accounting systems relating to the functions of purchasing, production, sales, and 
cash management. Emphasis is placed upon the necessary controls for reliable data. 
P— Accounting 252 and Business 251. 

254. Accounting in the Not-for-Profit Sector. (2) An examination of accounting the- 
ory and practice in governmental operations. P— Accounting 211. 

261. Advanced Accounting Problems. (4) A study of the more complex problems 
found in business operations, business combinations, reorganizations, and dissolu- 
tion. P— Minimum of C in Accounting 212. 

271. Income Tax Accounting I. (4) A survey of basic income tax concepts associated 
with individuals, partnerships, corporations, estates, and trusts. Introduction to tax 
research and planning. P— Accounting 212. 

272. Income Tax Accounting II. (2) A survey of basic income tax concepts associated 
with corporations; review of current changes in the federal income tax law. 
P— Accounting 271. 

273. Auditing. (4) Examination of basic auditing concepts and relationships, and the 
auditor's reporting and professional responsibilities. Study of auditing procedures 
commonly used in public accounting and internal auditing. P— Accounting 212 and 
Accounting 253. 



201 



275. CPA Review-Accounting Practice and Theory. (4) An intensive study of CPA- 
type problems found on the accounting practice and accounting theory sections of 
the CPA exam. P— Accounting 252 and 261. 

278. Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas of 
accountancy. P— Permission of instructor. 




202 



Degrees Conferred 



May 15, 1989 
Bachelor of Arts 



Mary Elizabeth Abernathy 

Susan Elizabeth Adams 

Wayne Russell Adams, magna cum 

laude 
Todd Allen, cum laude 
Adam William Anderson 
Micajah Vaughan Anderson Jr. 
Matthew Joseph Andronica, cum 

laude, with honors in Latin 
Katrina Michelle Angevine, cum laude 
Drew Lamarr Arrowood 
Thomas Neil Auble, cum laude 
Ashley Kay Austin 
William Neil Avent 
Anna Gregory Averett 
Jeanne Lynn Azevedo 
Michael Peter Baiocco, cum laude 
Copeland Baker 
Kimberly Dawn Baker 
David Caldwell Barefoot Jr. 
Thomas Coke Bates, cum laude 
Karen Beatrice Baynes, cum laude 
Katherine Elizabeth Beal, magna cum 

laude 
Karen Jeannette Becht 
Wendy Elizabeth Bedenko, cum laude 
Philip Smith Beeson Jr. 
David Scott Bennett, magna cum laude 
Nicholas Joseph Bennett 
Tracy Marie Bennett 
Lisa Ann Beran, cum laude 
Renee Antonia Berry, cum laude 
Thomas Floyd Binkley 
Wendy Leigh Binz, cum laude 
Kirkland Lounsbury Blackard 
Sandra Marie Blake 
Paul Warner Bond 
Sonya Gay Bourn 
Laura Grace Boyce, cum laude 
Cynthia Jean Boyd, cum laude 



Margaret D. Boyd, cum laude 
Tonita Susan Branan, magna cum 

laude, with honors in English 
Amy Patricia Brandon 
Bethany Cornelia Brasher 
Yolonda Faye Brawley 
Christopher Andrew Brian, magna 

cum laude 
Elizabeth Ann Brinson, cum laude 
Daniel Gentry Britt 
Craig Alan Brookes 
Kevin John Brown 
Laura L. Brown, cum laude 
Lorrie Ann Brown 
Margaret Louise Brown, magna cum 

laude 
Peter R. Brown, cum laude 
Shannon Lynn Brown, cum laude 
Stuart L. Brown, magna cum laude 
Lawrence Rogers Browning 
Christopher John Buckholz, cum 

laude 
Stephen Blair Bullock 
William Henry Bunn rv 
Tracy Leigh Buran 
Susan Rebecca Burch, cum laude 
Christopher Barrett Burk 
Sally Chambers Burnette 
Christopher Frank Burton 
Carolyn Holden Buse 
Jason Charles Buss 
Bruce Alan Cabiness, cum laude 
Catana Rene Caldwell 
Cynthia Lynnet Caldwell, magna cum 

laude, with honors in religion 
Derek Lee Caldwell 
Stephen Blair Caldwell 
Lorna Grace Campbell 
Susan Gaye Campbell, magna cum 

laude 



203 



William Charles Campbell 

Elizabeth Kess Carper 

John Shepherd Carton, summa cum 

laude 
Kristina Jo Cassell 
Michael Jeffrey Cassidy, cum laude 
Clinton Duncan Cater HI 
Sarah Lancaster Cave, cum laude 
John Stephen Chaplick III 
Jason Carter Christopher, cum laude, 

with honors in history 
Chad wick W. Clark 
Courtney Reece Clark 
Carey Aarme Clarke 
Jennifer Winn Clarke 
Robin Elizabeth Clear, cum laude 
Cynthia Ann Clifford 
Amy Boswell Coley 
Bradley Neal Collins, cum laude 
Bryan Marshall Combs 
Thayne Norman Conrad 
Irene Constantinou 
George Woods Cook, cum laude 
Joseph Alexander Cooper 
Janet Anne Corpening, cum laude 
Norma Elizabeth Craig 
Timothy Andrews Crater, magna cum 

laude 
Holly Anne Crawford, magna cum 

laude 
Susan Hope Crockett, magna cum 

laude 
Cindy Lynn Cunningham 
Andreas Erik Daiber, cum laude 
Carolyn Elizabeth Damiani, cum 

laude, with honors in art 
Billy Irven Daughtry Jr. 
Jay Solomon Daughtry 
Douglas Worthington Davis 
Karen Elaine Davis, cum laude 
Robert Benjamin Davis, cum laude 
Robert Nathaniel Davis Jr. 
Sally Beth Dawson, cum laude 
Kedar Shashi Deshpande 
Mark Christopher de St. Aubin 
Michael Brandon Dew 



Alan Ennis Dillard, cum laude 
Craighton Fitch Dominey 
Elizabeth Rushworth Donelson 
Cara Jean Donovan, cum laude 
Courtney Lee Downs, cum laude 
Carlie Cannon Draper 
Alan Francis Dubois 
Scott Keiffer Du Bois 
Katherine O'Brien Duffy, cum laude, 

with honors in speech communication 

and theatre arts 
Virginia Hand DuPre, cum laude 
Elizabeth Edmonds Eberhart, cum 

laude 
Laura Jean Edmiston, cum laude 
John Kinsley Edwards Jr. 
Carol Jean Eggleston, cum laude 
David John Ehrmann, cum laude 
Alan Richard Elia 
Michael David Elkins 
Clifford Douglas Elliott 
Eve L. Elliott 

Dana Kristin Ender, cum laude 
Lawrence Andrew Eskew, cum laude 
Timothy Richard Evans 
Kyle Thomas Evens 
Teresa Ann Eyerman 
Barry James Fabyan, cum laude, with 

honors in economics, with honors in 

history 
William Scott Faircloth 
Kurt Baillie Falkenberg 
Kim Yvette Ferguson 
Elizabeth Angelia Ficken, cum laude 
Charlie Bryan Finch Jr., cum laude, 

with honors in psychology 
Gregory Cooper Fisher, cum laude 
Michael Thomas Flanagan, cum laude 
Ronald Steve Heming 
Leigh Ellen Flowers 
Michele Leigh Rowers, summa cum 

laude 
Mary Paige Forrester 
Suzanne Gray Fortune 
Ronald Denton Foster Jr. 
Jamie Lamar Fox 



204 



Rachel Lynn Franke, cum laude, with 

honors in psychology 
Keith Brient Freeman 
John David Fugate, summa cum laude 
John William Furlow 
Harry Yandle Gamble III, cum laude 
Bartlett Y. Ganzert 
Jack L. Gentry Jr., cum laude 
Priscilla Bond Gentry 
Bryan John Gersack, cum laude 
Lorianne Gilbert, cum laude 
Elizabeth Seay Gillespie, cum laude 
David Lee Glontz 
Laura Anne Goddard, cum laude 
Gina Marie Gorelli 
Debbie Renee Gorman, cum laude 
Jeffrey Monnett Gott 
Page Boiling Grant, cum laude 
Angela Lynette Gray, magna cum 

laude 
James Christopher Greene 
Kevin William Greene 
Walter W. Gregg III 
Page Leanne Griffin 
Robert Dinwiddie Grigg IV 
Julie Lynn Groves 
Steven Dennis Had, cum laude 
Krishna Marie Hagg 
John Arthur Hagler, cum laude 
Jill Victoria Hamm, cum laude, with 

honors in psychology 
David Robert Hanny, cum laude 
Frederick Cummings Hanson, cum 

laude 
Aimee Elizabeth Harris, cum laude 
Courtnay Anne Hartman, cum laude 
Tina Louise Hartsell 
Kelly Ann Hayes, cum laude 
Melissa Ann Heames, summa cum 

laude 
Margaret Seymour Hellewell 
John Harold Helmers 
Julie Ann Helms 

Martha Elizabeth Henseler, cum laude 
James Thomas Hewitt, cum laude 



Mary Brandon Hill 

Eric Christian Hines, cum laude 

Joshua William Hitchcock 

Brian Randal Hochman 

Stephen Michael Hodulik Jr., cum 

laude 
Marcia Elizabeth Hoey 
Richard Brooks Holcomb 
Meredith Lea Holladay 
Margaret Elizabeth Holt 
Michael Holliday Hooten 
David Parker Howard 
Stephen Andrew Howard 
Robert W. Hoysgaard Jr. 
Elizabeth Leigh Hudgins, cum laude 
Brenda Leigh Parker Hunt 
Sheila F. Huntley 
Lynn Bonnette Hutchins 
Kenneth Charles Ingrey 
Yumiko Ishiguchi, cum laude 
Franklin Nance Jackson Jr. 
Lisa Ann Jacobs, magna cum laude 
Joni Leigh James, cum laude 
Brian LeRoy Johnson 
Catherine Ann Johnson, magna cum 

laude, with honors in psychology 
Richard Leath Johnson, cum laude 
Kenneth Edison Jones 
Sean Stephen Jones 
Jennifer Lynn Jordan 
Ann Shawen Kane 
Paul D wight Kaneb Jr. 
Amy Lee Kattwinkel 
Judith Kathleen Keill 
Richard Herbert Kendall 
Spencer Gray Key Jr., cum laude 
Charles Hoyt Killebrew Jr., cum laude 
Steven David Killian 
Milton Wynn King Jr. 
Robert William Kinkead 
Rachel Anne Kirk 
Sandra Leigh Kirkman, cum laude 
Todd George Kleman, magna cum 

laude 
Lisa Anne Knott, magna cum laude 



205 



Christine Marie Knouff, cum laude 

Karin Beth Kohlenstein, cum laude, 
with honors in speech communica- 
tions and theatre arts 

John William Koons III 

Sophia Colleen Koontz, magna cum 
laude, with honors in politics 

Marc Robert Lacroix 

Luanne Lewis Lambert, cum laude 

Joseph Stanley LaMountain Jr. 

Michael D. Lamphier 

Mark Grimm Lamson, cum laude 

Lisa Karen Land, cum laude 

Alan Scot Lane, cum laude 

Leslie Anne Lang 

Peter William Lauterbach, cum laude 

Martha Marshall Lawrence 

Kevin Thomas Laws, cum laude 

Douglas Ray Lawson, cum laude 

William Thomas Leake II 

Cynthia Ann Lee, cum laude 

Thomas Christopher Legan 

Keith Lamar Lehman 

Elizabeth Jane Leonard, cum laude 

Lori Denise Leonard 

Crystal Sue Leonhardt 

Susan Elizabeth Leppala 

Henry Michael Lesmeister 

Keith Moore Levchenko, cum laude 

Wendy Gayle Lewis, cum laude 

Cowles Liipfert Jr. 

Herbert Lindsay Little HI 

Frank McCorkle Lombard 

Mary Culpeper Long 

Christie Louise Love 

MaryBeth Magee, cum laude 

Nona Elizabeth Malcom, cum laude 

Roswell Theodore Mallory III 

Maureen Anne Manak, cum laude 

Anne Elizabeth Marshburn 

Frederick John Martin 

Kimberly Sue Martin 

Laura Allen Mason, magna cum laude 

Mark Spencer Matthews 



Harriet Morrison Mauck, cum laude 
Elisabeth Anne McCain, summa cum 

laude 
Joel Bolton McCarty III 
Marvin Hudson McClanahan 
Dana Georgette McDonald, cum 

laude, with honors in psychology 
Carol Paige McGinnis, magna cum 

laude 
Mary Patricia McGuirt 
Cecelia Lee McNamara, magna cum 

laude, with honors in psychology 
Patricia Jane Meade, magna cum laude 
Richard Keith Meadows Jr. 
Sarah Elizabeth Meadows, cum laude, 

with honors in psychology 
Mary Elisabeth Mensch 
Robyn Rene Merrill 
Laura Amelia Meyer 
David Samuel Meyercord 
Loren Rossmann Milhench 
W. Stacy Miller H 
James Robert Milligan 
Ernest William Moore III, cum laude, 

with honors in English 
John Michael Morabito 
Cristine J. Morris 
Elizabeth Laura Morton, summa cum 

laude 
Brian Campbell Moure 
Kristina Lynn Moyer, cum laude 
Mary Elizabeth Mullican 
Andrea Paige Mullis 
Timothy Gerard Murphy 
Marilynne Murrah 
Laura Schulken Mustian 
Paula Edith Anita Nance, magna cum 

laude 
Ann-Marie Nathanson, cum laude 
Courtney Randolph Nea, magna cum 

laude, with honors in art 
Jonathan Devi Neal 
Kirby Rae Newton 
Stephen Nix 



206 



Karen Marie Noble 

Kathryn Allison Norton, magna cum 

laude 
Christopher Todd Oakley 
Michael B. O'Connor III 
Karen Darvie Osborne 
Jane Ellen O' Sullivan, magna cum 

laude, with honors in history 
Goran Patrick Otterstrom, cum laude 
Robert Boone Outland III 
William Edgar Owen Jr., cum laude 
Laura Ann Papciak, cum laude 
Stephanie Elaine Patillo, cum laude 
Peter Russell Peacock Jr. 
Donica Nicole Perry 
Robert Stanley Perry 
Jill Wilson Philips 
Traci Ann Piccolo 

Kimberly Raye Pike, magna cum laude 
Anne Kusterer Pollard 
Debora Jeanne Pomeroy, cum laude 
Mary Lee Porterfield 
Amy Elizabeth Pounds, magna cum 

laude 
Eli Lynn Powell 
Holly J. Powell 
Eugene Scott Pretorius, summa cum 

laude, with honors in chemistry 
Elizabeth Gillett Prewitt, cum laude 
Sarah Elizabeth Price, cum laude, with 

honors in politics 
Brian Andrew Prince, cum laude 
Jefferson Todd Prince 
Christopher Robert Prindle 
Melanie Ann Privette, magna cum 

laude 
Tracy Lyn Prosser, magna cum laude, 

with honors in English 
Yvette Nan Provosty 
Catherine Alike Pruitt, cum laude 
Susan Lynn Purdy 
Jerome Blair Ramey Jr., cum laude 
Memrie Shula Ramsay 
Amy Lynne Rawe, magna cum laude 
Sarah Elizabeth Ray, cum laude 
Jeffrey Scot Ready 



David Clifford Reeves, cum laude 

Susan Kathryn Reeves, cum laude 

Norman Scott Reid Jr. 

Shelley Lynn Reif 

Desmond James Reilly 

Susan Michelle Revis, cum laude 

Donna Louise Rewalt 

Kurt Morgan Ribisl, magna cum laude, 

with honors in psychology 
Tara Marie Rice 
Beth Alpha Richmond, summa cum 

laude 
Steven Charles Ridenour 
Jennifer Leigh Rierson 
Richard Glenn Roberts 
Tamatha Jane Robertson 
Jeffrey Bruce Rodgers 
Vivian May Roebuck 
Patricia Carol Rogers 
Elizabeth Ann Rovere, magna cum 

laude, with honors in politics 
Jay Richard Rowley 
Lisa Kathryn Sadler 
Mary Leslie Sadler, cum laude 
Stephanie Antoinette Sams 
John Wells Sandifer, cum laude 
Steven Paul Sasz 
Robert Nelson Satterfield, summa 

cum laude 
Daniel F. Scannell Jr., cum laude 
Douglas Schaller, cum laude 
Laura Christine Schmidt, cum laude 
Scott David Schutt, cum laude 
Stephen Russell Schwager 
Susan Elizabeth Sellers 
Leland Earl Sember 
Marc Andrew Sennewald, cum laude 
Christopher N. Shakib 
Elisabeth Ann Shattuck, magna cum 

laude 
Ellen Marie Sheehan 
Carol Ann Shellhorn 
Carol Harris Shuford 
Kathryn Jenny Rauth Shugart 
Michael Jeremy Siegel 
Thomas C. Siffringer Jr. 



207 



Mark Edwards Siler 

Kimberly Carol Simmons, magna cum 

laude 
Kimberly Lynelle Simmons, cum 

laude 
Audrey Lynn Sink, cum laude 
Jolyn Converse Smith 
Michael Carlton Smith 
Michael Clifton Smith 
Midge Murray Smith, cum laude 
Regina Leigh Smith 
Kathrine Leigh Snell, cum laude, with 

honors in psychology 
Jeanette Marie Snyder, cum laude 
Shannon Leigh Spach, cum laude 
Brenda Sue Spicker, summa cum 

laude, with honors in psychology 
Lynne Marguerite Sponaugle 
Kathryn Elaine Stalheim 
Charles Keith Stamey 
Neil Anthony Stanley 
Bradley William Stauffer, cum laude 
Edward Kelley St. Germain 
Jonathan Kurt Strauss 
Katherine Ware Stroud, cum laude 
Karl John Stybe 
Angela Diane Summers 
Kevin Scott Sutherland 
Dorothy Cassandra Sutton, cum laude 
Teresa Louise Tashoty, cum laude 
Alison Davis Taylor 
Jennifer Dianne Taylor 
Ruth Carrie Thomas 
Douglas John Thompson, magna cum 

laude 
Susan Bancroft Thompson 
Matthew Richard Trautwein, cum 

laude 
Howard Ray Treichler 
Amy Jane Trottier 
Nicholas Peter Valaoras, cum laude 
Jeffrey Grossman Vaughan 



Kathleen Cecilia Venglik, cum laude 

Jennifer A. Vladimir 

David Evans Vtipil, cum laude, with 

honors in history 
Jennifer Criss Wade 
Jeanne Marie Wallace 
Susanne Lenore Walsh 
Tony Andrew Watt 
Charles Andrew Wattleworth 
John Weber HI, cum laude 
Tiffani Zenobia Wedington, cum 

laude 
Karen Eileen Weeks 
Robert Winfield Welton 
Barbara Susan White, cum laude 
Catherine Elizabeth White, cum 

laude, with honors in psychology 
Elizabeth Ann White, magna cum 

laude 
Jabin Dix White 
Susan Renee White, cum laude 
David Christopher Whitley 
Elizabeth Michelle Wiggins 
Christopher Spaulding Wilder 
Anne Bryan Williams 
Cynthia Michelle Williams, cum laude 
Mary Elizabeth Williams 
Krista Faith Willis, cum laude 
Noel Dawn Wily 
Sara Lynn Windell, cum laude 
St. Clair Frederick Winiker HI 
Elizabeth Harvey Winslow 
Lisa Shannon Wolfe, cum laude 
Douglas Sayford Wray 
Brian Scott Yablonski, cum laude 
Jonathan Woodward Yarbrough 
Lisa Jean Yarger, magna cum laude 
Koren Lynn Yeakel, cum laude 
G Jeffrey Zurlo 
Rebecca Lynn Zwadyk, magna cum 

laude 



208 



May 15, 1989 
Bachelor of Science 



Frank John Agnos 

Kristen Kiser Armstrong 

Karen Leigh Ashley 

Patricia Angela Bannister, cum laude 

Simon Beard 

Mary Beth Beasley, magna cum laude 

Eric M. Blalock 

Zantha Christine Blanchard, cum 

laude 
Mark Leekley Bland, magna cum laude 
Lillian Wall Booe 
Jennifer Lee Booker 
Bryan Keith Brown, magna cum laude 
David Stephen Brown, magna cum 

laude, with honors in chemistry 
Tracy Ann Brown, magna cum laude, 

with honors in biology 
Thornton Embry Bryan III 
Elizabeth Houser Burney, cum laude 
Brian Keith Canter 
Todd I. Carlton 
Katherine Lanelle Carroll, summa cum 

laude 
Stephen Andrew Cawood 
Linda Anne Church, cum laude 
Philip Neal Clark 

Heather Willits Cobham, cum laude 
Abby Sharlene Cockerham 
Carol Dare Conrad, summa cum laude 
John Ward Cory 
Timothy Glenn Costner 
Glenn Douglas Crater Jr., cum laude 
Matthew Wade Dahl, cum laude 
Sharon Gaye Davis 
Laura Lee Davison, cum laude 
Roger Todd Echols, cum laude, with 

honors in chemistry 
Eric Dwight Einwaechter 
Karen Ruth Eller, cum laude 
David Barrow Everman, summa cum 

laude, with honors in chemistry 
William Curtis Fallin, cum laude 
Brian Reid Fannon 



Allison Earle Farris 

Janthi Elizabeth Fisher, cum laude 

Edward Johnson Fore 

Victor Thomas Freund, magna cum 

laude 
Antony Gallagher Friel 
Douglas E. Fries 

James Brown Gilbert III, cum laude 
Teresa Anne Gish 
Ronald W. Glinski 
David Hubbard Goff, cum laude 
Alice Saunders Goodman 
Karl Edgar Greeson, cum laude 
Anthony Warren Griffith 
Thomas Sloane Guy IV, magna cum 

laude, with honors in biology 
Phillip Grover Hansberry, cum laude 
Sharon Lynn Harris 
Helen Taussig Haupt 
Lisa Fay Hayes 
Roxanne Arlene Hetrick 
Hala Rosie Hilbawi 
Anna Louise Hill, cum laude, with 

honors in chemistry 
Nicole Suzanne Hinson, cum laude 
John Chadley Holland 
Gina Marie Horan, cum laude 
Mark John Hubley, magna cum laude 
Julie Marie Huffman, magna cum 

laude 
Mimi Jane Hunt 
Laura Elizabeth Jackson 
Michael Eric Jewett, magna cum laude 
Jennifer Bliss Jones, cum laude 
Scott Christopher Kazmar, cum laude 
David LaVerne Kelly Jr., cum laude, 

with honors in economics 
Fred Garland Kimmer III, magna cum 

laude 
Christopher Allen Kurtz, summa cum 

laude 
Philip Graham Laidlaw 
Billy Thomas Lambrinides 



209 



Susan Ruth Lamont 
Kimberly Sue Maguire 
Christopher Dudley Manning 
James Darrell Mansfield 
Elizabeth Kirkland Marston, cum 

laude 
Margaret Ona Maske 
Michael John Mason, cum laude 
Samuel Ray McHan Jr. 
Mary Elizabeth Mclnnis 
Ellen Alicia Merry, magna cum laude 
V. Stephen Monroe Jr., cum laude 
Sarah Katherine Moore 
Tamala Dee Murray 
William Henry Nau Jr. 
Alice Marie Neal 

Kimberly Annette Noble, cum laude 
John Gregory Nordahl 
Bengt Erik Nicklas Oldenburg, cum 

laude, with honors in biology 
Erik Thomas Russell Olsen 
David Erik Lee Olson, magna cum 

laude 
Reuel James Peck Jr. 
Catherine Leigh Perdue, cum laude 
Christian Thomas Pfohl, cum laude 
Sybil Dawn Pickard, cum laude 
Beth Ann Piper, cum laude 
Katherine E. Potak 
Gerald Forest Psimer 
Frank Edward Reedy Jr., cum laude 
Patrick Lawrence Rimron, cum laude 
Beth Lauren Robinson 
Russell Bert Rogers 
Stephen Richard Schwab 



Daniel A. Sekanovich Jr. 
Katherine Lynn Shepherd, magna 

cum laude 
Julia Sherwood Sizemore 
David Marshall Smith 
Mike Leon Smith 
Stephanie Laverne Smith 
Allen Marc Starkman, cum laude 
Robert Dwayne Stevens, cum laude 
Allison Lee Stockstill 
Mark Alan Stowers, magna cum laude 
Krithiga Thoppe Subramanian, cum 

laude 
Julienne Annette Summerlin 
Jean Ann Sutton 
Timothy Lee Swanson, summa cum 

laude, with honors in economics 
Kyriakos Tarasidis 
Rodger Bryan Thompson, magna cum 

laude 
Raymond Daniel Trogdon, cum laude 
Susan Lynne Uprichard, cum laude 
Lesa Cathryn Vandewalle, cum laude 
Lawrence Alvin Villanueva, cum 

laude 
William Nichols Villard 
David Truman Ward, cum laude 
Jody Lee Ward 
Robin Lee Warlick 
James Timothy Warren, cum laude 
Pamela Delaine Wheeler 
Ernest Ray Williams Jr. 
Michael David Williams, magna cum 

aude, with honors in mathematics 
Jennifer Anne Willis 



May 15, 1989 
Bachelor of Science 

The School of Business and Accountancy 



Jeffrey Edwards Alligood 

Paul Rogers Anderson, cum laude 



Catherine Aten, magna cum laude 
Charles Brantley Aycock HI 



210 



Frederick Ray Berretta Jr. 
Kevin Paul Bertelsen 
Angela Sue Bixler 
Christopher Mark Brannock 
Robert William Bria H 
Susan Sherry Broecker 
Karen Michelle Brown 
Michele Lynne Brown 
Scott Alton Browning 
William Ray Buitendorp 
John Bland Burkhardt m 
Jennifer Diane Burrell 
Janet Lynn Butler, cum laude 
Julie Elise Carlisle, cum laude 
Kenneth Lamar Carmack II, cum 

laude 
John Scott Case 
John Wesley Casteen Jr. 
Amy Elizabeth Cathell, cum laude 
Elizabeth Ann Cather 
Lisa Rene Cehanovich, cum laude 
Todd Hamilton Chase 
David Michael Clark 
Jeffrey Carl Couper 
Arnold Keck Cutrell 
Kimberly Ann Dale 
Brian Scott Davis 
Glenn Frederick Davis 
Moira Elizabeth Davis 
Todd Beeckman Davis 
Delphine Lydia Davison II, cum laude 
Brian Eugene Dean 
Kimberly Joyce Dekle 
Tracie L. Dellinger 
David Paul Delmonte 
Charles Francis Devenney III 
Stephen Thomas Dilday 
Michael McCahan Downes Jr. 
Jennifer Susan Dunn, magna cum 

laude 
Angela Rae Eagle, magna cum laude 
Phyllis Coleman Edwards 
James Ray Evans 
Karen Marie Fitchard 
Eric Daniel Foster 



Cynthia Dianne Freed 

Carolyn Frances Geiger, cum laude 

Suzanne Eileen Generao 

Beverly Dawn George 

Christine L. Gochenauer 

Robert David Greco 

David Ray Green 

Marcus Vann Griffin II 

Suzanne Shonda Heilman 

Ruth Adelaide Jernigan Heisel 

Howard Brent Helms, cum laude 

John William Himes Jr. 

Ann Elizabeth Hinshaw 

Joseph Edmondson Hogan 

Andrew M. Holborn 

Brian Scott Holliday 

Curtis Robert Holloway 

Linwood Branton Hollowell HI 

Daniel Wayne Hooks 

John David Hooper 

Richard Porcher Home Jr. 

James Neil Jacobsen 

Denise Michelle Janke, cum laude 

Gregory Charles Johnson 

Mary Beth Louise Jorgensen 

Arthur Otto Kaaz III 

Gregory James Kahl 

Bradley David Kendall 

John Edwin Kerr Jr. 

Ingrid Maria Kincaid, magna cum 

laude 
Stephanie Sylvia Knapp, cum laude 
David D. Kurtz Jr. 
Michael James Lambert 
Virginia Kathryn Lancaster, cum 

laude 
Peggy Ann Lantz 
Philip Shepherd Lassiter 
Jennifer Joan Ledford 
Julie Marie Lemoine, cum laude 
Craig Michael Lewis 
Thomas Edward Line 
Donald Alexander MacLeod Jr. 
Jeffrey Albert Martin, cum laude 
Shawn Stephan McCann 



211 



Michael William Middleton 

Tracy Blair Moss 

Christopher Charles Muhlhausen, 

cum laude 
Elwyn Grey Murray HI 
Billi Jo Nelson 

Karen Arlene Nelson, cum laude 
David Dean Norman 
Ava Michele Oldham, magna cum 

laude 
Brett Allen Pawlowski 
Mary Morton Piatt 
Kelly Adair Poteat, magna cum laude 
James Daniel Privott 
Suzanne Denise Reepe, cum laude 
Robert Laws Reeves Jr. 
Stephanie Lynn Rierson 
Sandra Lee Robertson 
Krista Renee Robinson, cum laude 
James Rufus Rogers rV 
Glen Michael Sanginario 
Charles Andrew Sawicki Jr. 
Amy Elizabeth Schehr 
Jan Alexander Gerrit Schipper 
Michelle Marie Schmidt 
Kent Louis Schwarz 



Stephen Dean Sheets 

Victoria Winn Shelton, cum laude 

Rodney Ray Sides 

John Edward Sparks 

Stephen C. Spengler, cum laude 

Hulett Dodge Sumlin Jr. 

Michael Anthony Taylor 

Thomas Martin Tepper 

Daniel Redwine Timberlake 

Carter Brooks Tracht 

Karl Patrick Tweardy 

George C. Valashinas 

Jeffrey Todd Vancini 

Susan Ann Vander Wagen, cum 

laude 
Susan Teresa Wade, cum laude 
Leigh Evans Waller 
Leigh Ellen Walton 
Daniel Norton Webster Jr. 
Kenneth Wesley Weeks 
James Robert West Jr. 
Scott Garner Whitt 
Kristin Anne Wilson, cum laude 
Mary Margaret Wray 
Erika Michelle York 
James Robert Yuhas 



August 9, 1989 
Bachelor of Arts 



Marshall Hamilton Bailey rV 
Anthony Damon Blakeney 
Robert L. Blevins m 
John Howard Boyette Jr. 
Todd Morrison Brooks 
Randel Dewayne Burrows 
Teddy Rochelle Cain 
J. Brantley Davis 
Christopher Todd DeLong 
Robert Auguste Desilets Jr., cum 

laude 
Kelly D. Dillon 
Emily Catherine Evans, summa cum 

laude 



Marion Clyde Fairey Jr. 

Rodney Nimrod Ferguson, cum laude 

Sean Christopher Gallaher 

Marcia Oleta Gant 

Jeffrey John Gillis 

Brock Eugene Himan 

Cydney Ann Hinson 

Kenneth Edward Holbrook 

John McKinnon Jackman 

Shawn Fitzpatrick Kelly 

Patricia Kenan-Herrmann, cum laude 

Tim Varnam Klett, cum laude 

Troy Matthew Maneval 

Perrin George March rV 



212 



David James Mayberry 
Jeffrey Wayne Miller 
Indra Eileen Murdoch 
Richard Owen Murdoch 
Scott Gilbert Nelson 
Alex Jon Paracsi 
Roy Allan Paschal 
James Christopher Phillips 
Todd Eric Plummer 
Allison McDonald Reid 



Robert Russell Rhinehart 

Joseph Adam Saffron 

Ashley Ruth Safrit 

Christopher Lynn Scully 

Jay Alan Stephens Jr. 

Mark Loren Van Valkenburgh 

Paul Marshall Weekley 

Jennifer Jane Welden, cum laude, with 

honors in psychology 
Charles Darrell Wilson Jr. 



August 9, 1989 
Bachelor of Science 



Catherine Marie Booth, magna cum 

laude 
Julia Davies Ellis 
Joanne Lucie McKell, cum laude 



Christopher Cummins Nabors, cum 

laude 
George Howard Perkins 
Mark S. Seddon 
Peter Staub Van Nort 



August 9, 1989 
Bachelor of Science 

The School of Business and Accountancy 



Timothy Doyle Boggess 
Jeffrey Dean Peterson 
Ann Michelle Rodio 



Harold Ray Walker Jr. 
Rachel Elizabeth Ward 
Frank Thomas Young 



December 19, 1989 
Bachelor of Arts 



Joseph Earl Andrews Jr. 

Katherine Elizabeth Beasley 

Randolph A. Benson 

Thomas C. Bove Jr., magna cum laude 

Richard Leigh Butt Jr. 

David deBrunner Clarke 

Daniel Derrick Corley 

Julie Ellen Coyne, cum laude 

Kenneth D'Antuono 

Michael A. DeFranco 



Peyton Todd DeWeese 
Suzanne Michele Ferre 
Patrick Wayne Fudge II 
James MacKenzie Garvey, summa 

cum laude 
Clayton Lance Griffing 
Scott Ronald Hayward 
Krista Hollyn Hollman, cum laude 
Simon Holmes 
Russell Andrew Hosea 



213 



Wilson Smith Hoyle III 
John Brantley Hyatt 
John Lee Jones 
William Ryan Kerr 
Michael L. Lavelle 
Angelique Remi Lodewyks 
Douglas William Maier 
Bruce John Mainwaring 
Michael Conrad Martin 
Eino Anthony Mayberry 
Niel Jameson McDowell 
Robert Donald McLoud Jr. 
Jennifer Lea Miller 
James Stafford Moser 
Kiernan Kathleen Prechtl 



Craig Richardson Rhyne 
Dominick Thomas Scartz III 
Heather Lynn Scull, cum laude 
Timothy Alan Shauf 
Craig Louis Shores 
Sharon Renee Smith 
Timothy Matthew Straub 
Steven M. Taylor 
Gregory Thomas 
Marybeth Tally Torbet, cum laude 
Sarah Connolly Waddington 
Amelia Leigh Washburn, cum laude 
Robert Emory Watson 
Elizabeth Pennington Zuber, cum 
laude 



December 19, 1989 
Bachelor of Science 



Alice Louise Averre, cum laude 
Charles Callaway Boyd 
Timothy Richard Klugh 
Roderick LeVander Lilly 
Ronnie Craig Marrache, cum laude 



Noelle Ruth Miles, cum laude 
Gregory Allen Ross 
Aimee Louise Sheppard, cum laude 
Paige Shumate, cum laude 
Giancarlo H. Speziani, cum laude 
David Matthew Ward 



December 19, 1989 

Bachelor of Science 

The School of Business and Accountancy 



William Ronald Babcock 
Timothy Wilson Bell, cum laude 
Richard Craven Carter HI 
Gregory Brion Chill 
Katharine Marie Fortier, cum laude 



Laura Leigh Gill, cum laude 
Jade John Litcher 
David William May 
Wayne William Straw 
Jeffrey Scott Swaim 
Luanne R. Terry 



214 



1989 Reserve Officers' Training Corps Graduates 
Commissioned in Army of the United States 



Katrina Michelle Angevine 
Thomas Neil Auble 
Chadwick Wellington Clark* 
Timothy Andrews Crater 
Michael McCahan Downes Jr.* 
Eric Grady Griffin 
Thomas Sloane Guy IV* 
Gina Marie Horan* 
Robert William Kinkead 
David William May 
Todd Eugene McDonald 

*Distinguished Military Graduate 



Scott Gilbert Nelson 
Alex Jon Paracsi 
Reuel James Peck Jr.* 
Patrick Lawrence Rimron* 
Joseph Adam Saffron 
Marc Andrew Sennewald 
Allen Marc Starkman 
Karl John Stybe 
Jeffrey Scott Swaim* 
Charles Darrell Wilson Jr. 
St. Clair F. Winiker HI 




215 



Honor Societies 



Omicron Delta Kappa 

Members of the Class of 1989 



Patricia Angela Bannister 
Karen Beatrice Baynes 
Katherine Elizabeth Beal 
Tonita Susan Branan 
Robin Elizabeth Clear 
Sally Beth Dawson 
David Barrow Everman 
John David Fugate 
Angela Lynette Gray 
Joni Leigh James 
Charles Hoyt Killebrew Jr. 



Fred Garland Kirnmer III 
Wendy Gayle Lewis 
Patricia Jane Meade 
Jane Ellen O' Sullivan 
Eugene Scott Pretorius 
Barbara Susan White 
Elizabeth Ann White 
Cynthia Michelle Williams 
Michael David Williams 
Lisa Jean Yarger 
Rebecca Lynn Zwadyk 



Phi Beta Kappa 

Members of the Class of 1989 



Wayne Russell Adams 
Paul Rogers Anderson 
Vincent Charles Andracchio II 
Catherine Aten 
Katherine Elizabeth Beal 
Mary Beth Beasley 
David Scott Bennett 
Mark Leekley Bland 
Tonita Susan Branan 
Christopher Andrew Brian 
Bryan Keith Brown 
David Stephen Brown 
Margaret Louise Brown 
Cynthia Lynnet Caldwell 
John Shepherd Carton II 
Carol Dare Conrad 
Timothy Andrews Crater 
Holly Anne Crawford 
Sally Beth Dawson 
Jennifer Susan Dunn 
Angela Rae Eagle 
Emily Catherine Evans 
David Barrow Everman 



Michele Leigh Flowers 
Victor Thomas Freund 
John David Fugate 
James MacKenzie Garvey 
Susan Lois Margaret Gilmor 
Angela Lynette Gray 
Melissa Ann Heames 
Susan Aileen Henry 
Mark John Hubley 
Michael Eric Jewett 
Fred Garland Kirnmer IE 
Ingrid Maria Kincaid 
Todd George Kleman 
Christopher Allen Kurtz 
Elisabeth Anne McCain 
Patricia Jane Meade 
Ellen Alicia Merry 
Elizabeth Laura Morton 
Courtney Randolph Nea 
Kathryn Allison Norton 
David Erik Lee Olson 
Kelly Adair Poteat 
Eugene Scott Pretorius 



216 



Melanie Ann Privette 
Tracy Lyn Prosser 
Beth Alpha Richmond 
Robert Nelson Satterfield 
Elisabeth Ann Shattuck 
Katherine Lynn Shepherd 
Brenda Sue Spicker 



Timothy Lee Swanson 
Anna Rachel Tefft 
Douglas John Thompson 
Rodger Bryan Thompson 
Michael David Williams 
Lisa Jean Yarger 
Rebecca Lynn Zwadyk 




Enrollment 



217 



The Undergraduate Schools 

Seniors 

Juniors 

Sophomores 

Freshmen 

Unclassified 

Total Undergraduate 



The Graduate School 

(Reynolda Campus) 
Master's Program 
Doctoral Program 
Unclassified 

Total 

The Graduate School 

(Hawthorne Campus) 
Master's Program 
Doctoral Program 
Unclassified 

Total 

Total Graduate 

The School of Law 

The Babcock Graduate 
School of Management 

Master's Program 
Executive Program 
Evening Program 

Total 

The Bowman Gray 
School of Medicine 

Allied Health Programs 

Total 

Total Professional Schools 



Fall 1989 






Men 


Women 


Total 


525 


350 


875 


460 


350 


810 


446 


381 


827 


512 


419 


931 


19 


42 


61 


1,962 


1,542 


3,504 


114 


158 


272 


11 


2 


13 


17 


36 


53 



142 



260 



196 



201 



338 






5 


5 


45 


42 


87 


2 


6 


8 


47 


53 


100 


189 


249 


438 



461 



126 


59 


185 


63 


13 


76 


112 


45 


157 


301 


117 


418 


292 


138 


430 


37 


72 


109 


329 


210 


539 


890 


528 


1,418 



University Total 



3,041 



2,319 



5,360 



218 



Geographic Distribution — Undergraduates 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 



Men 


Women 


Total 


19 


13 


32 


1 


1 


2 


3 


2 


5 


1 


2 


3 


5 


3 


8 


2 


2 


4 


41 


20 


61 


14 


16 


30 


6 


2 


8 


132 


78 


210 


141 


98 


239 


1 





1 


27 


14 


41 


9 


9 


18 





1 


1 


2 





2 


31 


17 


48 


3 


5 


8 


4 





4 


93 


76 


169 


31 


9 


40 


6 


7 


13 


4 


4 


8 


3 


4 


7 


9 


3 


12 


2 


1 


3 


4 


1 


5 


88 


65 


153 


3 


1 


4 


74 


42 


116 


711 


695 


1,406 





1 


1 


50 


23 


73 


3 


1 


4 





2 


2 


86 


33 


119 


2 


1 


3 


71 


67 


138 


1 





1 


41 


48 


89 


19 


15 


34 


1 





1 


2 


2 


4 


146 


111 


257 



219 



Washington 
West Virginia 
Wisconsin 
Wyoming 



Argentina 

Australia 

Brazil 

Canada 

China 

Colombia 

Denmark 

El Salvador 

France 

Guyana 

India 

Ireland 

Israel 

Japan 

Kenya 

Mexico 

Netherlands 

New Zealand 

Pakistan 

South Africa 

Spain 

Sudan 

United Kingdom 



Other Countries 



2 


2 


4 


37 


23 


60 


5 


3 


8 


2 


1 


3 


ies 

Men 


Women 


Total 





1 


1 





1 


1 





1 


1 


3 


3 


6 


1 


1 


2 





1 


1 


1 





1 





1 


1 


3 


1 


4 





1 


1 





1 


1 


1 





1 


1 





1 





1 


1 





2 


2 


1 





1 


1 





1 


1 


1 


2 


1 





1 


1 





1 


2 





2 





1 


1 


7 


1 


8 



220 

The Board of Trustees 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1990 

Douglas D. Brendle, Elkin Alton H. McEachern, Hampton, GA 

Jean H. Gaskin, Charlotte W. Boyd Owen, Waynesville 

Weston P. Hatfield, Winston-Salem Steven L. Perricone, Winston-Salem 

Hubert B. Humphrey Jr., Greensboro (student) 

Albert R. Hunt Jr., Washington, DC Charles M. Shelton, Winston-Salem 

Joseph W Luter HI, Smithfield, VA J. Lanny Wadkins Jr., Dallas, TX 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1991 

Clifton L. Benson Jr., Raleigh George B. Mast, Smithfield 

Herbert Brenner, Winston-Salem L. Glenn Orr Jr., Lumberton 

C. C. Cameron, Charlotte Arnold D. Palmer, Youngstown, PA 
Richard C. Day, Raleigh Bob D. Shepherd, Morganton 
Ronald E. Deal, Hickory Frank B. Wyatt, High Point 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1992 

Louise Broyhill, Lenoir William B. Greene Jr., Gray, TN 

Paul H. Broyhill, Lenoir Roberto J. Hunter, Scarsdale, NY 

Victor I. Flow Jr., Winston-Salem Jeanette W Hyde, Raleigh 

Marvin D Gentry, King Louis B. Meyer Jr., Wilson 

Constance F. Gray, Winston-Salem Duncan J. Sinclair Jr., Laurinburg 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1993 

D. Wayne Calloway, Greenwich, CT Barbara B. Millhouse, Winston-Salem 
C. C. Hope Jr., Charlotte Michael G. Queen, Wilmington 
James B. Hunt Jr., Raleigh Zachary T. Smith, Winston-Salem 
James E. Johnson Jr., Charlotte Lonnie B. Williams, Wilmington 

J. Tylee Wilson, Jacksonville, FL 

Life Trustees 

Bert Bennett, Pfafftown John C. Hamrick Sr., Shelby 

Joseph Branch, Raleigh J. Samuel Holbrook, Statesville 

Henry L. Bridges, Raleigh Lex Marsh, Charlotte 

Charles W Cheek, Greensboro George W Paschal Jr., Raleigh 

Egbert L. Davis Jr., Winston-Salem J. Robert Philpott, Lexington 

Thomas H. Davis, Winston-Salem Samuel C. Tatum, Greensboro 

Floyd Fletcher, Durham T. Eugene Worrell, Charlottesville, VA 

J. Smith Young, Lexington 



221 



Officers 

(For one-year terms beginning January 1, 1990) 

Weston P. Hatfield, Winston-Salem, Chairman 

D. Wayne Calloway, Greenwich, CT, Vice-Chairman 

Leon H. Corbett Jr., Winston-Salem, Secretary 

John G. Williard, Winston-Salem, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

Carlos D. Holder, Clemmons, Assistant Treasurer 




222 

The Board of Visitors 



Arnold Palmer, Youngstown, Pennsylvania 
Chairman, University Board of Visitors 

Adelaide A. Sink, Tampa, Florida 
Chairman, College Board of Visitors 

Wake Forest College and Graduate School 
Terms Expiring December 31, 1990 

Samuel H. Adler, Rochester, NY L. Richardson Preyer, Greensboro 

Jerry B. Attkisson, Atlanta, GA Robert F. Rink, Philadelphia, PA 

Paul P. Griffin, Baltimore, MD Adelaide A. Sink, Tampa, FL 

Eugene Owens, Charlotte Allene B. Stevens, Lenoir 

J. Tylee Wilson, Jacksonville, FL 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1991 

Bruce M. Babcock, Winston-Salem John R. Knight, New York, NY 

John W Chandler, Washington, DC Archie D. Logan, Raleigh 

Laura M. Elliott, Washington, DC Jan McDonagh, Boston, MA 

Lockhart Follin-Mace, Raleigh Jasper D. Memory Chapel Hill 

Charles U. Harris, Delaplane, VA Patrick J. Rice, Augusta, GA 

Terry C. Hazen, Aiken, SC Marie H. Roseboro, Winston-Salem 

E. Michael Howlette, Richmond, VA William B. Sansom, Knoxville, TN 

Suzanne L. Jowdy Winston-Salem Norman B. Snead, Newport News, VA 
Marc S. Tucker, Rochester, NY 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1992 

L. M. Baker Jr., Winston-Salem Harvey R. Holding, Atlanta, GA 

Thomas M. Belk, Charlotte Nancy C. Kester, Winston-Salem 

Connie W Brothers, Nashville, TN James Alfred Martin Jr., Winston-Salem 

David R. Bryant, Charleston, WV John F McNair III, Winston-Salem 

Josephine D. Clement, Durham Edwin S. Melvin, Greensboro 

Stanley Frank, Greensboro Barbara Babcock Millhouse, New York, NY 

Eldridge C. Hanes, Winston-Salem John P. Polychron, Winston-Salem 

Deborah Small Harris, Charlotte Howard A. Rollins Jr., Atlanta, GA 
Elizabeth P. Valk, New York, NY 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1993 

Elizabeth F. Bagley, Washington, DC F. Hudnall Christopher Jr., 

Germaine Bre'e, Winston-Salem Winston-Salem 

James S. Bohart III, New York, NY Roberta W. Irvin, Winston-Salem 

Janet H. Brown, Washington, DC Thomas W Lambeth, Winston-Salem 



223 



Gillian Lindt, New York, NY 
Robert M. Maloy, Dallas, TX 
Winifred W. Palmer, Youngstown, PA 



C. Edward Pleasants, Winston-Salem 

Frances P. Pugh, Raleigh 

K. Wayne Smith, Dublin, OH 



Ex Officio Members 

A. Doyle Early Jr., President, Alumni Council, High Point 
Herbert Brenner, Trustee Liaison, Winston-Salem 




The Scales Fine Arts Center contains classrooms, practice rooms, art studios, and theatres. 



224 



School of Business and Accountancy 



Advisory Council 



Ren L. Babcock, Raleigh 

Paul J. Breitbach, Winston-Salem 

Douglas D. Brendle, Winston-Salem 

D. Hayes Clement, Greensboro 

Derrick L. Davis, Winston-Salem 

J. William Disher, Charlotte 

W Chester Evans III, Greensboro 

Kathryn W Garner, Winston-Salem 

H. Wade Gresham, Durham 



W Eugene Johnston III, Greensboro 
John M. Kane, Raleigh 
J. Leonard Martin, Winston-Salem 
Robert N. Pulliam, Winston-Salem 
David C. Rose, Henderson 
James N. Smith, Winston-Salem 
Porter B. Thompson, Greensboro 
Robert S. Vaughan Sr., Charlotte 
Robert F. Watson, Charlotte 



William J. Wieners, Winston-Salem 




The Administration 



225 



Date following name indicates year of appointment 



University 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) President 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary; 
PhD, Vanderbilt; LHD, Alabama (Birmingham) 

John P. Anderson (1984) Vice President for Administration and Planning 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology; 
MBA, Alabama (Birmingham) 



Sandra Combs Connor (1981, 1988) 

BA, North Carolina (Charlotte); MEd, Converse 



Vice President for Public Affairs 



Leon H. Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Richard Janeway (1966) 
BA, Colgate; 
MD, Pennsylvania 

G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest 

John G. Williard (1958) 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
CPA, North Carolina 

Edwin Graves Wilson (1946, 1951) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Kenneth A. Zick (1975, 1988) 

BA, Albion; JD, Wayne State; MLS, Michigan 

Laura Christian Ford (1984) 

BA, Wake Forest; EdM, JD, Virginia; AM, PhD, Princeton 



College 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Toby A. Hale (1970) 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Duke; EdD, Indiana 

William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) 

BA, Winston-Salem State; MA, Wake Forest 

Graduate School 

Gerald W Esch (1965) 

BS, Colorado College; MS, PhD, Oklahoma 



Vice President for Legal Affairs and 
Executive Secretary, Office of the President 

Vice President for Health Affairs and 

Executive Dean of the 

Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

Vice President for University Relations 

Vice President for Financial 
Resource Management and Treasurer 



Provost 



Vice President for Student Life and 
Instructional Resources 



Associate Provost 

Dean of the College 
Associate Dean 
Associate Dean 
Associate Dean 



Dean of the Graduate School 



226 



Nancy J. Cotton (1977) Assistant Dean and Director of Master of Arts 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; in Liberal Studies Program 

PhD, Columbia 

School of Law 

Robert K. Walsh (1989) Dean of the School of Law 

BA, Providence; JD, Harvard 

Arthur R. Gaudio (1986) Associate Dean, Academic Affairs 

BS, Rochester; JD, Syracuse 

James Taylor Jr. (1983) Associate Dean, External Affairs and 

BA, JD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) Director of Clinical Programs 

Lloyd K. Rector (1984) Director of Continuing Legal Education 

BS, JD, Wake Forest 

Ronald M. Price (1989) Assistant Director, Continuing Legal Education 

AB, Guilford College; JD, Wake Forest 

Melanie E. Nutt (1969) Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

Jean K. Hooks (1970) Director of Computer Services 

and Administration 

Linda J. Michalski (1983) Director of Professional and 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro) Public Relations 

LeAnn P. Joyce (1977) Registrar 

BM, Salem College 

Carrie C. Bullock (1987) Director of Placement 

BA, Wake Forest 

Sally A. Irvin (1984) Associate Director of Computer Services 

BA, JD, Stetson; MA, South Carolina; MLS, South Horida 

Ellen F. Makaravage (1987) Activities Coordinator 

BGS, Michigan 

Babcock Graduate School of Management 

John B. McKinnon (1989) Dean of the Babcock Graduate School 

AB, Duke; MBA, Harvard of Management 

Paul A. Dierks (1987) Associate Dean of Babcock Graduate School 

BS, Pennsylvania State; MBA, Denver; f Management and Acting Director 

PhD, University of Washington of ^ lnsii Mt for Executive Education 

Jean B. Hopson (1970) Assistant Dean, Librarian, and Registrar 

BA, Murray State; MS in LS, George Peabody; 
MBA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

J. Timothy Heames (1971, 1983) Director of MBA Executive Program 

BS, Youngstown State; MS, Carnegie-Mellon 

Peter R. Peacock (1970) Director of Evening MBA Program 

BA, Northeastern; MS, Georgia Tech; MBA, PhD, Chicago 



227 



Brooke A. Saladin (1983) Director of Resident MBA Program 

BS, PhD, Ohio State; MBA, Bowling Green 

James G. Ptaszynski (1984) Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MS, Shippensburg; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Coleen J. Sullivan (1988) Director of Career Planning and Placement 

BA, Denison; MS, Indiana 

Patricia B. Lowder (1988) Director of External Relations 

BA, Virginia 

Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

Richard Janeway (1966) Vice President for Health Affairs 

BA, Colgate; MD, Pennsylvania and Executive Dean 

James N. Thompson (1979) Associate Dean 

BA, DePauw; MD, Ohio State 

Eugene W. Adcock HI (1989) Associate Dean for Professional Affairs 

BS, Davidson; MD, Wake Forest 

John D. Tolmie (1970) Associate Dean for Academic Affairs 

BA, Hobart; MD, McGill 

Russell E. Armistead Jr. (1976) Associate Dean for Administrative Services 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; MBA, Wake Forest 

William C. Park Jr. (1973) Assistant Dean for Clinical Services 

BS, The Citadel; MBA, Wake Forest 

B. Hofler Milam (1981) Assistant Dean for Planning and 

BS, Wake Forest Resource Management 

J. Kiffin Penry (1979) Senior Associate Dean for Research Development 

BS, MD, Wake Forest 

Lawrence D. Smith (1983) Associate Dean for Research Development 

BS, MS, Illinois 

Paul Waugaman (1985) Associate Dean for Research Administration 

BA, MA, American; MPA, Indiana 

Patricia L. Adams (1979) Associate Dean for Student Affairs 

BA, Duke; MD, Wake Forest 

Michael R. Lawless (1974) Deputy Associate Dean for Student Affairs 

BA, Texas (Austin); MD, Texas Medical Branch (Galveston) 

Lewis H. Nelson (1976) Associate Dean for Admissions 

BS, North Carolina State; MD, Wake Forest 

James C. Leist (1974) Associate Dean for Continuing Education 

BS, Southeastern Missouri State; MS, EdD, Indiana 

Richard A. Heysek (1987) Associate Dean for Development 

BA, Ohio State; MHA, Indiana and Alumni Affairs 

Paul M. LoRusso (1987) Associate Dean for Information Services 

BS, Syracuse; MBA, Horida State 



228 



J. Dennis Hoban (1978) 

BA, Villanova; MS, EdD, Indiana 



Director of the Office of Educational Research 

and Services 



Velma G. Watts (1983) 

BS, MA, North Carolina A&T; 

MEd, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Duke 

Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) 

BA, MSLS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



School of Business and Accountancy 



Director of Minority Affairs 



Librarian 



Thomas C. Taylor (1971) 

BS, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
PhD, Louisiana State; CPA, North Carolina 

Stephen Ewing (1971) 

BS, Howard Payne; MBA, Baylor; DBA, Texas Tech 



Dean of the School of Business 
and Accountancy 

Coordinator of Business Program 



Dale R. Martin (1982) 

BS, MS, Illinois State; DBA, Kentucky 



Coordinator of Accountancy Program 



Summer Session 

Lula M. Leake (1964) Dean of the Summer Session 

BA, Louisiana State; MRE, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Planning and Administration 



John P. Anderson (1984) 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology; 
MBA, Alabama (Birmingham) 

Ross A. Griffith (1966) 
BS, Wake Forest; 
MEd, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Lula M. Leake (1964) 

BS, Louisiana State; 

MRE, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

James L. Ferrell (1975) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MS, Virginia Commonwealth 

W. Derald Hagen (1978) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Larry R. Henson (1981) 

BA, Berea; MS, Missouri (Rolla) 

Carlos O. Holder (1969) 

BBA, MBA, Wake Forest 

James W. Kausch (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Harold S. Moore (1953) 
BME, Virginia 



Vice President for Administration 
and Planning 

Assistant Vice President for 
Administration and Planning 

Assistant Vice President for 
Administration and Planning 

Director of Personnel 



Assistant Controller 

Director of the Computer Center 

Controller and Assistant Treasurer 

Purchasing Coordinator 

Director of the Physical Plant 



229 



Margaret R. Perry (1947) 
BS, South Carolina 



Registrar 



Legal Affairs 



Leon H. Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BA, JD, Wake Forest 

J. Reid Morgan (1980) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Donna H. Hamilton 

BA, Drury; JD, Wake Forest 

Beth N. Hopkins (1985) 

BA, Wake Forest; JD, William and Mary 

Beverly C. Moore (1989) 

BA, Mount Holyoke; JD, Wake Forest 



Vice President for Legal Affairs and 
Executive Secretary, Office of the President 

University Counsel 
Assistant University Counsel 
Assistant University Counsel 
Assistant University Counsel 



Student Life 

Kenneth A. Zick (1975) 

BA, Albion: JD, Wayne State; MLS, Michigan 

Harold R. Holmes (1987) 

BS, Hampton; MBA, Fordham 

Michael Ford (1981) 



BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary 

Edgar D. Christman (1956, 1961) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; STM, Union Theological Seminary 



Vice President for Student Life 
and Instructional Resources 

Dean of Student Services 
Director of Student Development 



Chaplain 



William C. Currin (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern 
Baptist Theological Seminary 

Jessica B. Pollard (1988) 

BS, Fisk; MA, North Carolina Central 

Ernest M. Wade (1986) 

BS, Johnson C. Smith; MS, Wisconsin; 
PhD, Michigan State 

Gloria E. Cooper (1987) 
BA, Maryland 

Dennis Gregory (1986) 

AA, Ferrum; BA, James Madison; MA, EdD, Virginia 

Connie L. Carson (1986) 

BS, MEd, North Carolina State 

Bruce Bunce (1986) 

BA, Western Michigan; MS, Radford 



Director of Career Planning and Placement 



Assistant Director of Career Planning 
and Placement 

Director of Minority Affairs 



Counselor for Minority Recruitment 
Director of Residence Life and Housing 



Mary Ann H. Taylor (1961, 1978) 
BS, MD, Wake Forest 



Associate Director of 
Residence Life and Housing 

Associate Director of 
Residence Life and Housing 

Director of Student Health Service 



230 



Cashin Hunt (1987) Health Educator 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MS, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Mary T. Beil (1985) Director of Student Union 

BA, Hiram; MEd, Kent State 

Marianne A. Schubert (1977) Director of the University Counseling Center 

BA, Dayton; MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Sandra L. Chadwick (1989) Director, Learning Assistance Program 

BA, BS, Texas (Austin); 
MA, Columbia 

Campus Ministry 

Edgar D. Christman (1956, 1961) Chaplain 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; STM, Union Theological Seminary 

David L. Fouche (1982) Assistant Chaplain and 

BA, Furman; Baptist Campus Minister 

MDiv, Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Institutional Research 

Ross A. Griffith (1966) Director of Institutional Research 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Margaret R. Perry (1947) Registrar 

BS, South Carolina 

Hallie S. Arrington (1977) Associate Registrar 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest 

Computer Center 

Larry R. Henson (1981) Director of the Computer Center 

BA, Berea; MS, Missouri (Rolla) 

Sarah M. Burton (1985) Microcomputer Center Coordinator 

Ken Carmack 1983) Administrative Computing Manager 

Jimmy Kausch (1986) Interim Microcomputer Center Manager 

BA, Wake Forest 

Rolando Mia (1985) Microcomputer Technical Coordinator 

BA, Wake Forest 

D. Jean Seeman (1977) Academic Computing Manager 

BA, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, Georgia 

Admissions and Financial Aid 

William G. Starling (1958) Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

BBA, Wake Forest 



231 



Thomas O. Phillips (1982) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Martha Blevins Allman (1982) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Stephen Brooks (1989) 

BA, MA, EdD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Wayne E. Johnson (1985) 

BA, Northwestern; JD, Wake Forest 

Karen B. Grogan 

BA, Randolph Macon 

Robert P. Jackson (1989) 

BA, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Paul N. Orser (1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, Emory 

M. Louise Brown (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Katherine Fleer (1989) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Mark de St. Aubin (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Associate Director of Admissions and 
Scholarship Officer 

Associate Director of Admissions 

Associate Director of Financial Aid 

Assistant Director of Financial Aid 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Admission Counselor 

Admission Counselor 

Admission Counselor 



Career Planning and Placement 



William C. Currin (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern 
Baptist Theological Seminary 

Susan Brooks (1989) 

BA, Lenoir-Rhyne; MAEd, 

Wake Forest; MBA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 

MDiv, Iliff School of Theology 



Director of Career Planning 
and Placement 



Director of Internships and 
Experiential Learning Programs 



Jessica B. Pollard (1988) 

BS, Fisk; MA, North Carolina Central 



Assistant Director of Career Planning 
and Placement 



Public Affairs 

Sandra Combs Connor (1981, 1988) 

BA, North Carolina (Charlotte); MEd, Converse 

T. Cleve Callison (1982) 

BA, Duke; MA, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 

Kathryn Partin Dalton (1988) 
BA, Morehead State 

Brian H. Eckert (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Teresa Brown Grogan (1976) 



Vice President for Public Affairs 

WFDD Station Manager 

Media Relations Officer 

Director of Media Relations 

Supervisor of Publications 



232 



Cherin Chewning Poovey (1987) Associate University Editor 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Bernard H. Quigley (1989) Staff Writer 

BA, Massachusetts 

Jim A. Steele (1987) Media Relations Officer 

BA, Wake Forest 

Jeanne P. Whitman (1983) University Editor 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest; MA, Virginia 

University Relations 

G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) Vice President for University Relations 

BA, Wake Forest 

Julius H. Corpening (1969) Assistant Vice President for University Relations 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Robert D. Mills (1972) Assistant Vice President and 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest Director of Capital Campaign 

Minta Aycock McNally (1978) Assistant to the Vice President 

BA, Wake Forest for University Relations 

Robert T. Baker (1978) Director of Development 

BA, MS, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) 

James R. Bullock (1985) Director of Capital Support 

BA, Wake Forest 

Cathy B. Chinlund (1986) Manager of Support Services 

BS, East Carolina 

Catherine Cummings (1989) Director of Reunion Giving 

Scott K. DuBois (1989) Assistant Director, Alumni Activities 

BA, Wake Forest and Student Programs 

Mia L. Eskridge (1988) Prospect Research Officer 

BA, Wake Forest 

Ben K. Hodge (1988) Corporate Relations Officer 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Kerry M. King (1989) Staff Writer 

BA, Wake Forest 

Molly Welles Lineberger (1983) Development Associate 

BA, Wake Forest 

Kay Doenges Lord (1985) Associate Director of Alumni Activities 

BA, Wake Forest 

Joanne F. O'Brien (1989) Director of Foundation Relations 

BS, Wake Forest 

Allen H. Patterson Jr. (1987) Director of Planned Giving 

BS, Wake Forest 



233 



Ruth DeLapp Sartin (1989) Prospect Research Officer 

BA, Wake Forest 

Robert Spinks (1989) Director of Development for Divinity School 

BA, Furman; MRE, New Orleans Baptist 
Theological Seminary; MA, Iowa 

Claudia A. Stitt (1978) Director of Records and Support Services 

BS, East Tennessee State 

Henry B. Stokes (1977) Director of Denominational Relations 

BA, Wake Forest; ThB, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

R. Bruce Thompson II (1988) Director of Law Alumni and Development 

BA, Wake Forest 

Robert D. Thompson (1982) Director of the Annual Fund 

BA, Wake Forest 

James G. Welsh Jr. (1987) Director of Alumni and Student Programs 

BA, Wake Forest 

Graylyn Conference Center 

Thomas P. Gilsenan (1985) General Manager and Director of the 

BS, California (Berkeley) Graylyn Conference Center 

Jane Rachlin (1979) Assistant Director of the Graylyn Conference Center 

Financial Resource Management 

John G. Williard (1958) Vice President for Financial 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); Resource Management and Treasurer 

CPA, North Carolina 

Libraries 

Rhoda K. Charming (1989) Director, Z. Smith Reynolds Library 

BA, Brooklyn; MS in LS, Columbia; MBA, Boston College 

John Via (1977) Assistant Director, Z. Smith Reynolds Library 

BA, Virginia; MS in LS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Charles M. Getchell, Jr. (1986) Assistant Director, Z. Smith Reynolds Library 

BA, Tulane; MA, Mississippi; MLS, Texas 

Thomas M. Steele (1985) Director of Law Library Services 

BA, Oklahoma State; MLS, Oregon; JD, Texas 

Jean B. Hopson (1970) Librarian of the Babcock Graduate 

BS in Ed, Murray State; MS in LS, School of Management 

George Peabody; MBA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) Director, Coy C. Carpenter Library, 

BA, MS in LS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) Bowman Gray School of Medicine 



234 



Athletics 

G. Eugene Hooks (1956) Director of Athletics 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
EdD, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) 

Dianne Dailey (1988) Director of Women's Athletics 

BA, Salem; MEd, North Carolina State 

Other Administrative Offices 

James P. Barefield (1963) Coordinator of the Honors Program 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Mary Jane Berman (1986) Director/Curator, Museum of Anthropology 

BA, Harpur; MA, PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Nicholas B. Bragg (1970) Executive Director of the Reynolda House 

BA, Wake Forest Museum of American Art 

Richard T. Clay Director of University Stores 

BBA, Wake Forest 

Julie Cole (1988) Director of Research and Sponsored Programs 

BS, MA, Appalachian 

Claudia R. Colhoun (1989) Assistant to the Provost 

BA, Sweet Briar; MA, Wake Forest 

Thomas M. Elmore (1962) Director of Counseling Program 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, George Peabody; PhD, Ohio State 

Victor Faccinto (1978) Director of the Art Gallery 

BA, MA, California State (Sacramento) 

Dirk Faude (1986) Education Certification Officer/Media Coordinator 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Montana State 

Brian Gorelick (1984) Director of Choral Ensembles 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); DMA, Illinois 

David W. Hadley (1966) Coordinator of London Programs 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Martin Province (1982) Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado and Director of Bands 

Richard D. Sears (1964) Director of International Studies 

BA, Clark; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Irene M. Smith (1985) Curator of Slides and Prints 

BA, MS, Horida State 

Ross Smith (1984) Debate Coach 

BA, Wake Forest 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) Director of Theatre 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Louisiana State 



235 



George William Trautwein (1983) 
BMus, Oberlin; 

MMus, Cleveland Institute of Music; 
MusD, Indiana 

Robert L. Utley Jr. (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD,. Duke 

Jody L. Walker (1986) 

BA, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 



Donald H. Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 



Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
and Director of the Secrest Artists Series 



Director of the Tocqueville Forum 
Study Abroad Adviser (International Studies) 
Associate Director of Theatre 




236 

The Undergraduate Faculties 

Date following name indicates year of appointment. 

John M. Aho (1988) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biology 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Exeter (England) 

Helen W. Akinc (1987) Adjunct Instructor in Business 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); (Part-time) 

MBA, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Umit Akinc (1982) Associate Professor of Business 

BS, Middle East Technical Institute (Turkey); 
MBA, Florida State; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Jane W. Albrecht (1987) Assistant Professor of Spanish 

BA, Wright State; MA, PhD, Indiana 

William T. Alderson (1990) Adjunct Professor of History 

AB, Colgate; MA, PhD, Vanderbilt (Spring 1990) 

Brian Allen (1977) Lecturer in Art History (London) 

BA, East Anglia; MA, PhD, London (Part-time) 

Nina Stromgren Allen (1984) Associate Professor of Biology 

BS, Wisconsin; MS, PhD, Maryland 

Ralph D. Amen (1962) Professor of Biology 

BA, MA, Northern Colorado; MBS, PhD, Colorado 

John L. Andronica (1969) Professor of Classical Languages 

BA, Holy Cross; MA, Boston College; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

John William Angell (1955) Easley Professor of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; STM, Andover Newton; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Maya Angelou (1982) Reynolds Professor of American Studies 

LittD, Smith, Lawrence, Columbia College (Chicago), 
Atlanta, Wheaton; LHD, Mills, Wake Forest, Occidental, 
Arkansas, Claremont, Kean 

Guy M. Arcuri (1989) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, North Carolina State; (Spanish) 

MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Salman Azhar (1989) Instructor in Computer Science 

BS, Wake Forest; MS, Duke 

E. Pendleton Banks (1954) Professor of Anthropology 

BA, Furman; AM, PhD, Harvard (Taiwan, Fall 1989) (Leave, Spring 1990) 

Sarah E. Barbour (1985) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Maryville; MA, Paris; PhD, Cornell (Leave, Spring 1990) 

Janice B. Bardsley (1989) Assistant Professor of Japanese 

BA, California (Davis); (Department of Romance Languages) 

MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 

James P. Barefield (1963) Professor of History 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins (Venice, Fall 1989) 



237 



Bernadine Barnes (1989) Assistant Professor of Art 

BA, Illinois (Urbana-Champaign); 
MA, Pittsburgh; PhD, Virginia 

Richard C. Barnett (1961) Professor of History 

BA, Wake Forest; MEd, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) (London, Fall 1989) 

John V. Baxley (1968) Professor of Mathematics 

BS, MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Wisconsin 

H. Kenneth Bechtel (1981) Assistant Professor of Sociology 

BA, MA, North Dakota; PhD, Southern Illinois 

Robert C. Beck (1959) Professor of Psychology 

BA, PhD, Illinois 

S. Douglas Beets (1987) Assistant Professor of Accountancy 

BS, Tennessee; MAcc, PhD, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Timothy D. Bent (1987) Assistant Professor of English 

AB, Cornell; MA, PhD, Harvard 

Donald B. Bergey (1978) Instructor in Health and Sport Science 

BS, MA, Wake Forest (Part-time) 

Mary Jane Berman (1986) Director/Curator of the Museum of Anthropology 

BA, Harpur; and Assistant Professor of Anthropology 

MA, PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Michael J. Berry (1985) Assistant Professor of Health and 

BS, Jacksonville State; Sport Science 

MA, Southeastern Louisiana; PhD, Texas A&M 

Deborah L. Best (1972, 1978) Professor of Psychology 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) (Leave, Spring 1990) 

Zanna Beswick (1987) Lecturer in English Dramatic Literature 

BA, Hons, Bristol (England) and Theatre (London) (Part-time) 

David Bindman (1977) Lecturer in Art History (London) 

BA, MA, Oxford; PhD, Courtauld (London) (Part-time) 

Mary Lucy Bivins (1985) Adjunct Instructor in SCTA* 

BA, Salem; MA, Wake Forest (Theatre Arts) (Part-time) 

Cheryl J. Block (1989) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, North Carolina State; (Spanish) 

MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Terry D. Blumenthal (1987) Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BS, Alberta (Edmonton); MS, PhD, Florida 

Susan Harden Borwick (1982) Professor of Music 

BM, BME, Baylor; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Stephen B. Boyd (1985) Assistant Professor of Religion 

BA, Tennessee; MDiv, ThD, Harvard Divinity School 

Debra Boyd-Buggs (1989) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Iowa; MA, Rutgers, PhD, Ohio State (French) 

*SCTA: Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 



238 



Anne Boyle (1986) 

BA, Wilkes College; MA, PhD, Rochester 



Robert W. Brehme (1959) 

BS, Roanoke; MS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Victoria Bridges (1987) 

BA, MA, Washington; PhD, Yale 

Linda Carter Brinson (1986) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 



Visiting Assistant Professor of English 
Professor of Physics 



Assistant Professor of French 
(Leave, 1989-90) 

Lecturer in Journalism 
(Part-time) 



Carole L. Browne (1980) 

BS, Hartford; PhD, Syracuse 

Robert A. Browne (1980) 

BS, MS, Dayton; PhD, Syracuse 

David B. Broyles (1966) 

BA, Chicago; BA, Florida; MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 

Julian C. Burroughs Jr. (1958) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Michigan 

Patricia H. Campbell (1989) 

BS, Texas; MA, Appalachian 

Daniel A. Canas (1987) 

BS, Tecnologico de Monterrey (Mexico); 
MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Richard D. Carmichael (1971) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Christa G. Carollo (1985) 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); MA, Duke 

John A. Carter Jr. (1961) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Stewart Carter (1982) 

BME, Kansas; MS, Illinois; PhD, Stanford 



Associate Professor of Biology 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Professor of Politics 

Professor of SCTA (Radio-TV-Film) 

Instructor in Education 

Assistant Professor of Computer Science 



Professor of Mathematics 

Lecturer in German 
(Part-time) 

Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Music 

Associate Professor of Psychology 



David W. Catron (1963) 

BA, Furman; PhD, George Peabody 

Sarah S. Catron (1989) Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BA, Furman; MA, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) (Part-time) 

PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) 



Dorothy J. Cattle (1989) 



BA, Washington; MA, PhD, New Mexico 

John C. Cheska (1989) 

BA, Amherst; MA, Massachusetts 

Jonathan Hugo Christman (1983) 
AB, Franklin and Marshall 

Maxine L. Clark (1980) 

BA, Cincinnati; AM, PhD, Illinois 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology 



Adjunct Instructor in Education 
(Part-time) 

Lecturer in SCTA (Theatre Arts) 
Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Psychology 
(Leave, 1989-90) 



239 



John E. Collins (1970) 

BS, MS, Tennessee; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; MA, PhD, Princeton 

William E. Conner (1988) 

BS, Notre Dame; MS, PhD, Cornell 

Jule M. Connolly (1985) 



Professor of Religion 



Associate Professor of Biology 



BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MEd, South Carolina 



Instructor in Mathematics 
(Part-time) 



Leon P. Cook Jr. (1957) Associate Professor of Accountancy 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; MS, Tennessee; CPA, Arkansas 



Nancy J. Cotton (1977) 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; PhD, Columbia 

Allin F. Cottrell (1989) 

BA, Oxford (Merton College); Phd, Edinburgh 

Patricia M. Cunningham (1978) 

BA, Rhode Island; MS, Florida State; 
EdS, Indiana State; PhD, Georgia 

James F. Curran (1988) 

BAAS, Delaware; MA, PhD, Rice 

Mary Michel Dalton (1986) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Sayeste A. Daser (1978) 

BA, Middle East Tech (Ankara); MS, Ege (Izmir); 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Huw M. L. Davies (1983) 

BSc, University College (Cardiff); PhD, East Anglia 

P. Candace Deans (1989) Assistant Professor of Business 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MEd, North Carolina State; 
MBA, East Carolina; PhD, South Carolina 

Mary K. DeShazer (1982, 1987) 
BA, Western Kentucky; 
MA, Louisville; PhD, Oregon 

James G. DeVoto (1988) 
BA, Holy Cross; 
MA, Washington University; PhD, Loyola 

Arun P. Dewasthali (1975) 

BS, Bombay; MS, PhD, Delaware 

Ronald V. Dimock Jr. (1970) 

BA, New Hampshire; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, California (Santa Barbara) 

Patricia Dixon (1986) 

BM, North Carolina School of the Arts; 
MM, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Kevin M. Doak (1989) 

BA, Quincy College, MA, PhD, Chicago 



Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

Professor of Education 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Instructor in SCTA 
(Radio-TV-Film) 

Associate Professor of Business 
Associate Professor of Chemistry 



Associate Professor of English 
and Women s Studies 



Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Classical Languages 

Associate Professor of Business 

Professor of Biology 



Instructor in Music 
(Part-time) 

Dana Faculty Fellow and 
Assistant Professor of History 



240 



James H. Dodding (1979) Visiting Lecturer in SCTA (Theatre) 

Diploma, Rose Bruford College of Speech and (Spring 1990) 

Drama (London); Cert., Birmingham University; 
Cert., Westhill Training College (Birmingham); 
Diploma, Theatre on the Balustrade (Prague) 

Thomas E. Dougherty Jr. (1977) Adjunct Associate Professor of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, PhD, Southern (Part-time) 

Baptist Theological Seminary 

Robert H. Dufort (1961) Professor of Psychology 

BA, PhD, Duke (Leave, Spring 1990) 

John S. Dunkelberg (1983) Associate Professor of Business 

BS, Clemson; MBA, PhD, South Carolina 

Yomi Durotoye (1989) Visiting Assistant Professor of Politics 

BS, University of Ibadan; MA, Georgia State; 
PhD, Duke 

John R. Earle (1963) Professor of Sociology 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Eddie V. Easley (1984) Professor of Business 

BS, Virginia; MS, PhD, Iowa State 

Paige Pettyjohn Edley (1990) Adjunct Instructor in SCTA 

BA, MA, Wake Forest (Communication/Rhetoric) (Spring 1990) 

C. Drew Edwards (1980) Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

BA, Furman; MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Florida State (Part-time) 

Leo Ellison Jr. (1957) Associate Professor of Health and Sport Science 

BS, MS, Northwestern State 

Thomas M. Elmore (1962) Professor of Education 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, George Peabody; PhD, Ohio State 

Gerald W. Esch (1965) Professor of Biology 

BS, Colorado College; MS, PhD, Oklahoma 

Paul D. Escort (1988) Professor of History 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Duke 

Andrew V. Ettin (1977) Associate Professor of English 

BA, Rutgers; MA, PhD, Washington (St. Louis) 

Herman E. Eure (1974) Associate Professor of Biology 

BS, Maryland State; PhD, Wake Forest 

David K. Evans (1966) Professor of Anthropology 

BS, Tulane; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Robert H. Evans (1983) Associate Professor of Education 

BA, Ohio Wesleyan; MS, New Hampshire; (Leave, 1989-90) 

PhD, Colorado 

Stephen Ewing (1971) Associate Professor of Business 

BS, Howard Payne; MBA, Baylor; PhD, Texas Tech 

David L. Faber (1984) Assistant Professor of Art 

AA, Elgin; BFA, Northern Illinois; MFA, Southern Illinois (Leave, Spring 1990) 



241 



Victor Faccinto (1981) 

BA, MA, California State (Sacramento) 

Philippe R. Falkenberg (1969) 

BA, Queens (Ontario); PhD, Duke 



Gallery Director and Lecturer in Art 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Psychology 



Ramiro Fernandez (1987) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Miami; MA, Middlebury College in Madrid; (Spanish) 

PhD, Temple 



Eric E. Fink (1986, 1988) 

BS, Davidson; MS, Virginia 



David Finn (1988) 

BS, Cornell; MFA, Massachusetts College of Art 

James C. Fishbein (1988) 

BA, Johns Hopkins; PhD, Brandeis 



Instructor in Mathematics and Computer Science 
Visiting Assistant Professor of Art 



Dana Faculty Fellow and 
Assistant Professor of Chemistry 



Susan M. Fisher (1987) Instructor in Health and Sport Science 

BS, SUNY (Cortland); 
MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Gloria J. Fitzgibbon (1989) Visiting Assistant Professor of History 

BA, PhD, California (Berkeley); MA, San Francisco State 

Jack D. Fleer (1964) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Michael J. Foote (1989) 

AB, Harvard; MS, PhD, Chicago 

Doyle R. Fosso (1964) 

AB, Harvard; MA, Michigan; PhD, Harvard 

Donald E. Frey (1972) 

BA, Wesleyan; MDiv, Yale; PhD, Princeton 

Mary Lusky Friedman (1987) 

BA, Wellesley; MA, PhD, Columbia 

Caroline Sandlin Fullerton (1969) 

BA, Rollins; MFA, Texas Christian 

N. Ganapathisubramanian (1986) 
BS, Madura College (India); 
MSc, PhD, Indian Institute of Technology (Madras) 



Professor of Politics 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Professor of English 

Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Spanish 

Lecturer in SCTA (Theatre Arts) 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 



Cynthia Gentry (1988) 

BA, Frostburg State; MA, PhD, Tulane 

Graham S. Gersdorff (1989) 
BS, Toronto; MA, Emory 

J. Whitfield Gibbons (1971) 

BS, MA, Alabama; PhD, Michigan State 

Elizabeth J. Giddens (1989) 
BA, MA, Tennessee 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology 

Instructor in Mathematics 

Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Assistant Professor of English and 
Director of the Writing Center 



242 



Michael J. T. Gilbert (1988) 

BA, Bucknell; MA, MM, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 

David M. Glass (1989) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Youngstown State; MA, Wake Forest; MA, Virginia (Spanish) 

Kathleen M. Glenn (1974) 
BA, MA, PhD, Stanford 

Thomas S. Goho (1977) 

BS, MBA, Pennsylvania State; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Balkrishna G. Gokhale (1960) 
BA, MA, PhD, Bombay 



Assistant Professor of German 



Professor of Romance Languages 
Associate Professor of Business 



Professor of History and Asian Studies 
(Leave, Fall 1989) 



Louis R. Goldstein (1979) 

BM, Oberlin; MFA, California Institute of the Arts; 
DMA, Eastman 



Associate Professor of Music 



Harold O. Goodman (1958) 
BA, MA, PhD, Minnesota 

Bobbie M. Goodnough (1987) 
BS, Winthrop; MEd, Toledo 

Brian L. Gorelick (1984) 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); DMA, Illinois 

Charles R. Grissom Jr. (1988) 

BS, North Carolina (Wilmington); 
MS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

David W. Hadley (1966) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 



Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Instructor in Health and Sport Science 

Director of Choral Ensembles 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics 



Claire Holton Hammond (1978) 

BA, Mary Washington; PhD, Virginia 

J. Daniel Hammond (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Virginia 

Phillip J. Hamrick Jr. (1956) 

BS, Morris Harvey; PhD, Duke 

Charles Hands (1988) 

BS, Winston-Salem State 

James S. Hans (1982) 

BA, MA, Southern Illinois; PhD, Washington 

Hanna M. Hardgrave (1985) 

BA, Brown; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Katy J. Harriger (1985) 

BA, Edinboro State; MA, PhD, Connecticut 

Catherine T. Harris (1980) 

BA, Lenoir Rhyne; MA, Duke; PhD, Georgia 



Professor of History 

Associate Professor of Russian 

Associate Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Economics 

Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Professor of English 

Lecturer in Philosophy 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Politics 
(Leave, Fall 1989) 



Professor of Sociology 



243 



Lucille S. Harris (1957) 
BA, BM, Meredith 

Negley Boyd Harte (1978) 

BS, London School of Economics 

Elmer K. Hayashi (1973) 
BA, California (Davis); 
MS, San Diego State; PhD, Illinois 

Michael D. Hazen (1974) 

BA, Seattle Pacific; MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, Kansas 

Terry C. Hazen (1988) 

BS, MS, Michigan State; PhD, Wake Forest 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern Baptist 

Theological Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt; LHD, Alabama (Birmingham) 



Instructor in Music 
(Part-time) 

Lecturer in History (London) 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 



Associate Professor of SCTA 
(Communication/Rhetoric) 



Adjunct Professor of Biology 
Professor of Philosophy 



Robert A. Hedin (1980) 

BA, Luther; MFA, Alaska 

Roger A. Hegstrom (1969) 

BA, St. Olaf; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Robert M. Helm (1940) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

J. Edwin Hendricks (1961) 

BA, Furman; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Marcus B. Hester (1963) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

David Allen Hills (1960) 

BA, Kansas; MA, PhD, Iowa 

Willie L. Hinze (1975) 

BS, MA, Sam Houston State; PhD, Texas A&M 

Alix Hitchcock (1989) 

BFA, North Carolina (Greensboro); MA, New York 

George M. Holzwarth (1983) 

BA, Wesleyan; MS, PhD, Harvard 

Natalie A. Holzwarth (1983) Assistant Professor of Physics 

BS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; PhD, Chicago 

Fred L. Horton Jr. (1970) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 

BD, Union Theological Seminary; PhD, Duke 

William L. Hottinger (1970) 

BS, Slippery Rock; MS, PhD, Illinois 

Frederic T. Howard (1966) 

BA, MA, Vanderbilt; PhD, Duke 



Poet-in-Residence 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Chemistry 

Worrell Professor of Philosophy 

Professor of History 

Professor of Philosophy 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Professor of Chemistry 

Visiting Instructor in Art 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Physics 



Professor of Religion 

Professor of Health and Sport Science 
Professor of Mathematics 



244 



Pamela Howland (1989) Visiting Assistant Professor of Music 

BM, MM, Wisconsin Conservatory of Music; (Part-time) 

DMA, Eastman School of Music 

Paul F. Huck (1989) Instructor in Economics 

BS, Marquette; MBA, Washington; MA, Northwestern 

Stephen J. Huebner (1989) Adjunct Instructor in Military Science 

BA, William and Mary; MA, Central Michigan 



Michael L. Hughes (1984) 



BA, Claremont McKenna; MA, PhD, California (Berkeley) 



Assistant Professor of History 



Susan Huxman (1987) 

BA, Bethel College; MA, PhD, Kansas 

Delmer P. Hylton (1949) 

BS, MBA, Indiana; CPA, Indiana 



Assistant Professor of SCLA 
(Communication/Rhetoric) 

Professor of Accountancy 



Kikuko T. Imamura (1985) 

Kyoto Women's College; BRE, RRA, Mennonite (Canada) 



Lecturer in Japanese 
(Part-time) 



Charles F. Jackels (1977) 

BChem, Minnesota; PhD, Washington 

Susan C. Jackels (1977) 

BA, Carleton; PhD, Washington 

Mordecai J. Jaffe (1980) 

BS, City College (New York); PhD, Cornell 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) 

BA, Winston-Salem State; MA, Wake Forest 

David J. John (1982) 

BS, Emory and Henry; MS, PhD, Emory 

W. Dillon Johnston (1973) 

BA, Vanderbilt; MA, Columbia; PhD, Virginia 

Bradley T. Jones (1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, Florida 

Peter Kairoff (1988) 

BA, California (San Diego); 
MM, DMA, Southern California 

Jay R. Kaplan (1981) 

BA, Swarthmore; MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Judith W. Kay (1988) 

BA, Oberlin; MA, Pacific School of 
Religion; PhD, Graduate Theological Union 

Horace O. Kelly, Jr. (1987) 
BA, MA, Baylor 

Judy K. Kem (1987) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Western Kentucky; MA, Louisville; (French) 

PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Associate Professor of Chemistry 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Chemistry 
(Part-time) 

Babcock Professor of Botany 
(Department of Biology) 

Lecturer in English 

Associate Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 

Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Music 



Adjunct Associate Professor of 
Anthropology/Psychology 

Assistant Professor of Religion 



Lecturer in Business 



245 



Charles H. Kennedy (1985) 

BA, Eckerd; AM, MPP, PhD, Duke 

Ralph C. Kennedy ffl (1976) 

BA, PhD, California (Berkeley) 

William C. Kerr (1970) 

BS, Wooster; PhD, Cornell 

Charles Jeffery Kinlaw (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MS, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Ellen E. Kirkman (1975) 

BA, Wooster; MA, MS, PhD, Michigan State 

Robert Knott (1975) 

BA, Stanford; MA, Illinois; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Dilip K. Kondepudi (1987) 

BS, Madras (India); MS, Indian Technology (Bombay); 
PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Ellen R. Kovner (1989) 

BA, Long Island; MA, New York 

Robin M. Kowalski (1989) 

BA, Furman; MA, Wake Forest 

Anna Krauth (1986) Instructor in Romance Languages 

Licence de Lettres, Licence dAnglais, Paris HI, Sorbonne; 
Maitrise de Lettres Modernes, Paris-Sorbonne; 
Diplome dTitudes Approfondies en litterature comparee, Paris-Sorbonne 

Philip Kuberski (1989) 

BA, MA, PhD, California (Irvine) 

Raymond E. Kuhn (1968) 

BS, Carson-Newman; PhD, Tennessee 

James Kuzmanovich (1972) 

BS, Rose Polytechnic; PhD, Wisconsin 



Associate Professor of Politics 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 
(Venice, Spring 1990) 

Professor of Physics 
Instructor in Philosophy 

Professor of Mathematics 
(Leave, 1989-90) 

Professor of Art 
Assistant Professor of Chemistry 



Instructor in English 
Instructor in Psychology 



Kelly B. Kyes (1989) 



BS, South Carolina (Coastal Carolina College) 
MS, PhD, Georgia 

Glenn M. Lail (1990) 
BA, Tennessee 

Hugo C. Lane (1973) 

Licenciate of the Biological Sciences, 
Doctorate of the Biological Sciences, Geneva 

Page H. Laughlin (1987) 

BA, Virginia; MFA, Rhode Island School of Design 

Michael S. Lawlor (1986) 

BA, Texas (Austin); PhD, Iowa State 

Stanley R. Lawson (1987) 

BA, Marshall; MEd, Alabama (Birmingham) 



Assistant Professor of English 
Professor of Biology 
Professor of Mathematics 
Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 



Instructor in Economics 
(Spring 1990) 

Associate Professor of Biology 



Assistant Professor of Art 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 



246 



Mark R. Leary (1985) 

BA, West Virginia Wesleyan; MA, PhD, Florida 

Hyun O. Lee (1989) 

BA, Hanyang University; MS, Iowa State 
PhD, Michigan State 

Wei-chin Lee (1987) 

BA, National Taiwan University; MA, PhD, Oregon 

Win-chiat Lee (1983) 

BA, Cornell; PhD, Princeton 

David B. Levy (1976) 

BM, MA, PhD, Eastman; PhD, Rochester 

Kathryn Levy (1988) 

BM, Eastman School of Music 

Charles M. Lewis (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt; ThM, Harvard 

Thomas P. Liebschutz (1987) 
BA, MA, Rochester; 
BHL, MAHL, Hebrew Union; DMin, Boston 



Associate Professor of Psychology 

Visiting Assistant Professor of SCIA 
(Communication/Rhetoric) 



Assistant Professor of Politics 

Assistant Professor of Philosophy 

Associate Professor of Music 

Instructor in Music 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Philosophy 

Visiting Lecturer in Religion 
(Part-time) 



Gregory A. Lilly (1987) 

BA, Washington & Lee; PhD, Duke 

John H. Litcher (1973) 

BS, Winona State; MA, PhD, Minnesota 

Liu Ning (1988) 

BA, Guangxi Teachers University (China) 

Dan S. Locklair (1982) 

BM, Mars Hill; SMM, Union Theological Seminary; 
DMA, Eastman 

Allan D. Louden (1977, 1985) 

BA, Montana State; MA, Montana 

Robert W. Lovett (1962, 1968) 

BA, Oglethorpe; MAT, PhD, Emory 

Gene T. Lucas (1967, 1986) 

BA, Phillips; MA, Denver 

Mark Lytal (1988) 

BA, Tennessee; MA, Duke 

Linda S. Maier (1987) 

AB, Washington; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Barry G. Maine (1981) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Allen Mandelbaum (1989) 

BA, Yeshiva; MA, PhD, Columbia 

Milorad R. Margitic (1978) 

MA, Leiden (Netherlands); PhD, Wayne State 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Economics 

Professor of Education 

Visiting Lecturer in Chinese 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Music 



Instructor in SCTA 
(Communication/Rhetoric) 

Professor of English 

Lecturer in Mathematics 

Instructor in English 

Assistant Professor of Spanish 

Associate Professor of English 

Kenan Professor of Humanities 

Professor of Romance Languages 



247 



Scott A. Marquardt (1986) 

BA, Santa Clara; MSEd, Southern California 

Dale R. Martin (1982) 

BS, MS, Illinois State; DBA, Kentucky 

James A. Martin (1983) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Duke; PhD, Columbia 

George Eric Matthews Jr. (1979) 

BS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

J. Gaylord May (1961) 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 



Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Associate Professor of Accountancy 

University Professor 

Associate Professor of Physics 

Professor of Mathematics 



Jo Whitten May (1972) Adjunct Professor of SCTA (Speech Pathology) 

BS, Virginia; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) (Part-time) 



W. Graham May (1961) 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 

JU1 Jordan McMillan (1983) 
BA, Baylor; PhD, Texas 

Dolly A. McPherson (1974) 

BA, Southern; MA, Boston University; PhD, Iowa 

Stephen Philip Messier (1981) 

BS, MS, Rhode Island; PhD, Temple 

William K. Meyers (1988) 

BA, University of Washington; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Joseph O. Milner (1969) 

BA, Davidson; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Carlton T. Mitchell (1961) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Yale; STM, Union Theological Seminary; 
PhD, New York 

G. Diane Mitchell (1983) 

BA, Salem; MAEd, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 



Professor of Mathematics 

Associate Professor of SCTA 
(Communication/Rhetoric) 

Associate Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Health 
and Sport Science 

Assistant Professor of History 

Professor of Education 

Professor of Religion 



John P. Modica (1989) 

BA, Marquette; MA, Oklahoma 

John C. Moorhouse (1969) 

BA, Wabash; PhD, Northwestern 



Lecturer in Education 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Military Science 
Professor of Economics 



Patrick E. Moran (1989) Assistant Professor of Chinese 

BA, MA, Stanford; (Department of Romance Languages) 

MA, National Taiwan University; PhD, Pennsylvania 



Carl C Moses (1964) 



Professor of Politics 



AB, William and Mary; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 
William M. Moss (1971) Associate Professor of English 



BA, Davidson; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 



(Leave, Fall 1989) 
Professor of History 



248 



Margaret Mulvey (1986) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biology 

BA, MS, Connecticut; PhD, Rutgers 

Stephen Murphy (1987) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Canisius; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) (French) 

Barbee C. Myers (1989) Assistant Professor of Health and Sport Science 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Tennessee 

Rebecca Myers (1981) Instructor in Health and Sport Science 

BS, MA, Ball State 

Robert E. Nalley (1989) Instructor in Education 

BA, California (Long Beach); MA, Adams State College 

Candelas M. Newton (1978) Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Salamanca (Spain); MA, PhD, Pittsburgh (Salamanca, Spring 1990) 

Linda N. Nielsen (1974) Associate Professor of Education 

BA, MS, EdD, Tennessee 

Ronald E. Noftle (1967) Professor of Chemistry 

BS, New Hampshire; PhD, Washington 

James L. Norris HI (1989) Instructor in Mathematics 

BS, MS (Science), MS (Statistics), North Carolina State 

Kathleen O'Quinn (1990) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, MA, South Carolina (Spanish) (Spring 1990) 

Juan Orbe (1987) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); (Spanish) 

MA, PhD, Michigan State (Leave, Spring 1990) 

Gillian Rose Overing (1979) Associate Professor of English 

BA, Lancaster (England); MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 

F. Jeanne Owen (1956) Professor of Business Law 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro); MCS, Indiana; 
JD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Karen L. Oxendine (1986) Adjunct Instructor in SCTA 

BS, Wayne State; (American Sign Language) 

MEd, North Carolina (Greensboro) (Part-time) 

Anthony S. Parent Jr. (1989) Assistant Professor of History 

BA, Loyola; MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 

Perry L. Patterson (1986) Assistant Professor of Economics 

BA, Indiana; MA, PhD, Northwestern (Leave, Spring 1990) 

Darwin R. Payne (1984) Adjunct Professor of SCTA (Theatre Arts) 

BS, MFA, Southern Illinois (Part-time) 

Willie Pearson Jr. (1980) Professor of Sociology 

BA, Wiley; MA, Atlanta; PhD, Southern Illinois (Carbondale) 

Mary L. B. Pendergraft (1988) Assistant Professor of Classical Languages 

BA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Philip J. Perricone (1967) Professor of Sociology 

BS, MA, Florida; PhD, Kentucky 



249 



Terisio Pignatti (1971) 
PhD, Padua 

Alton B. Pollard HI (1988) 

BA, Fisk; MDiv Harvard; PhD, Duke 

James T. PoweU (1988) 

BA, Emory; M Phil, MA, PhD, Yale 

Gregory D. Pritchard (1968) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; BD, Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; PhD, Columbia 

Martin R. Province (1982) 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado 

Jerry Pubantz (1990) 

BSFS, Georgetown (School of Foreign Service); 
MA, PhD, Duke 

Teresa Radomski (1977) 

BM, Eastman; MM, Colorado 

Bill Raines (1989) 

BA, Valdosta State; MA, Utah 

Mary Lynn B. Redmond (1989) 

BA, EdD, North Carolina (Greensboro); 
MEd, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

J. Don Reeves (1967) 

BA, Mercer; BD, ThM, Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; EdD, Columbia 

W. Jack Rejeski Jr. (1978) 

BS, Norwich; MA, PhD, Connecticut 

Paul M. Ribisl (1973) 

BS, Pittsburgh; MA, Kent State; PhD, Illinois 

Stephen H. Richardson (1963) 

BA, California; MS, PhD, Southern California 

Charles L. Richman (1968) 

BA, Virginia; MA, Yeshiva; PhD, Cincinnati 

Leonard P. Roberge (1974) 

BA, New Hampshire; MA, Atlanta; EdD, Maine 

Eva Marie Rodtwitt (1966) 

Cand Philol, Oslo (Norway) 

Andrea Rowland (1988) 

BA, James Madison; MA, Virginia 

William Rowland (1988) 

BA, Bucknell; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Henry W. Russell (1989) 

BA, Princeton; MA, South Carolina 



Professor of Art History (Venice) 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Religion 

Assistant Professor of Classical Languages 

Professor of Philosophy 



Assistant Director of 
Instrumental Ensembles 

Visiting Professor of Politics 
(Part-time, Spring 1990) 



Assistant Professor of Music 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Education 



Professor of Education 

Associate Professor of Health and 
Sport Science 

Professor of Health and Sport Science 

Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Professor of Psychology 
(Leave, 1989-90) 

Associate Professor of Education 

Lecturer in Romance Languages 
(Dijon, Fall 1989) 

Instructor in English 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Instructor in English 



250 



Wilmer D. Sanders (1954, 1964) 

BA, Muhlenberg; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Jennifer Sault (1984) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 



Professor of German 

Instructor in Italian 
(Part-time) 



James Ralph Scales (1967) Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MA, PhD, Oklahoma; 
LittD, Northern Michigan, Belmont Abbey; 
LLD, Alderson-Broadus, Duke 



Donald O. Schoonmaker (1965) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Marianne A. Schubert (1977) 
BA, Dayton; 
MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Katie Scott (1985) 

BA Hons., London 

Richard D. Sears (1964) 

BA, Clark; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Timothy F. Sellner (1970) 

BA, Michigan; MA, Wayne State; PhD, Michigan 

Michael Selmon (1988) 

AB, MS, Miami of Ohio; MA, PhD, Maryland 



Professor of Politics 
(Leave, Fall 1989) 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

and Lecturer in Education 

(Part-time) 

Assistant Lecturer in Art History (London) 

(Part-time) 

Professor of Politics 

Professor of German 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 



Catherine E. Seta (1987) 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 



BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Mark S. Sexton (1987) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Dudley Shapere (1984) 

BA, MA, PhD, Harvard 

Bynum G. Shaw (1965) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kurt C. Shaw (1987) 

AB, Missouri; MA, PhD, Kansas 

Walter W. Shaw (1987) 

BA, Berea; MA, Georgia 

Howard W. Shields (1958) 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MS, Pennsylvania State; PhD, Duke 

Carol A. Shively (1988) 

BA, Hiram; MA, PhD, California (Davis) 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) 

BA, Union; MA, PhD, Duke 

Taishen Siao (1989) Adjunct Instructor in SCTA (Communication/Rhetoric) 

BA, Vermont; MA, Wake Forest (Fall 1989) 



Reynolds Professor of Philosophy and 
History of Science 

Professor of Journalism 

Assistant Professor of German and Russian 

Instructor in Spanish 

Professor of Physics 



Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Professor of English 



251 



Gale Sigal (1987) 

BA, City College (New York); MA, Fordham; 
PhD, CUNY (Graduate Center) 

Wayne L. Silver (1985) 

BA, Pennsylvania; PhD, Florida State 

Ellen L. Simms (1989) 

BA, MA, California (Santa Barbara); PhD, Duke 

Michael L. Sinclair (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Stanford 

Yuri Slezkine (1989) 

MA, University of Moscow; PhD, Texas 



Assistant Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Professor of History 
(Leave, 1989-90) 

Assistant Professor of History 



Linda E. Sloan (1985) 



BA, Rochester; MAT, Tufts; 

MFA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

David L. Smiley (1950) 

BA, MA, Baylor; PhD, Wisconsin 

Alison T. Smith (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Dale T. Smith (1989) 

BA, Alabama (Birrningham); MS, Georgia Tech 

J. Howell Smith (1965) 

BA, Baylor; MA, Tulane; PhD, Wisconsin 

Kathleen B. Smith (1981) 

BA, Baldwin-Wallace; MA, PhD, Purdue 

Margaret Supplee Smith (1979) 

BS, Missouri; MA, Case Western Reserve; PhD, Brown 



Adjunct Instructor in SCTA (Communication/Rhetoric) 



(Part-time) 

Professor of History 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(French) (Spring 1990) 

Instructor in Mathematics 

Professor of History 

Associate Professor of Politics 

Professor of Art 
(Leave, Fall 1989) 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Lecturer in Accountancy 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Part-time, Venice) 

Martha Swann (1989) Visiting Assistant Professor of Politics 

BA, MA, Central Florida; MS, Florida State; (Part-time, Fall 1989) 

MEd, Florida A&M; PhD, Misissippi 

Charles H. Talbert (1963) Wake Forest Professor of Religion 

BA, Howard; BD, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary; (London, Spring 1990) 
PhD, Vanderbilt 

Betty M. Tang (1988) Assistant Professor of Mathematics 

BA, Kirkland; PhD, Southern California (Leave, 1989-90) 



Cecilia H. Solano (1977) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Johns Hopkins 

DeLeon E. Stokes (1982) 

BA, Duke; MBA, Michigan; CPA, North Carolina 

Anna-Vera Sullam (1972) 
BA, Padua 



252 



Ian M. Taplin (1985) Assistant Professor of Sociology 

The College of Architecture, Oxford (England); (Leave, Fall 1989) 

BA, York (England); MPhil, Leicester (England); PhD, Brown 

Thomas C. Taylor (1971) Professor of Accountancy 

BS, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
PhD, Louisiana State; CPA, North Carolina 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) Professor of SCTA (Theatre Arts) 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Louisiana State 

Stanton K. Tefft (1964) Professor of Anthropology 

BA, Michigan State; MS, Wisconsin; PhD, Minnesota 

Claudia Newel Thomas (1986) Assistant Professor of English 

BA, Notre Dame; MA, Virginia; PhD, Brandeis 

Olive S. Thomas (1978) Lecturer in Accountancy 

BS, Wake Forest; MBA, North Carolina (Greensboro); 
CPA, North Carolina 

Stan J. Thomas (1983) Associate Professor of Computer Science 

BS, Davidson; PhD, Vanderbilt (Leave, 1989-90) 

William Albert Thomas (1983) Assistant Professor of Biology 

BA, Hamilton; MS, PhD, Princeton 

Harry B. Titus Jr. (1981) Associate Professor of Art 

BA, Wisconsin (Milwaukee); MFA, PhD, Princeton 

Todd C. Torgersen (1989) Dana Faculty Fellow and Assistant 

BS, MS, Syracuse; PhD, Delaware Professor of Computer Science 

Ralph B. Tower (1980) Associate Professor of Accountancy 

BA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); (Leave, 1989-90) 

MBA, Cornell 

Florence Toy (1988) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Lenoir Rhyne; MA, Michigan 

George William Trautwein (1983) Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

BMus, Oberlin; MMus, Cleveland Institute; (Leave, 1989-90) 

MusD, Indiana 

Jimmy Turner III (1985) Instructor in Chemistry 

AS, Danville Community; BS, Averett; MS, Wake Forest 

Robert W Ulery Jr. (1971) Professor of Classical Languages 

BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Robert L. Utley Jr. (1978) Associate Professor of Humanities 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Antonio Carlo Vitti (1986) Dana Faculty Fellow and Assistant 

BA, MA, Wayne State; PhD, Michigan Professor of Romance Languages 

Marcellus E. Waddill (1962) Professor of Mathematics 

BA, Hampden-Sydney; MA, PhD, Pittsburgh (Leave, Fall 1989) 



253 



J. Van Wagstaff (1964) Professor of Economics 

BA, Randolph-Macon; MBA, Rutgers; PhD, Virginia 

Susan B. Wallace (1986) Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BA, Howard; MA, Boston University; PhD, Pittsburgh (Part-time) 

Sarah L. Watts (1987) Assistant Professor of History 

BA, Oklahoma College of Liberal Arts; MA, PhD, Oklahoma (Leave, 1989-90) 

Lecturer in SCIA (Theatre Arts) 
(Part-time) 



Mary R. Wayne (1980) 

BFA, Pennsylvania State; MFA, Ohio State 

David S. Weaver (1977) 

BA, MA, Arizona; PhD, New Mexico 

Peter D. Weigl (1968) 

BA, Williams; PhD, Duke 



Professor of Anthropology 
Professor of Biology 



Kari Weil (1985) 

BA, Cornell; MA, PhD, Princeton 

David P. Weinstein (1989) 

BA, Colorado College; MA, Connecticut; 
PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Mark E. Welker (1987) 



Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 
(Leave, Spring 1990) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Politics 



Assistant Professor of Chemistry 



BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Florida State 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 



Byron R. WeUs (1981) 

BA, MA, Georgia; PhD, Columbia 

Larry E. West (1969) 

BA, Berea; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. (1989) 

BS, Bob Jones University; PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Alan J. Williams (1974) 

BA, Stanford; PhD, Yale 

George P. Williams Jr. (1958) 

BS, Richmond; MS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

John E. Williams (1959) 

BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, Iowa 

Richard T. Williams (1985) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Frank M. Williamson (1989) 

BA, Newberry; MEd, South Carolina 



David C. Wilson (1984, 1987) 

BS, Wake Forest; MAT, Emory 

Edwin Graves Wilson (1946, 1951) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Donald H. Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 



Professor of German 

Associate Professor of Accountancy 

Professor of History 

Professor of Physics 

Professor of Psychology 

Reynolds Professor of Physics 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Instructor in Mathematics 
(Part-time) 

Professor of English 
Professor of SCIA (Theatre Arts) 



254 



Frank B. Wood (1971) Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; (Part-time) 

MDiv, Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary; PhD, Duke 

Reynolds Professor of Economics 
(Leave, 1989-90) 



John H. Wood (1985) 

BS, Ohio; MA, Michigan State; PhD, Purdue 



Ralph C. Wood Jr. (1971) 

BA, MA, East Texas State; MA, PhD, Chicago 

J. Ned Woodall (1969) 

BA, MA, Texas; PhD, Southern Methodist 

Beverly Wright (1989) 

BA, Grambling State; MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 

Raymond L. Wyatt (1956) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Carol Zinn (1988) 

BS, Chestnut Hill; MA, St. Bonaventure 

Richard L. Zuber (1962) 

BS, Appalachian; MA, Emory; PhD, Duke 



Professor of Religion 

Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Sociology 

Professor of Biology 



Instructor in Religion 
(Part-time) 

Professor of History 




Magnolia trees are a distinctive feature of the campus. 



255 

EMERITI 



Dates following names indicate period of service. 

Charles M. Allen (1941-1989) Professor Emeritus of Biology 

BS, MS, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Harold M. Barrow (1948-1977) Professor Emeritus of Physical Education 

BA, Westminster; MA, Missouri; PED, Indiana 

Merrill G. Berthrong (1964-1989) Director of Libraries Emeritus 

BA, Tufts; MA, Fletcher; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Germaine Bree (1973-1985) Kenan Professor Emerita of Humanities 

Licence, EES, Agregation, Paris; LittD, Smith, Mount Holyoke, 
Alleghany, Duke, Oberlin, Dickinson, Rutgers, Wake Forest, 
Brown, Wisconsin (Milwaukee), New York, Massachusetts, 
Kalamazoo, Washington (St. Louis), University of the South, 
Boston, Wisconsin (Madison); LHD, Wilson, Colby, Michigan, 
Davis and Elkins; LLD, Middlebury 

Dalma Adolph Brown (1941-1973) Professor Emeritus of English 

BA, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

George McLeod Bryan (1956-1987) Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; BD, PhD, Yale 

Shasta M. Bryant (1966-1987) Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Ruth F. Campbell (1962-1974) Professor Emerita of Spanish 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); 
MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Duke 

Robert L. Carlson (1969-1987) Professor Emeritus of Management 

BS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 
MBA, PhD, Stanford 

Dorothy Casey (1949-1988) Associate Professor Emerita of Health 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro) and Sports Science 

MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Cyclone Covey (1968-1988) Professor Emeritus of History 

BA, PhD, Stanford 

Marjorie Crisp (1947-1977) Associate Professor Emerita 

BS, Appalachian; MA, George Peabody of Physical Education 

Hugh William Divine (1954-1979) Professor Emeritus of Law 

BS, Georgia; MA, Louisiana State; JD, Emory; 
LLM, SJD, Michigan 

Robert Allen Dyer (1956-1983) Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, Louisiana State; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

J. Allen Easley (1928-1963) Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, Furman; ThM, Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; DD, Furman 



256 



Walter S. Flory (1963-1980) Babcock Professor Emeritus of Biology 

BA, Bridgewater; MA, PhD, Virginia; ScD, Bridgewater 

Ralph S. Fraser (1962-1988) Professor Emeritus of German 

BA, Boston University; MA, Syracuse; PhD, Illinois 

Ivey C. Gentry (1949-1989) Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 

BS, Wake Forest; BS, New York; MA, PhD, Duke 

Christopher Giles (1951-1988) Associate Professor Emeritus of Music 

BS, Florida Southern; MA, George Peabody 

Thomas F. Gossett (1967-1987) Professor Emeritus of English 

BA, MA, Southern Methodist; PhD, Minnesota 

George J. Griffin (1948-1981) Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; ThB, Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; BD, Yale; PhD, Edinburgh 

Paul M. Gross Jr. (1959-1987) Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

BS, Duke; PhD, Brown 

William H. Gulley (1966-1987) Professor Emeritus of Sociology 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Emmett Willard Hamrick (1952-1988) Albritton Professor Emeritus 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Duke of Religion 

Carl V. Harris (1956-1989) Professor Emeritus of Classical Languages 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, STM, Yale; PhD, Duke 

Ralph Cyrus Heath (1954-1969) Professor Emeritus of Marketing 

BA, Princeton; MBA, DBA, Indiana 

Lois Johnson (1942-1962) Dean of Women Emerita 

BA, Meredith; MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Alonzo W Kenion (1956-1983) Professor Emeritus of English 

BA, MA, PhD, Duke 

Harry L. King Jr. (1960-1981) Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 

BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Robert E. Lee (1946-1977) Professor Emeritus of Law and 

BS, LLD, Wake Forest; Dean Emeritus of the School of Law 

MA, Columbia; LLM, SJD, Duke 

Jasper L. Memory Jr. (1929-1971) Professor Emeritus of Education 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Columbia 

Harry B. Miller (1947-1983) Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

BS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

John W Nowell (1945-1987) Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

James C. O'Flaherty (1947-1984) Professor Emeritus of German 

BA, Georgetown; MA, Kentucky; PhD, Chicago 

A. Thomas Olive (1961-1988) Associate Professor Emeritus of Biology 

BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, North Carolina State 



257 



John E. Parker, Jr. (1950-1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Syracuse 

Clarence H. Patrick (1946-1978) 



BA, Wake Forest; BD, Andover Newton; PhD, Duke 

Percival Perry (1939, 1947-1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Rutgers; PhD, Duke 

Elizabeth Phillips (1957-1989) 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); MA, Iowa; 
PhD, Pennsylvania 

Lee Harris Potter (1965-1989) 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Herman J. Preseren (1953-1983) 

BS, California State (Pennsylvania); MA, Columbia; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Beulah L. Raynor (1946-1979) 

BA, East Carolina; MA, Wake Forest 

Mark H. Reece (1956-1988) 
BS, Wake Forest 

C. H. Richards Jr. (1952-1985) 

BA, Texas Christian; MA, PhD, Duke 

Mary Frances Robinson (1952-1989) 
BA, Wilson; MA, PhD, Syracuse 

Paul S. Robinson (1952-1977) 



Professor Emeritus of Education 
and Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Sociology 

Professor Emeritus of History 

Professor Emerita of English 

Professor Emeritus of English 
Professor Emeritus of Education 



BA, Westminster; BM, Curtis; MSM, DSM, Union Seminary 



Associate Professor Emerita of English 

Dean of Students Emeritus 

Professor Emeritus of Politics 

Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Music 



John W. Sawyer Jr. (1956-1988) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Missouri 

James Ralph Scales (1967-1983) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MA, PhD, Oklahoma; 
LittD, Northern Michigan, Belmont Abbey; 
LLD, Alderson-Broaddus; LLD, Duke 

Ben M. Seelbinder (1959-1988) 
BA, Mississippi Delta State; 
MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Richard L. Shoemaker (1950-1982) Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 

BA, Colgate; MA, Syracuse; PhD, Virginia 

Blanche C. Speer (1972-1984) 

BA, Howard Payne; MA, PhD, Colorado 

Henry Smith Stroupe (1937-1984) 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Anne S. Tillett (1956-1986) Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Vanderbilt; PhD, Northwestern 

Lowell R. Tillett (1956-1989) Professor Emeritus of History 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Columbia; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 
and Computer Science 

President Emeritus 



Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 



Associate Professor Emerita of Linguistics 
Professor Emeritus of History 



258 



Carlton P. West (1928-1975) Librarian Emeritus 

BA, Boston; MA, Yale; BA in LS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

W. Buck Yearns Jr. (1945-1988) Professor Emeritus of History 

BA, Duke; MA, Georgia; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 




English Professor W. Dillon Johnston conducts a seminar on British Poetry 



259 

The Committees of the Faculty 

September 1, 1990 

The terms of members, except where otherwise shown, expire on August 31 of the 
year indicated. Each committee selects its own chair except where the chair is desig- 
nated. All members of a committee vote except as otherwise indicated. 



Executive Committees 

The Committee on Academic Affairs 

Non-voting. Dean of student services, associate deans of the College, and one under- 
graduate student. Voting. Dean of the College; 1993 Robert W. Brehme, Claudia N. 
Thomas; 1992 Susan Jackels, Byron R. Wells; 1991 Robert C. Beck, Herman E. Eure; 
and one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Admission 

Non-voting. Director of admissions, two members from the administrative staff of the 
Office of the Dean of the College, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of 
the College; 1993 Carole L. Browne, George M. Holzworth; 1992 Ralph C. Kennedy 
in, Donald H. Wolfe; 1991 Michael D. Hazen, Ellen E. Kirkman; and one under- 
graduate student. 

The Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid 

Non-voting. One undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, director of 
admissions and financial aid, two members from the administrative staff of the Office 
of the Dean of the College; 1993 David W. Hadley, Kari Weil; 1992 Stephen Ewing, 
Jill J. McMillan; 1991 Susan S. Huxman, Donald Schoonmaker; and one undergraduate 
student. 

The Committee on Curriculum 

Voting. Provost, dean of the College, dean of the School of Business and Accountan- 
cy, registrar, and the chairperson of each department of the College as follows: Division 
I. Art, Classical Languages, English, German and Russian, Music, Romance Lan- 
guages, Speech Communication and Theatre Arts. Division II. Biology, Chemistry, 
Health and Sport Science, Mathematics and Computer Science, Physics. Division III. 
Education, History, Military Science, Philosophy, Religion. Division TV. Anthropolo- 
gy, Economics, Politics, Psychology, Sociology. (School of Business and Accountan- 
cy is included in Division W for administrative purposes.) 



260 



Advisory Committees 

The Committee on Academic Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, and one un- 
dergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, director of the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Library, one undergraduate student, and 1994 Roger A. Hegstrom, Milorad R. Margitic; 
1993 Alan J. Williams, Cecilia Solano; 1992 Teresa Radomski, Natalie Holzwarth; 1991 
Win-chiat Lee, Philip J. Perricone. 

The Committee on Athletics 

Non-voting. Director of athletics. Voting. Vice president and treasurer, dean of the 
College, faculty representative to the Atlantic Coast Conference, and 1995 Ronald 
V. Dimock, Howard W. Shields; 1994 Robert Knott, Ronald E. Noftle; 1993 Richard 
D. Carmichael, Robert N. Shorter; 1992 J. Daniel Hammond, George E. Matthews 
Jr.; 1991 Eddie V. Easley, Linda N. Nielsen. 

The Committee on Institutional Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, vice president and treasurer, vice president for administration 
and planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, dean 
of the School of Business and Accountancy, one undergraduate student, and 1994 
James Kuzmanovich, Robert W. Ulery Jr.; 1993 Patricia M. Cunningham, H. Kenneth 
Bechtel; 1992 Harry B. Titus Jr., Fredric T. Howard; 1991 Arun P. Dewasthali, J. Edwin 
Hendricks Jr., J. Van Wagstaff. 

The Committee on Nominations 

Voting. 1993 Deborah L. Best, Peter D. Weigl; 1992 Margaret S. Smith, Marcellus 
Waddill, Thomas Goho; 1991 Paul M. Ribisl, Larry E. West. 

The Committee on Library Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, dean of the Graduate School, one faculty representative from 
the Committee on Academic Planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. One 
faculty representative from each academic department of the College, Dean of the 
College, one faculty representative from the School of Business and Accountancy, 
the director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, and one undergraduate student. 

Special Committees 

The Committee on Publications 

Voting. Dean of the College, vice president and treasurer, university editor, three faculty 
advisers of Old Gold and Black, The Student, and the Howler, and 1993 Paul Escort; 
1992 Gillian R. Overing; 1991 James S. Hans. 



261 



The Committee for Teacher Education 

Voting. Dean of the College, dean of the Graduate School, chairperson of the Depart- 
ment of Education, and 1993 Mary Friedman, Ralph Wood; 1992 John V. Baxley, David 
L. Smiley; 1991 Ralph D. Amen, Claudia N. Thomas. 

The Committee on Honors 

Non-voting. One student from the College. Voting. Dean of the College, the coordina- 
tor of the Honors Program, one student from the College, and 1994 Perry L. Patterson; 
1993 Timothy F. Sellner; 1992 Ralph C. Kennedy; 1991 Robert A. Browne. 

The Committee of Lower Division Advisers 

Dean of the College, chairperson of the lower division advisers, and members of the 
faculty who are appointed as advisers to the Lower Division. 

The Committee on Orientation 

Dean of the College, chairperson of the lower division advisers, who shall serve as 
chairperson, dean of students, a designated member of the administrative staff, presi- 
dent of the Student Government or a representative, and other persons from the 
administration and student body whom the chair shall invite to serve. 

The Committee on Records and Information 

Non-voting. Registrar. Voting. Dean of the College, archivist, who shall be secretary, 
vice-chairperson of the faculty, secretary of the faculty, and 1993 Dolly McPherson; 
1992 Gene Lucas; 1991 Sayeste A. Daser. 

The Committee on Open Curriculum 

Dean of the College, 1994 John V. Baxley, Robert H. Evans; 1993 Mary DeShazer, 
Ian M. Taplin; 1992 Wayne L. Silver, Sarah L. Watts; 1991 Charles H. Kennedy, Brian 
L. Gorelick. 

The Committee for the ROTC 

Voting. Dean of the College, ROTC coordinator, professor of military science, and 1993 
Leo Ellison; 1992 Stan J. Thomas; 1991 Charles M. Lewis. 



Joint Faculty/Administration Committees 

The Joint Admissions Committee 

Dean of the College, director of admissions and financial aid, provost, Susan H. 
Borwick, David K. Evans, Donald H. Wolfe. 



262 



The Judicial Council 

Administration. 1992 Kenneth A. Zick. Alternate. 1994 Patricia A. Johansson. Faculty. 
1995 Candelas Newton; 1994 Stewart Carter; 1993 John R. Earle; 1992 Eddie V. Easley; 
1991 Carl C. Moses. Alternate. 1994 Leonard Roberge; 1992 Katy Harriger. Two students 
from the College and one student alternate. 

The Committee on Student Life 

Dean of the College or his designate, dean of students, a designated member of the 
administration. 1993 Mark Leary; 1992 Dale R. Martin; 1991 Michael D. Hazen; and 
three undergraduate students. 



Other Faculty Assignments 

Faculty Advisers to the Honor Council 

1992 James T. Powell; 1991 David B. Levy 

Faculty Advisers to the Student Judicial Board 

1992 Kathy B. Smith; 1991 John H. Litcher 

Faculty Marshals 

John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, 
Carlton T. Mitchell, Catherine T. Harris 

University Senate 

President, provost, vice president for administration and planning, vice president 
for public affairs, vice president for legal affairs, vice president for health affairs and 
executive dean of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, vice president for university 
relations, vice president for financial resource management and treasurer, vice presi- 
dent for student life and instructional resources, dean of the College, dean of the 
School of Business and Accountancy, dean of the Graduate School, dean of the School 
of Law, dean of the Babcock Graduate School of Management, director of the Z. Smith 
Reynolds Library, and the following: 

Representatives of the College: 1994 Donald E. Frey, Jill J. McMillan, Harry B. Titus Jr.; 
1993 Raymond E. Kuhn, Gillian R. Overing, and Walter J. Rejeski; 1992 John L. 
Andronica, Kathleen M. Glenn, and Susan Jackels; 1991 Susan H. Borwick, John 
C. Moorhouse, Gregory D. Pritchard. 

Representatives of the School of Business and Accountancy: 1992 Sayeste A. Daser; 1991 
Umit Akinc. 

Representatives of the Graduate School: 1993 Huw Davies; 1992 David Weaver; 1991 James 
C. Rose. 



263 



Representatives of the School of Law: 1993 Thomas E. Roberts; 1992 J. Wilson Parker; 

1991 Arthur R. Gaudio. 

Representatives of the Babcock Graduate School of Management: 1993 Robert W. Shively; 
199 J. Kendall Middaugh. 

Representatives of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine: 1993 Inglis J. Miller Jr.; 1992 Jack 
W. Strandhoy; 1991 Frederic R. Kahl, W. Frederick McGuirt, Charles S. Turner. 

Institutional Review Board 

Director of Research and Sponsored Programs, University Counsel (consultant), and 

1992 Daniel Frankel, Robert Jones, Ellen L. Simms. 




264 



Index 



Academic Awards, 27 
Academic Calendar, 2, 39 
Accountancy, 200 
Accreditation, 12 
Administration, 225 
Admission Deposit, 35, 36 
Admission Requirements, 34 
Advanced Placement, 36 
Advising, 39 
Advisory Council, School of 

Business and Accountancy, 224 
Anthropology, 77 
Application for Admission, 34 
Applied Music Fees, 38 
Art, 80 

Art History, 81 
Artists Series, Secrest, 30 
Asian Studies, 84 
Athletic Awards, 29 
Athletic Scholarships, 29 
Athletics, 28 

Attendance Requirement, 40 
Auditing Courses, 41 
Babcock Graduate School of 

Management, 8 
Basic Course Requirements, 66 
Biology, 86 

Board of Trustees, 220 
Board of Visitors, 222 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 8 
Buildings and Grounds, 9 
Business, 197 

Business and Accountancy, 8, 194 
Calendar, 2 
Campus Ministry, 29 
Career Planning and Placement, 31 
Carswell Scholarships, 48 
Case Referral Panel, 25 
Charges, 35-38 
Chemistry, 91 
China, Study in, 63 
Chinese, 84, 180 
Class Attendance, 40 



Classical Languages, 94 

Classics, 96 

Classification, 40 

CLEP, 36 

Clubs, 27 

College History and Development, 17 

Combined Degrees, 73 

Committees of the Faculty, 259 

Communication/Rhetoric, 187 

Computer Center, 10 

Computer Science, 134 

Concessions, 59 

Counseling Center, 31 

Course Numbers, 77 

Course Repetition, 43 

Courses of Instruction, 77 

Cultural Activities, 30 

Dance, 118 

Dean's List, 43 

Debate, 30 

Degree Requirements, 65 

Degrees, 65 

Degrees Conferred, 202 

Dentistry Degree, 75 

Dijon Semester (University of 

Burgundy), 63, 175 
Divisional Course Requirements, 66 
Double Majors, 70 
Dropping a Course, 41 
Early Decision, 35 
East European Studies, 72 
Economics, 98 
Education, 102 
Educational Planning, 31 
Emeriti, 255 
Engineering Degree, 75 
English, 108 

English, Proficiency in the Use of, 68 
Enrollment, 217 
Examinations, 42 
Exchange Scholarships, 58 
Expenses, 36 
Faculties, Undergraduate, 236 



265 



Fees, 36 

Federal Financial Aid Programs, 56 

Fields of Study, 65 

Financial Aid, 47 

Food Services, 37 

Foreign Area Studies, 62, 71 

Forestry and Environmental Studies 

Degree, 76 
Fraternities, 26 
French, 172 

French Semester, 63, 175 
General Requirements, 65 
Geographic Distribution, 218-219 
German, 114 
German Studies, 72 
Grade Reports, 43 
Grading System, 42 
Graduate School, 8 
Graduation Distinctions, 43 
Greek, 95 

Handicapped Students, Admission of, 35 
Hankins Scholarships, 48 
Health and Sport Science, 118 
Health and Sport Science 

Requirement, 68, 118 
Health Education Program, 32 
Health Service, 32 
Hebrew, 170 
History, 123 
Honor Council, 25 
Honor Societies, 27, 215 
Honor System, 24 
Honors Study, 61, 215 
Housing, 39 
Humanities, 128 
Incomplete Grades, 42 
Institute of European Studies, 63 
Intercollegiate Athletics, 28 
Interdisciplinary Honors, 131 
Interdisciplinary Minors, 70 
Interfraternity Council, 26 
Intersociety Council, 26 
Intramural Athletics, 28 
International Studies, 62 
International Study, Office of, 62 



Italian, 180 

Italian Studies, 72 

Japanese, 85, 181 

Joint Majors, 70 

Journalism, 110 

Judicial Council, 25 

Latin, 95 

Latin American Studies, 72 

Law, Combined Degrees, 73 

Law School, 8 

Learning Assistance Program, 32 

Libraries, 11 

Loans, 58 

London Semester, 62 

Major Requirements, Options, 69 

Majors, 68 

Management School, 8 

Mathematical Economics, 98, 134 

Mathematics, 134 

Maximum Number of Courses, 69 

Medical School, 8 

Medical Sciences, Combined 

Degrees, 73 
Medical Technology, Combined 

Degrees, 74 
Microbiology Degree, 75 
Military Science, 139 
Ministerial Concessions, 60 
Minor in Cultural Resource 

Preservation, 70 
Minor in International Studies, 70 
Minor in Women's Studies, 71 
Minority Affairs, Office of, 32 
Minors, 70 
Mortar Board, 27 
Music, 141 

Music Education, 144 
Music Ensemble, 145 
Music History, 143 
Music Theory, 142 
Natural Sciences, 148 
North Carolina Student Incentive 

Grants, 54 
Omicron Delta Kappa, 27, 215 
Open Curriculum, 61 



266 



Orientation, 39 

Other Opportunities Abroad, 64 

Part-Time Students, 40 

Pass/Fail Grades, 42 

Pell Grants, 56 

Phi Beta Kappa, 27, 215 

Philosophy, 148 

Physician Assistant Program 

Degree, 74 
Physics, 152 
Placement Service, 31 
Politics, 155 
Portuguese, 181 
Probation, 44 
Procedures, 34 
Professional Fraternities, 27 
Professional Schools, 8 
Psychological Services, 31 
Psychology, 161 
Publications, 30 
Purpose, Statement of, 15 
Radio Stations, 30 
Radio/Television/Film, 189 
Readmission Requirements, 45 
Recognition, 12 
Refunds, 38 
Registration, 39 
Religion, 165 
Religious Activities, 29 
Repetition of Courses, 43 
Requirements for Continuation, 44 
Requirements for Degrees, 65 
Residence Hall Charges, 37, 39 
Resident Student Association, 26 
Residential Language Centers, 62 
Reynolds Scholarships, 47 
Romance Languages, 171 
Room Charges, 37 
ROTC, 29, 139 
ROTC Graduates, 214 
Russian, 114 

Salamanca Semester, 63, 179 
Salem College Study, 61 
Scholarships, 47 
School of Business and 

Accountancy, 194 



School of Business and Accountancy 

Advisory Council, 224 
School of Law, 8 
Secrest Artists Series, 30 
Senior Testing, 72 
Societies, Social, 26 
Sociology, 182 
Spanish, 176 

Spanish Semester, 63, 179 
Spanish Studies, 72 
Special Programs, 61 
Speech Communication and 

Theatre Arts, 186 
Student/ Student Spouse 

Employment, 60 
Student Government, 24 
Student Health Service, 32 
Student Judicial Board, 25 
Student Legislature, 24 
Student Life, 24 
Student Publications, 30 
Student Union, 26 
Studio Art, 83 
Study Abroad, 62 
Summer Session, 46 
Summer Study Elsewhere, 46 
Teaching Area Requirements, 103 
Theatre Arts, 190 
Transcripts, 43 
Transfer Credit, 36, 46 
Transfer Students, Admission of, 36 
Trustees, 220 
Tuition, 37 

Undergraduate Faculties, 236 
Undergraduate Schools, 14 
University, 8 
Vehicle Registration, 38 
Venice Semester, 63, 181 
Veterans Benefits, 60 
Visitors, Board of, 222 
WAKE Radio (AM), 30 
WFDD (FM), 30 

Withdrawal from the College, 41 
Women's Studies, 71 
Work/ Study Program, 57 



Bulletins of Wake Forest University 



The Undergraduate Schools 

Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

7305 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

(919) 759-5201 

The Graduate School 

Dean of the Graduate School 

7487 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

(919) 759-5301 

The School of Law 

Director of Admissions 

7206 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

(919) 759-5437 

The Babcock Graduate School of Management 

Director of Admissions 

7659 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

(919) 759-5422 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

Associate Dean for Admissions 

300 S. Hawthorne Road 

Winston-Salem, NC 27103 

(919) 748-4265 

The Summer Session 

Dean of the Summer Session 

7293 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

(919) 759-5664 

University Editor's Office 
Room 6, Reynolda Hall 



Wake Forest administers all educational and employment activities without discrimination be- 
cause of race, color, religion, national origin, age, handicap, or sex, except where exempt. 




Director of Admissions 
Wake Forest University 
Box 7305 Reynolda Station 
Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 



Second Class Postage Paid 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 

USPS 078-320 



WAKE FOREST 



UNIVERSITY